Visa Requirements For Liechtenstein Citizens
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Visa Requirements For Liechtenstein Citizens

Visa requirements for Liechtenstein citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Liechtenstein. As of 13 April 2021, Liechtenstein citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 179 countries and territories, ranking the Liechtenstein passport 12th (tied with Malaysia) in terms of travel freedom overall, and the lowest of the EFTA member states, according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

As a member state of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Liechtenstein citizens enjoy freedom of movement to live and work in other EFTA countries in accordance with the EFTA convention.[2] Moreover, by virtue of Liechtenstein's membership of the European Economic Area (EEA), Liechtenstein citizens also enjoy freedom of movement within all EEA member states. The Citizens' Rights Directive[3] defines the right of free movement for citizens of the EEA,[4] and all EFTA and EU citizens are not only visa-exempt but are legally entitled to enter and reside in each other's countries.

In order to travel to another country, a Liechtenstein citizen requires a passport, except travel to all European Union member states, all EFTA member states, Channel Islands, Albania, Andorra, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Monaco, Montenegro, North Macedonia, San Marino, Serbia, Turkey,[5] the United Kingdom[6] and Vatican City where the Liechtenstein identity card is valid.

Visa requirements map

Visa requirements for holders of regular Liechtenstein passports
  Liechtenstein
  Freedom of movement
  Visa not required / ESTA / eTA / eVisitor
  Visa on arrival
  eVisa
  Visa may be obtained online or on arrival
  Visa must be obtained in advance

