Voiced Pharyngeal Fricative
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Voiced Pharyngeal Fricative
Voiced pharyngeal fricative
IPA Number145
Entity (decimal)ʕ
Unicode (hex)U+0295
Braille? (braille pattern dots-235)? (braille pattern dots-23)
Audio sample
Voiced pharyngeal approximant

The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is [?], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ?\. Epiglottals and epiglotto-pharyngeals are often mistakenly taken to be pharyngeal.

Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, [?] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to make a phonemic distinction between fricatives and approximants at this place of articulation. The approximant is sometimes specified as [] or as [], because it is the semivocalic equivalent of [?].


Features of the voiced pharyngeal approximant fricative:


Pharyngeal consonants are not widespread. Sometimes, a pharyngeal approximant develops from a uvular approximant. Many languages that have been described as having pharyngeal fricatives or approximants turn out on closer inspection to have epiglottal consonants instead. For example, the candidate /?/ sound in Arabic and standard Hebrew (not modern Hebrew - Israelis generally pronounce this as a glottal stop) has been variously described as a voiced epiglottal fricative, an epiglottal approximant,[1] or a pharyngealized glottal stop.[2]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abaza ?/g'apynkh"amyz [?a:p?nqa:m?z] 'March'
Arabic ?‎/'aqrab [?aqrab] 'scorpion' See Arabic phonology
Assyrian Eastern ?täroa [t?r] 'door'

The majority of the speakers will pronounce the word as [t?r?].

Western [t?r]
Avar ?/g'ork' [?ort?':] 'handle'
Chechen ? / jan 'winter'
Coeur d'Alene[3] st(in [st?in] 'antelope'
Danish Standard[4] ravn [?w?n] 'raven' An approximant;[4] also described as uvular .[5] See Danish phonology
Dutch Limburg[6] rad [t] 'wheel' An approximant; a possible realization of /r/.[6] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
German Some speakers[7] Mutter ['mut] 'mother' An approximant; occurs in East Central Germany, Southwestern Germany, parts of Switzerland and in Tyrol.[7] See Standard German phonology
Swabian dialect[8] ändard ['end?ad?] 'changes' An approximant.[8] It's an allophone of /?/ in nucleus and coda positions;[8] pronounced as a uvular approximant in onsets.[8]
Hebrew Iraqi ??‎/i'vrit [?ib'ri:?] 'Hebrew language' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Sephardi [?iv'?it]
Kabyle[9] ?emmi [m:i] 'my (paternal) uncle'
Kurdish Kurmanji ewr wr 'cloud' The sound is usually not written in the Latin alphabet, but ' can be used.
Malay Kedah ? / bakar [ba.ka?] 'burn' Allophone of /r/ as word-final coda. Could be voiced velar fricative [?] for some speakers.[10]
Occitan Southern Auvergnat pala ['pa?a] 'shovel' See Occitan phonology
Somali cunto [?unt?] 'food' See Somali phonology
Sioux Stoney marazhud [ma?azud] 'rain'

See also


  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167-168)
  2. ^ Thelwall (1990)
  3. ^ Doak, I. G. (1997). Coeur d'Alene grammatical relations (Doctorate dissertation). Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin.
  4. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:323)
  5. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  6. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:201)
  7. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:51)
  8. ^ a b c d Markus Hiller. "Pharyngeals and "lax" vowel quality" (PDF). Mannheim: Institut für Deutsche Sprache. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-28. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Bonafont (2006:9)
  10. ^ Mohamed, Noriah (June 2009). "The Malay Chetty Creole Language of Malacca: A Historical and Linguistic Perspective". Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 82(1 (296)) (1 (296)): 60. JSTOR 41493734 – via JSTOR.

General references

External links

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