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G?ut?sala / G?uc?ala / Quatsino Sound dialect (Bands of Quatsino Sound, today by the Gwa'sala people from Smiths Inlet and the 'Nakwaxda'xw people from Blunden Harbour)
Kwak?wala / Kwawala dialect (Bands of Gilford Island, Knight Inlet, Kwakiutl, Nimpkish, Alert Bay, Kincome Inlet)
'Nak?wala / Bak?wa?mk?ala dialect (also known as Northern Kwak?wala dialect, spoken by the Northern Bands or 'Nak?waxda'x?w and Gwa'sa?la peoples)
Tatasik?wala / Nahwitti dialect (Bands of today's Tatasiwala people on Hope Island)
Lekwala / Liqala / Lekwiltok dialect (Bands of the Laich-kwil-tach (Lekwiltok), they were oft called Southern Kwakiutl but identify as a separate people from the Kwakwaka'wakw and their dialect is sometimes considered a separate language)
3. Heiltsuk dialect (also known as Bella Bella and Haihais, Hai?zaqvla, Haí?zaqv/Hí?zaqv?a, with two subdialects, spoken by the Heiltsuk people, once incorrectly known as the Northern Kwakiutl)
Haí?zaqv/Hí?zaqv?a or Bella Bella (Wág?ís?a) subdialect (spoken by the Heiltsuk (Haí?zaqv / Hí?zaqv) in Bella Bella)
X?íx?íc?ala/Haihais or Klemtu (du?ax?s?) subdialect (spoken by the X?íx?ís (Xixis / Xai'xais / Haihais) in Klemtu)
4. Oowekyala dialect or 'Wuik?ala dialect (also known as 'Uik'ala, Ooweekeeno, Wuikala, Wuikenukv, Oweekeno, Wikeno, Owikeno, Oweekano, Awikenox, Oowek'yala, Oweek'ala) (spoken by the Wuikinuxv (Oowekeeno or Rivers Inlet) People, once incorrectly known as the Northern Kwakiutl)
II. Southern Wakashan (Nootkan) languages
5. Nuu-chah-nulth (also known as Nuu?aan?u?, Nootka, Nutka, Aht, West Coast, T'aat'aaqsapa, spoken by the Nuu-chah-nulth, 12 different dialects) - 510 speakers (2005)
In the 1960s, Swadesh also suggested a connection of the Wakashan languages with the Eskimo-Aleut languages. This was picked up and expanded by Holst (2005).Sergei Nikolaev has argued in two papers for a systematic relationship between the Nivkh language of Sakhalin island and the Amur river basin and the Algic languages, and a secondary relationship between these two together and the Wakashan languages.
Name and contact
The name Wakesh or Waukash is Nuu-chah-nulth for "good." It was used by early explorers including Captain James Cook, who believed it to be the tribal appellation.
In 1843 the Hudson's Bay Company established a trading post at Victoria. European-Canadians had regular contact with the First Nations after that time. There were dramatic population losses in the early 20th century due to smallpox epidemics (because the First Nations had no acquired immunity to the new disease), social disruption, and alcoholism. In 1903 the Aboriginals numbered about 5200, of whom 2600 were in the West Coast Agency, 1300 in the Kwakewith Agency, 900 in the North West Coast Agency, and 410 at Neah Bay Company, Cape Flattery. In 1909 they numbered 4584, including 2070 Kwakiutl and 2494 Nootka. Roman Catholic missionaries were active in the region.
^the Ts'uubaa-asatx - usually known as "Lake Cowichan" and called by the Ditidaht c?uuba?sa?tx? - are therefore often confused with the neighboring Cowichan Tribes (Quw'utsun Mustimuhw / Quw'utsun Hwulmuhw) - "People of the Warm Land", who speak a "Hul'qumi'num (Island)" dialect of Halkomelem (part of the Coast Salish languages), but regarding treaty negotiations with the government, the Ts'uubaa-asatx are still part of the "Hul'qumi'num Treaty Group". Currently, they are trying to revive their original culture and language with the support of the Nuu-chah-nulth and Ditidaht peoples.
^Swadesh, Morris (1953). "Mosan I: A Problem of Remote Common Origin". International Journal of American Linguistics. 19 (1): 26-4. JSTOR1262937.
^Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. Oxford University Press.
^Mithun, Marianne (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge University Press.
^Beck, David (2000). "Grammatical Convergence and the Genesis of Diversity in the Northwest Coast Sprachbund". Anthropological Linguistics. 42 (2): 147-213. JSTOR30028547.
^Jan Henrik Holst, Einführung in die eskimo-aleutischen Sprachen. Buske Verlag
Liedtke, Stefan. Wakashan, Salishan, Penutian and Wider Connections Cognate Sets. Linguistic data on diskette series, no. 09. München: Lincom Europa, 1995. ISBN3-929075-24-5
William H. Jacobsen Jr. (1979): "Wakashan Comparative Studies" in The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment, Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.), Austin: University of Texas Press.