Visa requirements

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Afghanistan Visa required[7]
 Albania Visa not required[8] 90 days
 Algeria Visa required[9]
 Andorra Visa not required[10]
 Angola Visa required[11]
 Antigua and Barbuda Visa not required[12] 3 months
 Argentina Visa not required[13] 90 days
 Armenia Visa not required[14] 180 days
 Australia eVisitor[15] 90 days
  • 90 days on each visit in a 12-month period if granted
 Austria Visa not required[16]
 Azerbaijan eVisa[17] 30 days[18]
 Bahamas Visa not required[19] 3 months
 Bahrain Visa on arrival[20] 14 days
 Bangladesh eVisa / Visa on arrival[21] 30 days
 Barbados Visa not required[22] 3 months
 Belarus Visa not required[23] 30 days
 Belgium Visa not required[24]
 Belize Visa not required[25] 1 month
 Benin eVisa / Visa on arrival[26][27] 30 days / 8 days
  • Must have an international vaccination certificate.
 Bhutan Visa required[28]
 Bolivia Visa not required[29] 90 days
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa not required[30] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6-month period
  • ID card valid
 Botswana Visa not required[31] 90 days
 Brazil Visa not required[32] 90 days
 Brunei Visa not required[33] 90 days
 Bulgaria Visa not required[34]
 Burkina Faso Visa on arrival[35] 1 month
 Burundi Visa required[36]
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[37] 30 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[38]
 Cameroon Visa required[39]
 Canada Visa not required[40] 6 months
  • eTA required if arriving by air[41]
 Cape Verde Visa not required[42] 30 days
 Central African Republic Visa required[43]
 Chad Visa required[44]
 Chile Visa not required[45] 90 days
 China Visa required[46]
 Colombia Visa not required[47] 180 days
  • 90 days - extendable up to 180-days stay within a one-year period
 Comoros Visa on arrival[48]
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[49]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[50]
 Costa Rica Visa not required[51] 90 days
 Côte d'Ivoire eVisa[52] 3 months
 Croatia Visa not required[53]
 Cuba Tourist Card required[54] 30 days
 Cyprus Visa not required[55]
 Czech Republic Visa not required[56]
 Denmark Visa not required[57]
  • Freedom of movement (DK)
  • ID card valid
 Djibouti eVisa[58] 31 days
 Dominica Visa not required[59] 21 days
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[60] 90 days
 Ecuador Visa not required[61] 90 days
 Egypt Visa on arrival[62] 30 days
 El Salvador Visa not required[63] 3 months
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[64]
 Eritrea Visa required[65]
 Estonia Visa not required[66]
 Eswatini Visa required[67]
 Ethiopia eVisa[68] up to 90 days
 Fiji Visa not required[69] 4 months
 Finland Visa not required[70]
 France Visa not required[71]
 Gabon eVisa[72]
 Gambia Visa not required[73] 90 days
 Georgia Visa not required[74] 1 year
 Germany Visa not required[75]
 Ghana Visa required[76]
 Greece Visa not required[77]
 Grenada Visa not required[78] 3 months
 Guatemala Visa not required[79] 90 days
 Guinea eVisa[80] 90 days
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[81] 90 days
 Guyana Visa required[82]
 Haiti Visa not required[83] 90 days
 Honduras Visa not required[84] 3 months
 Hungary Visa not required[85]
 Iceland Visa not required[86]
 India e-Visa[87] 60 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive via 26 designated airports[Note 1] or 3 designated seaports.[Note 2][88]
  • An Indian e-Tourist Visa can only be obtained twice in one calendar year.
 Indonesia Visa not required[89] 30 days
  • Select ports of entry.
 Iran Visa on arrival[90] 30 days[91]
 Iraq Visa required[92]
 Ireland Visa not required[93]
 Israel Visa not required[94] 3 months
 Italy Visa not required[95]
 Jamaica Visa not required[96] 90 days
 Japan Visa not required[97] 90 days
 Jordan Visa on arrival[98]
  • Conditions apply[99]
 Kazakhstan Visa not required[100] 30 days[101]
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[102] 3 months
 Kiribati Visa not required[103] 90 days
 North Korea Visa required[104]
 South Korea Visa not required[105] 90 days
 Kuwait eVisa / Visa on arrival[106] 3 months
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[107] 60 days
 Laos eVisa / Visa on arrival[108][109] 30 days
  • Visa on arrival is available at international airports Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane, and at 4 land borders Friendship Bridge,[Note 3] and at 13 border crossings[Note 4] as well as Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkai, Thailand.[110] Visa on arrival facility will be gradually phased out at various border crossings starting January 2020.[111]
  • eVisa may be used to enter Laos through the following entry points -- Wattay International Airport and the First Thai-Lao Friendship Bridge
  • Entry points Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou are open only to visa holders.
  • Visa on arrival is extendable up to 60 days.
 Latvia Visa not required[112]
 Lebanon Visa on arrival[113] 1 month
  • Visa extendable for 2 additional months issued upon arrival
  • Granted free of charge at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry if there is no Israeli visa or seal, holding a telephone number, an address in Lebanon, and a non refundable return or circle trip ticket.
 Lesotho eVisa[114][115]
 Liberia Visa required[116]
 Libya Visa required[117]
 Lithuania Visa not required[118]
