Willard Motley
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Willard Motley
Willard Motley
Portrait of Motley by Carl Van Vechten, 1947.
Portrait of Motley by Carl Van Vechten, 1947.
BornWillard Francis Motley
(1909-07-14)July 14, 1909
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
DiedMarch 4, 1965(1965-03-04) (aged 55)[1]
Mexico City, Mexico
OccupationAuthor
EducationEnglewood High School (Chicago)
Notable worksKnock on Any Door[2]
Years active1923-1965
RelativesArchibald Motley (uncle)

Willard Francis Motley (July 14, 1909 – March 4, 1965) was an African-American author. Motley published a column in the Chicago Defender under the pen-name Bud Billiken. Motley also worked as a freelance writer, and later founded and published the Hull House Magazine and worked in the Federal Writers Project. Motley's first and best known novel was Knock on Any Door, which was made into a movie by the same name (1947).

Early life and career

Motley was born and grew up in the Englewood neighborhood, South Side, Chicago, in one of the few African-American families residing there. His father was a Pullman porter. Motley graduated from Lewis-Champlain grammar school, and Englewood High School.[3] He is related to the noted artist Archibald Motley. The two were raised as brothers, although Archibald was in fact Willard's uncle. He was hired by Robert S. Abbott to write a children's column called "Bud Says" under the pseudonym "Bud Billiken", for the Chicago Defender.[4]

He traveled to New York, California and the western states, earning a living through various menial jobs, as well as by writing for the radio and newspapers. Returning to Chicago in 1939, he lived near the Maxwell Street Market, which was to figure prominently in his later writing. He became associated with Hull House, and helped found the Hull House Magazine, in which some of his fiction appeared. In 1940 he wrote for the Works Progress Administration Federal Writers Project along with Richard Wright and Nelson Algren.[4] In 1947 his first novel, Knock on Any Door, appeared to critical acclaim. A work of gritty naturalism, it concerns the life of Nick Romano, an Italian-American altar boy who turns to crime because of poverty and the difficulties of the immigrant experience, who says the famous phrase "Live fast, die young and have a good-looking corpse!"[5][6][7] It was an immediate hit, selling 47,000 copies during its first three weeks in print. In 1949 it was made into a movie starring Humphrey Bogart. In response to critics who charged Motley with avoiding issues of race by writing about white characters, Motley said, "My race is the human race." His second novel, We Fished All Night,[8] was not hailed as a success, and after it appeared Motley moved to Mexico to start over. His third novel, Let No Man Write My Epitaph, picks up the story of Knock on Any Door. Columbia Pictures made it into a movie in 1960. Ella Fitzgerald's music for the film was released on the album Ella Fitzgerald Sings Songs from "Let No Man Write My Epitaph".

Criticism

According to the citation statement for the Chicago Literary Hall of Fame awards, "Motley was criticized in his life for being a black man writing about white characters, a middle-class man writing about the lower class, and a closeted homosexual writing about heterosexual urges. But those more kindly disposed to his work, and there were plenty, admired his grit and heart....Chicago was more complicated than just its racial or sexual tensions, and as a writer his exploration was expansive...."[9] Motley was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 2014.

Death and legacy

On March 4, 1965, Motley died in Mexico City, Mexico at age 55. One final novel, Let Noon Be Fair, was published the following year. Since 1929, Chicago has held an annual Bud Billiken Parade and Picnic, (which served as his pen name during his early career at the Chicago Defender) on the second Saturday of August.[10] The parade travels through the city's Bronzeville, Grand Boulevard and Washington Park neighborhoods on the south side. The bulk of Motley's archive is held in Rare Books and Special Collections at Northern Illinois University.[11]

Bibliography

Novels

  • Knock on Any Door, D. Appleton-Century Company, 1947; Northern Illinois University Press, 1989, ISBN 9780875805436
  • We Fished All Night, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1951
  • Let No Man Write My Epitaph, Random House, 1958
  • Let Noon Be Fair, 1966; Pan Books, 1969 – published posthumously.

Nonfiction

  • The Diaries of Willard Motley, Iowa State University Press, 1979 – published posthumously, ISBN 9780813807058

Letters

  • Willard F. Motley Papers, 1939-1951; Vivian G. Harsh Research Collection of Afro-American History and Literature, Chicago Public Library, 2002

References

  1. ^ "Motley, Willard (1909-1965) - The Black Past: Remembered and Reclaimed". www.blackpast.org. Retrieved 2018.
  2. ^ Kogan, Rick. "Remembering forgotten writer Willard Motley". Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ Bill Granger, "Willard Motley - A Writer Of Brutal Honesty", Chicago TribuneJune 26, 1994.
  4. ^ a b "Willard Motley Papers". Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ First occurrence of the quote in the novel, in context: "'Live fast, die young and have a good-looking corpse!' he said with a toss of his head. That was something he had picked up somewhere, and he'd say it all the time now." Motley, Willard (1989). "chapter 35". Knock on Any Door (1989 paperback ed.). Dekalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. p. 157. ISBN 9780875805436.
  6. ^ Similar phrases had appeared in print earlier. See "Live Fast, Die Young, and Leave a Beautiful Corpse". Quote Investigator. 31 January 2013. Retrieved 2021.
  7. ^ Moser, Whet (23 October 2012). "'Live Fast, Die Young, Leave a Good-Looking Corpse': Coined by a Chicago Writer". Chicago Magazine. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ Compare Luke 5:5 (KJV) "And Simon answering said unto him, Master, we have toiled all the night and have taken nothing: nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net."
  9. ^ "Willard Motley". The Chicago Literary Hall of Fame: 2013 Nominees. Chicago Writers Association. Retrieved .
  10. ^ "Queer Writers: Willard Motley · Queer Bronzeville · outhistory.org". outhistory.org. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ Cain, Sarah. "LibGuides: Rare Books and Special Collections At Northern Illinois University: Willard Motley Collection". libguides.niu.edu. Retrieved 2018.

External links


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