Zagare
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Zagare

?agar?
City
?agar? Manor
Flag of ?agar?
Coat of arms of ?agar?
?agar? is located in Lithuania
?agar?
?agar?
Location of ?agar?
Coordinates: 56°22?0?N 23°15?0?E / 56.36667°N 23.25000°E / 56.36667; 23.25000Coordinates: 56°22?0?N 23°15?0?E / 56.36667°N 23.25000°E / 56.36667; 23.25000
Country Lithuania
Ethnographic regionSemigallia
County?iauliai County
MunicipalityJoni?kis district municipality
Eldership?agar? eldership
Capital of?agar? eldership
First mentioned1633
Granted city rights1924
Population
(2020)
 o Total1,309
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
UTC+3 (EEST)

?agar? (audio speaker iconpronunciation , see also other names) is a city located in the Joni?kis district, northern Lithuania, close to the border with Latvia. It has a population of about 2,000, down from 14,000 in 1914, when it was the 7th largest city in Lithuania.[1] ?agar? is famous for ?agarvy?n? - a cherry species originated in ?agar?.

Etymology

?agar?'s name is probably derived from the Lithuanian word ?agaras, meaning "twig". Other renderings of the name include: Latvian: ?agare, Polish: ?agory, Yiddish: , romanizedZager.

History

The foundation of ?agar? dates back to the 12th century. A settlement of the Baltic tribe Semigallians Sagera was mentioned for the first time in March 1254 in the documents of the partitioning of the Semigallia. In 13th century it was a Semigalian fortress Raktuv? (or Rakt?, first mentioned in 1272-1289 documents). It was an important centre of Semigallian warriors, who fought against the Livonian Brothers of the Sword and the Livonian Order. The cult of Barbora ?agariet?, servant of God, originated in the town in mid-1600s.

It long had a Jewish population that contributed to its culture. Yisroel Salanter (1810-1883), the father of the 19th-century Mussar movement in Orthodox Judaism, was born there. Isaak Kikoin (1908-1984), a renowned Soviet physicist, was also born there.

The Jewish quarter in ?agar? was among those damaged in 1881 as part of the violence against Jews that occurred during the pogroms in southern Russia.

On 22 August 1941, on the orders of the ?iauliai Gebietskommissar Hans Gewecke, all half-Jews and Jews in the district were to be moved to ?agar? ghetto. The Jews were allowed only to take clothing and at most 200 Reichsmark. Many Jews were shot on the spot instead of being sent to the ghetto.[2] In a massacre committed by Einsatzgruppe A on 2 October 1941, the date of Yom Kippur that year, all Jews were killed at the marketplace and buried in Naryshkin Park.

Today ?agar? is the administrative centre of the ?agar? Regional Park, known for its valuable urban and natural heritage. Once one of the largest cities in Lithuania (in the 1900s the number of city inhabitants exceeded 10 thousand), it preserved valuable urban complexes - trade square, side street network with early 20th century brick buildings, two churches, ?agar? manor with park, former early 20 c. cinema building and other valuable urban artefacts.[3][4]

Notable residents

Twin towns - sister cities

?agar? is a member of the Charter of European Rural Communities, a town twinning association across the European Union, alongside with:[5]

References

  1. ^ Vytautas Toleikis (24 September 2008). "?agar? - nykus Lietuvos u?kampis ar kult?rini? turist? Klondaikas?". Bernardinai.lt (in Lithuanian). Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 2009.
  2. ^ Shafir, Michael. "Ideology, memory and religion in post-communist East Central Europe: a comparative study focused on post-Holocaust." Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 15.44 (2016): 52-110
  3. ^ ?agar?
  4. ^ Vytautas Toleikis (24 September 2008). "?agar? - nykus Lietuvos u?kampis ar kult?rini? turist? Klondaikas?". Bernardinai.lt (in Lithuanian). Archived from the original on 23 March 2012. Retrieved 2009.
  5. ^ "Charter members". europeancharter.eu. Charter of European Rural Communities. Retrieved 2019.

Further reading

  • Rose Zwi: "Last Walk in Naryshkin Park" 1997 ISBN 978-1875559725 A Familie chronicle of her two families of origin Yoffe and Reisen. This account tells the story of Lithuanian Jews caught in the sweeping history of the first half of the century in Europe.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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