 Luxembourg Visa not required[119]
 Madagascar eVisa / Visa on arrival[120] 90 days
 Malawi eVisa / Visa on arrival[121][122] 90 days
 Malaysia Visa not required[123] 3 months
 Maldives Visa on arrival[124] 30 days
 Mali Visa required[125]
 Malta Visa not required[126]
 Marshall Islands Visa required[127]
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[128]
 Mauritius Visa not required[129] 90 days
 Mexico Visa not required[130] 180 days
 Micronesia Visa not required[131] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Moldova Visa not required[132] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 days period
 Monaco Visa not required[133]
 Mongolia Visa required[134]
 Montenegro Visa not required[135] 90 days
 Morocco Visa not required[136] 30 days
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[137] 30 days
 Myanmar Visa required[138]
 Namibia Visa not required[139] 3 months
  • 3 months within a calendar year
 Nauru Visa required[140]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[141] 90 days
 Netherlands Visa not required[142]
 New Zealand Electronic Travel Authority[143] 3 months
  • International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy must be paid upon requesting an Electronic Travel Authority.[144]
  • Holders of an Australian Permanent Resident Visa or Resident Return Visa may be granted a New Zealand Resident Visa on arrival permitting indefinite stay (pursuant to the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement), subject to meeting character requirements and obtaining an Electronic Travel Authority prior to departure.[145] Such travellers are not required to pay the International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy.[144]
 Nicaragua Visa not required[146] 90 days
 Niger Visa required[147]
 Nigeria Visa required[148]
 North Macedonia Visa not required[149] 90 days
 Norway Visa not required[150]
 Oman eVisa[151] 30 days
 Pakistan Online Visa[152]
 Palau Visa on arrival[153] 30 days
 Panama Visa not required[154] 180 days
 Papua New Guinea eVisa / Free visa on arrival[155] 60 days
 Paraguay Visa not required[156] 90 days
 Peru Visa not required[157] 90 days[158]
 Philippines Visa not required[159] 30 days
 Poland Visa not required[160]
 Portugal Visa not required[161]
 Qatar Visa not required[162] 90 days
 Romania Visa not required[163]
 Russia eVisa[164] 16 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive and departure via 29 checkpoints[165]
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[166]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[167] 3 months
 Saint Lucia Visa not required[168] 6 weeks
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[169] 1 month
 Samoa Entry Permit on arrival[170] 60 days
 San Marino Visa not required[171]
 São Tomé and Príncipe Visa not required[172] 15 days[173][174]
 Saudi Arabia eVisa / Visa on arrival[175][176] 90 days
 Senegal Visa on arrival[177] 90 days
 Serbia Visa not required[178] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 6-month period
  • ID card valid
 Seychelles Visa not required[179] 3 months
 Sierra Leone Visa required[180]
 Singapore Visa not required[181] 30 days
 Slovenia Visa not required[182]
 Slovakia Visa not required[183]
 Solomon Islands Free Visitor's permit on arrival[184] 3 months
 Somalia Visa on arrival[185]
 South Africa Visa not required[186] 90 days
 South Sudan Electronic Visa[187]
  • Obtainable online[188]
  • Printed visa authorization must be presented at the time of travel[189]
 Spain Visa not required[190]
 Sri Lanka Electronic Travel Authorization[191] 30 days
 Sudan Visa required[192]
 Suriname E-tourist card[193] 90 days
  • Multiple entry eVisa is also available.[194]
 Sweden Visa not required[195]
  Switzerland Visa not required[196]
 Syria Visa required[197]
 Tajikistan Visa on arrival[198] 45 days
  • Visa also available online.
  • E-visa holders can enter through all border points.[199]
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[200][201] 3 months
 Thailand Visa not required[202] 30 days
  • Maximum two visits annually if not arriving by air.
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[203] 30 days
 Togo Visa on arrival[204] 7 days
 Tonga Visa not required[205] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa not required[206] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Tunisia Visa not required[207] 3 months
 Turkey Visa not required[208] 90 days[209]
 Turkmenistan Visa required[211]
 Tuvalu Visa not required[212] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[213]
 Ukraine Visa not required[215] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 United Arab Emirates Visa not required[216] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period[217]
 United Kingdom Visa not required[218] 6 months
 United States Visa Waiver Program[220] 90 days
  • On arrival from overseas; ESTA (valid for 2 years when issued) required if arriving by air or cruise ship.[221]
 Uruguay Visa not required[222] 90 days
 Uzbekistan Visa not required[223] 30 days
 Vanuatu Visa not required[224] 30 days
  Vatican City Visa not required[225]
 Venezuela Visa not required[226] 90 days
 Vietnam eVisa[227] 30 days
 Yemen Visa required[228]
 Zambia eVisa / Visa on arrival[229] 90 days
  • Also eligible for a universal visa allowing access to Zimbabwe.
 Zimbabwe eVisa / Visa on arrival[230] 3 months
  • Also eligible for a universal visa allowing access to Zambia.

