|Voiced dental fricative|
The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages. It is familiar to English-speakers as the th sound in father. Its symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet is eth, or [ð] and was taken from the Old English and Icelandic letter eth, which could stand for either a voiced or unvoiced (inter)dental non-sibilant fricative. Such fricatives are often called "interdental" because they are often produced with the tongue between the upper and lower teeth (as in Received Pronunciation), and not just against the back of the upper teeth, as they are with other dental consonants.
The letter ⟨ð⟩ is sometimes used to represent the dental approximant, a similar sound, which no language is known to contrast with a dental non-sibilant fricative, but the approximant is more clearly written with the lowering diacritic: ⟨ð?⟩. Very rarely used variant transcriptions of the dental approximant include ⟨⟩ (retracted ), ⟨⟩ (advanced ) and ⟨⟩ (dentalized ). It has been proposed that either a turned ?ð? or reversed  be used as a dedicated symbol for the dental approximant, but despite occasional usage, this has not gained general acceptance.
The fricative and its unvoiced counterpart are rare phonemes. Almost all languages of Europe and Asia, such as German, French, Persian, Japanese, and Mandarin, lack the sound. Native speakers of languages without the sound often have difficulty enunciating or distinguishing it, and they replace it with a voiced alveolar sibilant [z], a voiced dental stop or voiced alveolar stop [d], or a voiced labiodental fricative [v]; known respectively as th-alveolarization, th-stopping, and th-fronting. As for Europe, there seems to be a great arc where the sound (and/or its unvoiced variant) is present. Most of Mainland Europe lacks the sound. However, some "periphery" languages as Gascon, Welsh, English, Icelandic, Elfdalian, Kven, Northern Sami, Inari Sami, Skolt Sami, Ume Sami, Mari, Greek, Albanian, Sardinian, some dialects of Basque and most speakers of Spanish have the sound in their consonant inventories, as phonemes or allophones.
Within Turkic languages, Bashkir and Turkmen have both voiced and voiceless dental non-sibilant fricatives among their consonants. Among Semitic languages, they are used in Modern Standard Arabic, albeit not by all speakers of modern Arabic dialects, and in some dialects of Hebrew and Assyrian.
Features of the voiced dental non-sibilant fricative:
In the following transcriptions, the undertack diacritic may be used to indicate an approximant [ð?].
|Arabic||Modern Standard||||['ðahab]||'gold'||See Arabic phonology|
|Tunisian||See Tunisian Arabic phonology|
|Aromanian||zal?||['ðal?]||'butter whey'||Corresponds to in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Assyrian||? werda||[w?rð?a]||'flower'||Common in the Tyari, Barwari, and Western dialects. |
Corresponds to in other varieties.
|Asturian||Some dialects||fazer||[fä'ðe?]||'to do'||Alternative realization of etymological ⟨z⟩. Can also be realized as .|
|Basque||adar||[að?ar]||'horn'||Allophone of /d/|
|Burmese||[àdðá]||'inlander'||Commonly realized as an affricate .|
|Catalan||fada||['fað]||'fairy'||Fricative or approximant. Allophone of /d/. See Catalan phonology|
|Cree||Woods Cree (th-dialect)||/nitha||[niða]||'I'||Reflex of Proto-Algonguian *r. Shares features of a sonorant.|
|Dahalo||[example needed]||Weak fricative or approximant. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /d?/, and may be simply a plosive instead.|
|English||this||'this'||See English phonology|
|Extremaduran||?azel||[häðel]||'to do'||Realization of etymological 'z'. Can also be realized as [?]|
|Galician||Some dialects||fazer||[f?'ðe?]||'to do'||Alternative realization of etymological ⟨z⟩. Can also be realized as [?, z, z?].|
|German||Austrian||leider||['laða]||'unfortunately'||Intervocalic allophone of /d/ in casual speech. See Standard German phonology|
|Greek||??/dáfni||['ðafni]||'laurel'||See Modern Greek phonology|
|Hebrew||Iraqi||??||'my lord'||Commonly pronounced . See Modern Hebrew phonology|
|Judeo-Spanish||Many dialects|| / kriador||[k?ia'ðor]||'creator'||Intervocalic allophone of /d/ in many dialects.|
|Kabyle||?u?||[ðu?]||'to be exhausted'|
|Kurdish||An approximant; postvocalic allophone of /d/. See Kurdish phonology.|
|Malay||Malaysian Malay||azan||[a.ðan]||'azan'||Only in Arabic loanwords; usually replaced with /z/. See Malay phonology|
|Norwegian||Meldal dialect||i||[ð:]||'in'||Syllabic palatalized frictionless approximant corresponding to /i:/ in other dialects. See Norwegian phonology|
|Occitan||Gascon||que divi||[ke 'ð?iwi]||'what I should'||Allophone of /d/. See Occitan phonology|
|Portuguese||European||nada||['n?äð?]||'nothing'||Northern and central dialects. Allophone of /d/, mainly after an oral vowel. See Portuguese phonology|
|Sardinian||nidu||'nest'||Allophone of /d/|
|Scottish Gaelic||Màiri||['ma:ð?]||'Mary'||Some dialects (Lèodhas and Barraigh); otherwise realized as |
|Sioux||Lakota||zapta||['ðaptã]||'five'||Sometimes with [z]|
|Spanish||Most dialects||dedo||['d?e?ð?o?]||'finger'||Ranges from close fricative to approximant. Allophone of /d/. See Spanish phonology|
|Swahili||dhambi||[ð?mbi]||'sin'||Mostly occurs in Arabic loanwords originally containing this sound.|
|Swedish||Central Standard||bada||['b?:ð?ä]||'to take a bath'||An approximant; allophone of /d/ in casual speech. See Swedish phonology|
|Some dialects[better source needed]||i||[ð:]||'in'||A syllabic palatalized frictionless approximant[better source needed] corresponding to /i:/ in Central Standard Swedish. See Swedish phonology|
|Syriac||Western Neo-Aramaic||||[a?:eð]||'to take'|
|Tamil||[w?nb?ð?]||'nine'||See Tamil phonology|
|Welsh||bardd||[barð]||'bard'||See Welsh phonology|
|Zapotec||Tilquiapan||[example needed]||Allophone of /d/|