Vice President of Bolivia
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Vice President of Bolivia

Vice President of the
Plurinational State of Bolivia
Vicepresidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia
Coat of arms of Bolivia.svg
Coat of arms of Bolivia
David Choquehuanca (cropped).jpg
Incumbent
David Choquehuanca

since 8 November 2020
ResidenceVice Presidential Palace
SeatLa Paz
NominatorPlurinational Electoral Organ
AppointerDirect popular vote (two rounds if necessary)
Term lengthFive years
renewable once
Inaugural holderJosé Ramón de Loayza
Formation19 November 1826
First holderÁlvaro García Linera[a]
Salary22,904 bolivianos per month[1]
Websitewww.vicepresidencia.gob.bo

The Vice President of Bolivia (Spanish: Vicepresidente de Bolivia), officially known as the Vice President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Spanish: Vicepresidente del Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is the second highest political position in Bolivia. The vice president replaces the president in his definitive absence or others impediment and is the President of the Legislative Assembly.

Thirty nine men have served as vice president of Bolivia since the office came into existence on 19 November 1826. José Ramón de Loayza was the first vice president of the Republic of Bolivia. The 38th vice president, Álvaro García Linera, was the last vice president of the Republic of Bolivia and the first vice president of the Plurinational State of Bolivia. The second and current vice president of the Plurnational State is David Choquehuanca (since 8 November 2020). There are currently five living former vice presidents. The most recent former vice president to die was Julio Garrett Ayllón on 19 March 2018.

The vice president is the first person in the presidential line of succession and assumes the presidency if the president dies, resigns, or is impeached and removed from office. Four vice presidents have ascended to the presidency following the resignation of their predecessor (José Luis Tejada Sorzano, Mamerto Urriolagoitía, Jorge Qurioga, and Carlos Mesa). René Barrientos was the only vice president to assume the presidency by deposing his own predecessor, Víctor Paz Estenssoro. When Barrientos died suddenly on 27 April 1969, Luis Adolfo Siles Salinas became the only vice president to become president through their predecessor's death.

Seven former vice presidents (Aniceto Arce, Mariano Baptista, Severo Fernández, Eliodoro Villazón, Hernán Siles Zuazo, René Barrientos, and Jaime Paz Zamora) were elected president in their own right while two (José Miguel de Velasco and Mariano Enrique Calvo) became president by other means. José Miguel de Velasco was the only vice president who had already served as president (1828) prior to becoming vice president.

Vice presidents

Republic of Bolivia (1826-1836)

The office of vice president was first established on 19 November 1826, during the presidency of Antonio José de Sucre, following the promulgation of the Political Constitution of 1826, the first in the country's history.[2] However, Sucre himself would never elect a candidate to be presented to the National Congress, leaving the position vacant throughout his term. The first elected vice president was José Miguel de Velasco on 12 August 1828. However, he was prevented from exercising the position as he instead served as interim president in the absence of the elected president Andrés de Santa Cruz.[3]

As Santa Cruz never appeared to take office, the Conventional Assembly convened on 18 December 1828 to elect new leaders. José Ramón de Loayza would be elected vice president to Pedro Blanco Soto. Loayza served as acting president in the absence of Soto until 26 December at which point Soto assumed the office of the presidency and Loayza would exercise the vice presidency for the first time.[4]

Vice Presidency Vice President Party Designation Government President
Office vacant 19 November 1826 - 18 December 1828 Antonio José
de Sucre
José María Pérez
de Urdininea
Jose Miguel de
Velasco Franco
1 18 December 1828
-
1 January 1828
End of mandate
Loazya.jpg José Ramón
de Loayza
Independent Elected by the Constituent Assembly Provisional Acting to
26 Dec. 1828
Pedro Blanco
Soto
Office vacant 1 - 31 January 1829[b]
2 31 January 1829
-
23 July 1835
Dismissed
José Miguel de Velasco Franco - bolivianischer Präsident.jpg José Miguel de
Velasco Franco
Independent Elected by the Constituent Assembly Provisional
(31 January 1829)
Acting to
24 May 1829
Reelected by the Constituent Congress Constitutional[6]

(14 August 1831)

Andrés de
Santa Cruz
3 23 July 1835
-
28 October 1836
Legal change
Mariano Calvo.jpg Mariano Enrique
Calvo
Independent Appointed by Andrés de Santa Cruz Constitutional

Bolivian State (1836-1839)

The Bolivian State was one of the three states that made up the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. On 28 October 1836, Andrés de Santa Cruz was elected Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation while simultaneously being the president of the Bolivian State. José Miguel de Velasco Franco remained Vice President of the Bolivian State until 23 July 1835 when he was replaced by Mariano Enrique Calvo. For much of his tenure, Calvo would serve as acting president in replacement of Santa Cruz when he was in Peruvian territory.