Dependent, disputed, or restricted territories

Visa requirements for Liechtenstein citizens for visits to various territories, disputed areas, partially recognized countries and restricted zones:

Asia
Visitor to Visa requirement Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Hong Kong Visa not required[231] 90 days
 Macao Visa not required[232] 90 days

Consular protection of Liechtensteinian citizens abroad

Diplomatic missions of Liechtenstein

There are Liechtensteinian embassies in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States of America.

Since 1919, Switzerland has represented Liechtenstein in those countries wherein Liechtenstein itself does not maintain consular representation.[233]
See also List of diplomatic missions of Liechtenstein.

Non-visa restrictions

Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Blank passport pages

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[234] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination

An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone and Togo, require all incoming passengers older than nine months to one year[235] to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[236]

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently or has transited for 12 hours in those countries: Algeria, Botswana, Cabo Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.[237][238]

An increasing number of countries have been imposing additional COVID-19 related health restrictions such as quarantine measures and testing requirements. Many countries increasingly consider the vaccination status of travellers with regard to quarantine requirements or when deciding to allow them entry at all.[239] This is justified by research that shows that the efficacy of the Pfizer vaccine lasts for six months or so.[240]

Passport validity length

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[241] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[242] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru.[243] Philippines,[244] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[245]

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[246] and South Africa.

Other countries, such as Japan,[247] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[248] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.

A very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a passport valid on arrival.

Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[249][250] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[251]

Criminal record

Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[252] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.

Persona non grata

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[253]

Israeli stamps

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[254] Lebanon,[255] Libya,[256] Sudan,[257] Syria,[258] and Yemen[259] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[]

The Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage claims that having an Israeli stamp does not disqualify someone from visiting Saudi Arabia.[260]

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity

Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan,[261][262][263] Armenian citizens and other foreign nationals of Armenian descent are likely to encounter difficulties when attempting to enter the Republic of Azerbaijan.[264][265][266]

Azerbaijan bans visits by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[266] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxar? ?skipara, Barxudarl?, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[267] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[268] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.

Biometrics

A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[269]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[270][271] Argentina,[272] Brunei, Cambodia,[273] China,[274] Ethiopia,[275] Ghana, Guinea,[276] India, Japan,[277][278] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[279] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[280] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[281] Singapore, South Korea,[282] Taiwan, Thailand,[283] Uganda[284] and the United States.

Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by domestic legislation),[285][286][287] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[288]

Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[289] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[290][291]

