White Ruthenia
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White Ruthenia

White Ruthenia (Church Slavonic: ? , Bela Rous;[] Belarusian: ?, Bie?aja Ru? ; Polish: Ru? Bia?a; Russian: ?, Belaya Rus; Ukrainian: ? ?, Bila Rus) alternatively known as Russia Alba, White Rus' or White Russia, is an archaism[1][2] for the eastern part of present-day Belarus, including the cities of Polack (Polotsk), Viciebsk (Vitebsk), and Mahilo? (Mogilev).

History

Russia Alba between Livonia Aquilonaris and Moscovie Pars from the map Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus, 1539

Many other variations of this name appeared on ancient maps; for instance, Russia Alba, Russija Alba, Wit Rusland, Weiß Reußen (Weißreußen), White Russia, Hviterussland, Hvíta Rússland, Weiß Russland (Weißrussland), Ruthenia Alba, Ruthénie Blanche and Weiß Ruthenien (Weißruthenien). The name was also assigned to various territories, often quite distant from that of present Belarus. For example, at one time the term was applied to Novgorod.[clarification needed]

The 16th century chronicler Alexander Guagnini's book Sarmatiae Europeae descriptio wrote that Rus' was divided in three parts. The first part, under the rule of the Moscovite Grand Duke, was called White Russia. The second one, under the rule of Polish king, was called Black Russia. And the rest was Red Ruthenia. He also said Moscow was the center of White Russia and Russian metropolitanate, and that Grand Duke of Moscow was called the White Czar, especially by his subjects.

Sigizmundian Plan of Moscow, engraved in 1610, is the last city plan compiled (by the Poles) before the destruction of the city in 1612 and subsequent changes to the street network. Orientation: North is at the right, West at the top. (Moscovia urbs metropolis tutius Russiæ Albæ).
Map "The Grand Duchy of Moscow or the Kingdom of White Russia on the latest reports" (Estats du Grandduc de Moscovie ou de l'Empereur de la Russie Blanche suivant les derniers relations), approximately 1749 years cartographer Hendrik de Leth (Netherlands)

Only by the late 16th century, the name was associated with the area of present Belarus. The origins of the name, which is attested from the 14th century, are unclear.[3] Vasmer's dictionary mentions the dichotomy of "white" land and "taxed" land in Domostroi and speculates that "white" Russia may have referred to the parts of Russia that were not subject to Tatar rule. Another speculation in Vasmer is that the color of the clothes of the White Russians (perhaps as well as the color of their hair) may have contributed to the name. Oleg Trubachyov calls both theories "complete fantasies".[]

According to Alfred Nicolas Rambaud:

The name of White Russia is given to the provinces conquered from the 13th to the 14th century by the Grand Dukes of Lithuania. These were the ancient territories of the Krivitches, Polotchans, Dregovitches, Drevlians, Doulebes, now forming the governments of Vitepsk, Mohilef, and Minsk.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ "White Russia". Oxforddictionaries.com. 2013. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ "White Russian". Oxforddictionaries.com. 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ Vasmer's Etymological Dictionary?
  4. ^ Rambaud, Alfred (1898). "2". History of Russia.

Sources

  • Akta Aleksandra, króla polskiego, wielkiego ksi?cia litewskiego i t.d. (1501--1506). Wyd. F. Papee. Kraków, 1927
  • Alexandrowicz S. Rozwój kartografii Wielkiego Ksi?stwa Litewskiego od XV do po?owy XVIII w. Pozna?, 1989
  • Anonymi Dvbnicensis. Liber de rebus Lvdovici R. H.. Analecta Monumentorum Hungariae historicum literarorium maximum inedita. Budapestini, 1986
  • I.V. Bellum Prutenum. Smereka E. Zbiór pisarzy polsko-laci?skich. Leopoli, 3, 1933
  • Colker M. L. America rediscovered in thirteenth century?. Speculum. A journal of medieval studies. Cambridge. Vol. 54. No. 4. October 1979
  • Cosmographey oder beschreibung aller Laender, Herrschaften, fürnemsten Stetten... Beschriben durch Sebastianum Münsterum... Basel, 1550; Ulrichs von Richental Chronik des Constanzer Concils 1414 bis 1418. Herausgegeben von M. R. Buck. Tübingen, 1882
  • Cromer M. Polonia sive de situ, populis, moribus, magistratibus et republica regni Poloni libri duo. Cracoviae, 1901. (p 1578 ?.)
  • Der Weiss Kunig. Eine Erzählung von den Thaten Kaiser Maximilian der Ersten. Wien, 1775
  • Historica Russiae monumenta ex antiquis exterarum gentium arcivis et bibliothecis deprompta ab A. I. Turgenevio. V. I. Petropoli, 1841 (? , ? , ? ? ?. ?. ?)
  • Historiae Ruthenicae Scriptores exteri saeculi XVI. V. I--II. Berolini et Petropoli, 1841--42
  • Kronika Jana z Czarnkowa (Joannis de Czarnkow. Chronicon Polonorum). ?prac. J. Szlachtowski. Monumenta Poloniae Historica Lwów, T. II. 1872
  • Nordenskiöld, Adolf Erik Facsimile-Atlas to the Early History of Cartography with Reproductions of the Most Important Maps Printed in the XV and XVI Centuries. Stockholm, 1889. ?. ?. pp ? ?p-?p ? . ., 1884
  • Il Mappamondo di Fra Mauro. A cura di Tullio Gasparini Leporace. Presentazione di Roberto Almagia. Venezia, 1956
  • Ioannes Stobnicensis. Introductio in Ptolomei Cosmographiam. Cracoviae, 1512
  • Ostrowski W. About the origin of the name «White Russia». London, 1975
  • Peter Suchenwirt's Werke aus dem vierzehnten Jahrhundert. Hrsg. von Alois Primisser. Wien, 1827
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  • Prochaska A. Codex epistolaris Vitoldi. Cracoviae, 1882
  • Rude & barbarous kingdom. Russia in the accounts of sixteenth-century English voyagers. Ed. by Lloyd E. Berry and Robert O. Crummey. Madison--London, 1968
  • Sarmatiae Europeae descriptio. Ab Alexandro Guagnino Veronensi. Poloniae Historiae Corpus. Ex bibliotheca Ioan. Pistorii Nidani. Per Sebastiani Henric Petri. V. I. Basileae, 1588
  • Scriptores Rerum Hungaricarum tempore ducum regumque stirpis Arpadianae gestarum. Vol. II. Budapest, 1938
  • Starowolski Sz. Polska albo opisanie po?o?enia królestwa Polskiego. Kraków, 1976
  • Stryikowski M. Kronika Polska, Litewska, ?módzka i wszystkiej Rusi. T. I-II. Warszawa, 1846
  • Witkowska M. H. S. Vita sanctae Kyngae ducissae Cracoviensis. Roczniki Humanistyczne. T. X, z. 2. Lublin, 1961.
  • ? « ?». ., 1991
  • ? 1626 ?. ?. 1. ?., 1977
  • ?. ?. ? * Solomo Pantherus Leucorussus. ., 1983
  • ?. ?. 2. ., 1843; ?. 25. ?.--?., 1949
  • ? ?. ?. ? XV -- XVI ?. ?., 1974
  • ?. ?. H?p ? H?p ? pp? XV--XVI .. ?p? XV--XVIII . ( p). ?., 1984
  • p ? . ?. ?. - ?p?p ?p? ?. ?., 1875

External links


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