See also

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
  4. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)
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  78. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  79. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  80. ^ Guinea eVisa
  81. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  82. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  83. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  84. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  85. ^ Countries that do not need a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Hungary.
  86. ^ Who does not need a visa, Directorate of Immigration of Iceland.
  87. ^ "Indian e-Visa". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
  88. ^ e-Visa
  89. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  90. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  91. ^ Iran extends airport visa validity to 30 days
  92. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  93. ^ Countries that need a visa for Ireland, Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service.
  94. ^ Tourist visa table, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 May 2017.
  95. ^ Visa for Italy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Italy.
  96. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  97. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  98. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  99. ^ [2]
  100. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  101. ^ [3]
  102. ^ Republic of Kenya - eCitizen portal
  103. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  104. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  105. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  106. ^ Kuwait eVisa
  107. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  108. ^ Laos eVisa
  109. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  110. ^ "The Department Of Immigration. Checkpoints". The Department Of Immigration Of Lao People's Democratic Republic. Retrieved 2018.
  111. ^ [4]
  112. ^ Countries whose citizens may enter Latvia without a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, 9 October 2017.
  113. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  114. ^ eVisa Lesotho
  115. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  116. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  117. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  118. ^ Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania, 30 August 2017.
  119. ^ Staying in Luxembourg for less than 90 days, Government of Luxembourg.
  120. ^ eVisa Madagascar
  121. ^ [5]
  122. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  123. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  124. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  125. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  126. ^ Who requires a visa?, Identity Malta.
  127. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  128. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  129. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  130. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  131. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  132. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  133. ^ Before you leave, Monaco Government Tourist Office.
  134. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  135. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  136. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  137. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  139. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  140. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  141. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  142. ^ Short-stay Schengen visa (90 days or less), Government of the Netherlands.
  143. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  144. ^ a b "Paying the International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy". immigration.govt.nz. Immigration New Zealand. Retrieved 2021. Many tourists, people on working holidays, and some students and workers coming to New Zealand must pay an International Visitor Conservation and Tourism Levy (IVL) of NZD $35.
  145. ^ "Information about: Australian Resident Visa". immigration.govt.nz. Immigration New Zealand. Retrieved 2020. Australian citizens and permanent residents can visit, work and live in New Zealand. You do not need a visa before you travel to New Zealand.
  146. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  147. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  148. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  149. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  150. ^ Persons who do not need a visa to visit Norway, Norwegian Directorate of Immigration.
  151. ^ Sultanate of Oman - Royal Oman Police - eVisa
  152. ^ [6]
  153. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  154. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  155. ^ eVisa, Papua New Guinea (PNG) Immigration and Citizenship Authority (ICA)
  156. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  157. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  158. ^ "REQUERIMIENTOS DE VISAS PARA CIUDADANOS EXTRANJEROS" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-02-04. Retrieved .
  159. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  160. ^ Visa-free countries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland.
  161. ^ Third countries whose citizens are required to have a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Portugal.
  162. ^ "Qatar Visas".
  163. ^ Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania.
  164. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  165. ^ "Electronic visa / Consular department of MFA of Russsia". kdmid.ru. Retrieved 2021.
  166. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  167. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  168. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  169. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  170. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  171. ^ Border formalities, San Marino Tourism Board.
  172. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  173. ^ "Nota Informativa sobre Isenção de Vistos e Permanencia em São Tomé e Príncipe".
  174. ^ [7]
  175. ^ Visit Saudi Visa
  176. ^ New Saudi Arabia tourist visas: everything you need to know
  177. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  178. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  179. ^ "Agreement between the European Community and the Republic of Seychelles on the short-stay visa waiver". EUR-Lex. Official Journal of the European Union. 30 June 2009. Retrieved 2015.
  180. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  181. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  182. ^ Visa regimes and visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia.
  183. ^ Consular information and travel visa, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Slovakia.
  184. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  185. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  186. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  187. ^ https://www.evisa.gov.ss/eligibility
  188. ^ https://www.evisa.gov.ss/
  189. ^ https://www.evisa.gov.ss/
  190. ^ Entry requirements, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain.
  191. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  192. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  193. ^ [8]
  194. ^ Who can apply for E-Visa?
  195. ^ List of foreign citizens who require visa for entry into Sweden, Government of Sweden.
  196. ^ Overview of ID and visa provisions according to nationality, State Secretariat for Migration of Switzerland.
  197. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  198. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  199. ^ "Tajikistan e-Visa".
  200. ^ eVisa Tanzania
  201. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  202. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  203. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  204. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  205. ^ Agreement between the European Union and the Kingdom of Tonga on the short-stay visa waiver
  206. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  207. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  208. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  209. ^ "From Rep. Of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs".
  210. ^ "From Rep. Of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Archived from the original on 2015-10-08. Retrieved .
  211. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  212. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  213. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  214. ^ Uganda Electronic Visa/Permit Application System
  215. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  216. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  217. ^ EU signs visa waiver agreement with the United Arab Emirates
  218. ^ UK visa requirements: list for carriers, Government of the United Kingdom, 2 October 2017.
  219. ^ "Visiting the UK as an EU, EEA or Swiss citizen".
  220. ^ Travel without a visa, United States Department of State.
  221. ^ "Citizen of Visa Waiver Country, wants to drive into U.S. From Canada or Mexico, or arrive at a port of call in the U.S. By cruise ship".
  222. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  223. ^ Visa regulations for some countries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan.
  224. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  225. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  226. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  227. ^ Vietnam eVisa, Vietnam Immigration Department
  228. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  229. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  230. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  231. ^ Visit visa / entry permit requirements for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Immigration Department of Hong Kong, April 2017.
  232. ^ Entry and exit of non-residents, Public Security Police Force of Macau.
  233. ^ "Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Education and Sport".
  234. ^ "Country Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2017.
  235. ^ "Yellow Fever". Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC). African Union. Retrieved 2021. African countries that requires (sic) Yellow Fever vaccination certificate: Countries that require vaccination for all travellers older that 9 months or 1 year: Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameron, Central African Republic, Congo, Côte d'lvoire, DRC, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Niger, Togo.
  236. ^ Agence régionale de sante Guyane (September 2, 2018). "Fièvre jaune" (in French). Retrieved 2019.
  237. ^ "Yellow Fever". Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC). African Union. Retrieved 2021. African countries that requires Yellow Fever vaccination certificate: Countries that requires (sic) vaccination for travellers from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission or transit for 12 hours in those countries: Algeria, Botswana, Cabo Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Lesotho, Libya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tunisia, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
  238. ^ Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination requirement
  239. ^ Strong, Matthew (17 August 2021). "Palau limits travel bubble with Taiwan to already vaccinated or registered vaccine tourists". Taiwan News. Retrieved 2021. Only travellers already vaccinated and those registered to receive COVID-19 shots in Palau will be allowed to take part in the travel bubble with Taiwan, the Pacific island nation announced Tuesday (Aug. 17).
  240. ^ Ian, Sample (1 April 2021). "Pfizer vaccine has 91% efficacy for up to six months, trial shows". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021. He said scientists had become "terribly worried" about the variant's ability to evade immunity from previous infection or vaccination. "Studies like this confirm our sense that the vaccine gives such massive protective headroom that even with some loss of immunity, you're still safe," he said.
  241. ^ Bahrain government website
  242. ^ "PASSPORTS AND VISA | GoIsrael - the Official Website of Tourism to Israel".
  243. ^ "Government Of Peru Requires Six-Month Validity On Passports To Enter Peru". Traveling & Living in Peru. Retrieved 2021.
  244. ^ "Bureau of Immigration of the Republic of the Philippines". Retrieved 2021.
  245. ^ Timatic
  246. ^ "Maldives Reduces Passport Validity Requirement of Minimum 6 Months to Just 1 Month". Corporate Maldives. Retrieved 2021.
  247. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Embassy of Japan in New Zealand. Retrieved 2021. 15. How long does my passport need to be valid in order to enter Japan? Japan does not have any regulations relating to passport validity, so long as your passport will be valid until after you leave Japan.
  248. ^ "Entering the UK". Gov.UK. Retrieved 2021. You're not from an EEA country: you must have a valid passport to enter the UK. It should be valid for the whole of your stay.
  249. ^ "Foreign Affairs Manual, 9 FAM 403.9-3(B)(2) f". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2017.
  250. ^ "How long should my passport be valid when traveling to the United States?" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2017.
  251. ^ "Countries whose citizens are allowed to enter Turkey with their expired passports". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Republic of Turkey. Archived from the original on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 2018. Countries whose citizens are allowed to enter Turkey with their expired passports: 1. Germany - Passports expired within the last year / ID's expired within the last year, 2. Belgium - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 3. France - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 4. Spain - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 5. Switzerland - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 6. Luxemburg - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 7. Portugal - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 8. Bulgaria - Valid ordinary passport
  252. ^ Government of Canada -- Overcome criminal convictions
  253. ^ Mar 18, INDIATIMES NEWS NETWORK /; 2005; Ist, 12:31. "No entry for Modi into US: visa denied | India News - Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved .CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  254. ^ "Travel Report - Kuwait". Voyage.gc.ca. 2012-11-16. Retrieved .
  255. ^ Travel Advice for Lebanon - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived 2008-12-24 at the Wayback Machine and Lebanese Ministry of Tourism Archived 2009-03-27 at the Wayback Machine
  256. ^ "Travel Advice for Libya - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Smartraveller.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2013-06-22. Retrieved .
  257. ^ "Travel Advice for Sudan - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Smartraveller.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2013-07-05. Retrieved .
  258. ^ Travel Advice for Syria - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived 2008-12-19 at the Wayback Machine and Syrian Ministry of Tourism
  259. ^ "Travel Advice for Yemen - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Smartraveller.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2011-08-20. Retrieved .
  260. ^ "It is possible to visit KSA with an Israeli stamp on the passport?". Visit Saudi. Retrieved .
  261. ^ "2020 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Azerbaijan". U.S. Department of State. Office of the Inspector General. 30 March 2021. Retrieved 2021. Significant human rights issues included: unlawful or arbitrary killing; torture; arbitrary detention; harsh and sometimes life-threatening prison conditions; political prisoners; arbitrary interference with privacy; politically motivated reprisal against individuals outside the country; pervasive problems with the independence of the judiciary; heavy restrictions on free expression, the press, and the internet, including violence against journalists, the criminalization of libel and slander, harassment and incarceration of journalists on questionable charges, and blocking of websites; substantial interference with the rights of peaceful assembly and freedom of association; restrictions on freedom of movement; severe restrictions on political participation; systemic government corruption; police brutality against individuals based on sexual orientation; and existence of the worst forms of child labour. Significant human rights issues connected with the Nagorno-Karabakh armed conflict included unlawful killings, civilian casualties, and inhuman treatment. The government did not prosecute or punish the majority of officials who committed human rights abuses; impunity remained a problem.
  262. ^ "ECRI REPORT ON AZERBAIJAN (fifth monitoring cycle)" (PDF). European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI). Council of Europe. Retrieved 2021. there is a conflict-ridden domestic political discourse and Azerbaijan's leadership, education system and media are very prolific in their denigration of Armenians. Political opponents are accused of having Armenian roots or of receiving funds from Armenian sources. An entire generation of Azerbaijanis has now grown up listening to constant rhetoric of Armenian aggression. According to a 2012 survey, 91% perceived Armenia as Azerbaijan's greatest enemy. As a result, the Armenians living in the country need to hide their ethnic affiliation and there is no organisation of the Armenian minority in the country with which ECRI's delegation could have met. The human rights activists Leyla and Arif Yunus, who worked inter alia towards reconciliation with Armenia, have been arrested and sentenced under controversial accusations to heavy prison terms.
  263. ^ The Caucasus: Frozen Conflicts and Closed Borders: Hearing Before The Committee On Foreign Affairs House Of Representatives One Hundred Tenth Congress Second Session (PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 2021. Our goal is the complete elimination of Armenians. You, Nazis, already eliminated the Jews in the 1930s and 40s, right? You should be able to understand us.
  264. ^ Kucera, Joshua (5 July 2017). "Russia Complains To Azerbaijan About Discrimination Against Armenians". Eurasianet, an independent news organization. Retrieved 2021. Russia has formally complained to Azerbaijan about "ethnic discrimination" against Russian citizens of Armenian origin, saying that 25 Russians so far this year have been denied entry to Azerbaijan because they had Armenian names. #"Russian citizens arriving in Azerbaijan are truly discriminated against on ethnic grounds," the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a statement on July 5. "We demand the cessation of this outrageous practice, inconsistent with the friendly relations between our two countries." Azerbaijan has long denied entry to citizens of all countries, not just Russians, whose names end in the standard Armenian surname suffixes -ian or -yan.
  265. ^ "Citing ethnicity, Azerbaijan bars photojournalist". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 2021. Diana Markosian, a freelance photographer for Bloomberg Markets magazine was denied entry to Azerbaijan last week by authorities who cited her ethnicity as a reason, international news reports said. On June 27, border guards at the Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku detained Markosian on arrival from the Latvian capital, Riga, then expelled her the next day, according to press reports and CPJ interviews. Markosian told CPJ that the border guards took her passport, saying that she had an Armenian last name and that they "needed to clarify something." Then they put her in the airport's transit zone where she spent 16 hours until she was put on a flight to Tbilisi, Georgia. Markosian holds both U.S. and Russian citizenship, she told CPJ. A government spokesman told the Baku-based news agency APA that Markosian was deported because authorities would be unable to provide her with "security" since she is an ethnic Armenian.
  266. ^ a b "Azerbaijan Country Page of the NCSJ (advocates on behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia) accessed 23 May 2010". Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved .
  267. ^ "Warning for the foreign nationals wishing to travel to the occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  268. ^ "List of foreign citizens illegally visited occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  269. ^ Calder, Simon (24 April 2017). "Airline lobbying for a relaxation of draconian rules for London-Auckland travellers". The Independent. Retrieved 2018. Travellers heading west from the UK to New Zealand may soon be able to avoid the onerous requirement to clear US border control during the refuelling stop at Los Angeles airport (LAX). Unlike almost every other country in the world, the US insists on a full immigration check even for passengers who simply intend to re-board their plane to continue onwards to a foreign destination. Air New Zealand, which flies daily from Heathrow via Los Angeles to Auckland, says there are currently "strict requirements for travellers" in transit at LAX. Through passengers to Auckland on flight NZ1 or Heathrow on NZ2 must apply in advance for an ESTA (online visa) even though they have no intention of staying in the US. They also have to undergo screening by the Transportation Security Administration.
  270. ^ "How to enter Afghanistan. The Entry Requirements for Afghanistan - CountryReports". Countryreports.org.
  271. ^ Nordland, Rod (19 November 2011). "In Afghanistan, Big Plans to Gather Biometric Data". Nytimes.com.
  272. ^ "Argentina strengthens migratory control". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
  273. ^ "Cambodia Foreign Entry Requirements". Us-passport-information.com.
  274. ^ "China to Start Fingerprinting Foreign Visitors". Air Canada. 31 Jan 2019. Retrieved 2018. Effective April 27, 2018, border control authorities at all of China's ports of entry, including its airports, will start collecting the fingerprints of all foreign visitors aged between 14 and 70. Diplomatic passport holders and beneficiaries of reciprocal agreements are exempted..
  275. ^ "Äthiopien: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise". Auswaertiges-amt.de.
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  277. ^ "Japan fingerprints foreigners as anti-terror move". Reuters. 20 November 2016. Retrieved 2017 – via Reuters.
  278. ^ "Anger as Japan moves to fingerprint foreigners - World". Theage.com.au. 2007-10-26.
  279. ^ "Immigration & Visas FAQs". Kenya Airports Authority. Retrieved 2019. Will visitors still have their digital photo and fingerprints taken at the immigration desk on arrival? Yes, the need to have photos and fingerprints taken upon arrival is to authenticate that the person who applied for the Visa is the same person at the port of entry
  280. ^ "Malaysia". CountryReports. Retrieved 2018.
  281. ^ "Saudi Arabia mandates fingerprints and biometrics for foreigners - SecureIDNews". secureidnews.com. Retrieved 2017.
  282. ^ F_161. "S Korea to scan fingerprints of suspicious foreign visitors - People's Daily Online". peopledaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2017.
  283. ^ "National News Bureau of Thailand".
  284. ^ AfricaNews (2019-01-14). "Gemalto awarded Uganda's new e-Immigration solution with fast-track border crossing eKiosks at Entebbe Airport". Africanews. Retrieved .
  285. ^ Brown, Theresa Cardinal (9 May 2016). "Biometric Entry-Exit Update: CBP Developing Land Border Process". Bipartisan Policy Center. Retrieved 2019. While a requirement for a biometric entry-exit system has been in law for over a decade, it is not yet a reality. Many reasons for the long gestating development have been documented in BPC's 2014 report Entry-Exit System: Progress, Challenges, and Outlook, including the technological, operational, and cost challenges of creating exit systems and infrastructure where none exist today. However, many critics, especially in Congress, simply accused the Department of Homeland security of dragging its feet... the major operational, logistical, and technical challenge in implementing exit capability at our ports has been the land borders. Unlike airports and seaports, the land border environment is not physically controlled, there is no means to get advance information on who is arriving, and the sheer volume of travel--both vehicular and pedestrian--creates challenges in any system to not further exacerbate delays. While biometric exit for land vehicular traffic is still in the "what if" stage, CBP is moving ahead and piloting systems and technology to use with the large population of pedestrian crossers at the U.S.-Mexico border.
  286. ^ Lipton, Eric (21 May 2013). "U.S. Quietly Monitors Foreigners' Departures at the Canadian Border". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019. Long demanded by lawmakers in Congress, it is considered a critical step to developing a coherent program to curb illegal immigration, as historically about 30 percent to 40 percent of illegal immigrants in the United States arrived on tourist visas or other legal means and then never left, according to estimates by Homeland Security officials.
  287. ^ LIPTON, Eric (15 December 2006). "Administration to Drop Effort to Track if Visitors Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved 2019. Efforts to determine whether visitors actually leave have faltered. Departure monitoring would help officials hunt for foreigners who have not left, if necessary. Domestic security officials say, however, it would be too expensive to conduct fingerprint or facial recognition scans for land departures.
  288. ^ Campoy, Ana. "The US wants to scan the faces of all air passengers leaving the country". Quartz. Retrieved .
  289. ^ "ICAO Document 9303: Machine Readable Travel Documents, Part 9: Deployment of Biometric Identification and Electronic Storage of Data in MRTDs, 7th edition" (PDF). 2015. Retrieved 2019.
  290. ^ "Iris Scan Implemented at Doha International Airport". Archived from the original on 8 January 2012.
  291. ^ "Iris Scanner Could Replace Emirates ID In UAE". SimplyDXB. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 2018. The breach of privacy is probably the biggest threat to the biometric technique of iris recognition. Secondly, a device error can false reject or false accept the identity which can also have some heinous consequences. Lastly, the method isn't the most cost-effective one. It is complex and therefore expensive. Furthermore, the maintenance of devices and data can also be relatively burdensome. However, thanks to the oil money and spending ability of Dubai, they are economically equipped to effectively embrace this system.

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