Vice Presidency Vice President Party Designation Government President
3 28 October 1836
-
20 February 1839
Resigned from office
Mariano Calvo.jpg Mariano Enrique
Calvo
Independent Elected by the Congress of Tapacarí Constitutional Andrés de
Santa Cruz
Acting since
1836[c]

Republic of Bolivia (1880-2009)

Vice Presidential Palace in La Paz

Upon the dissolution of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, Jose Miguel de Velasco overthrew Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz and assumed the presidency of the Bolivian State on 22 February 1839, bringing an end to it and reviving the Republic of Bolivia with his secessionist pronouncement. On 26 October 1839, de Velasco promulgated the Political Constitution of 1839 which eliminated the position of vice president making the President of the Senate the first in the presidential order of succession instead.[7] This situation lasted until 15 February 1878, when the Political Constitution of 1878 was promulgated under Hilarión Daza.[8] The Constitution of 1878 reincorporated the position of vice president, though it remained vacant for the remainder of Daza's presidency.

Following the overthrow of Daza, during the presidency of Narciso Campero, the unique feature of two vice presidents came to be. On 31 May 1880, the National Convention appointed Aniceto Arce and Belisario Salinas, respectively, as first and second vice presidents. The dual-vice presidency was formally established upon the promulgation of the Political Constitution of 1880 on 28 October.[9] The Constitution of 1880 established two vice presidents who were elected like the president by direct vote, but with different powers: The first vice president presided over the Senate and was empowered to replace or succeed the president while the second vice president only had the function of replacing or succeeding the president in case of absence, resignation, inability or death of the first vice president.

This dual form of vice presidents was in force until 24 January 1921 when the Congress-Convention of 1921, convened by Bautista Saavedra, abolished the position of second vice president.[10] On 4 December 1939, interim president Carlos Quintanilla would amend the 1938 Constitution to abolish the office of the vice presidency in order to circumnavigate the claims to succession of former vice president Enrique Baldivieso.[11] The position was revived on 24 November 1945 with the promulgation of the Political Constitution of 1945 during the presidency of Gualberto Villarroel.[12]

Vice Presidency Vice President Party Designation Government President
Office vacant 22 February - 26 October 1839 Jose Miguel de
Velasco Franco
Office blank 26 October 1839 - 15 February 1878
Office vacant 15 February 1878 - 31 May 1880 Hilarión Daza
Narciso Campero
4 31 May 1880
-
11 March 1881
Dismissed
Aniceto Arce - 2.jpg Aniceto Arce Conservative Elected by the
National Convention
Constitutional
(1st)
Office vacant 11 May 1881 - 4 September 1884
5 31 May 1880
-
4 September 1884
End of term
Belisario salinas belzu.jpg Belisario Salinas Constitutional
(2nd)
6 4 September 1884
-
15 August 1888
End of term
Mariano Baptista.jpg Mariano Baptista Conservative General Election of 1884 Constitutional
(1st)
Gregorio Pacheco
7 Jorge Oblitas.jpg Jorge Oblitas Constitutional
(2nd)
8 15 August 1888
-
11 August 1892
End of term
José Manuel del Carpio.jpg José Manuel
del Carpio
Conservative General Election of 1888 Constitutional
(1st)
Aniceto Arce
9 Serapio reyes ortiz.jpg Serapio Reyes
Ortiz
Constitutional
(2nd)
10 11 August 1892
-
19 August 1896
End of term
Severo Fernández - 2.jpg Severo Fernández Conservative General Election of 1892 Constitutional
(1st)
Mariano Baptista
- Office vacant[d]
11 19 August 1896
-
12 April 1899
Deposed by a coup d'état
Rafael Peña de Flores.jpg Rafael Peña
de Flores
Conservative General Election of 1896 Constitutional
(1st)
Severo Fernández
12 Jenaro Sanjinés Calderón.jpg Jenaro Sanjinés Constitutional
(2nd)
Office vacant 12 April - 25 October 1899
13 25 October 1899
-
23 January 1903
Dismissed
Lucio Pérez Velasco.jpg Lucio Pérez
Velasco
Liberal Elected by the
National Convention
Constitutional
(1st)
José Manuel
Pando
Office vacant 23 January 1903 - 14 August 1904
14 25 October 1899
-
14 August 1904
End of term
Aníbal Capriles Cabrera.jpg Aníbal Capriles
Cabrera
Constitutional
(2nd)
15 14 August 1904
-
12 August 1909
End of term
Eliodoro Villazón - 2.jpg Eliodoro Villazón Liberal General Election of 1904 Constitutional
(1st)
Ismael Montes
16 V.Abecia A..jpg Valentín Abecia
Ayllón
Constitutional
(2nd)
17 12 August 1909
-
14 August 1913
End of term
M.pinilla.jpg Macario Pinilla
Vargas
Liberal General Election of 1909 Constitutional
(1st)
Eliodoro Villazón
18 12 August 1909
-
1 October 1915
Died in office
Saracho.jpg Juan Misael
Saracho
Constitutional
(2nd)
Liberal General Election of 1913 Constitutional
(1st)
Ismael Montes
19 14 August 1913
-
15 August 1917
End of term
José Carrasco Torrico.jpg José Carrasco
Torrico
Constitutional
(2nd)
20 15 August 1917
-
12 July 1920
Deposed by a coup d'état
Ismael Vázquez Virreira.jpg Ismael Vázquez
Virreira
Liberal General Election of 1917 Constitutional
(1st)
José Gutiérrez
Guerra
21 José Santos Quinteros.jpg José Santos
Quinteros
Constitutional
(2nd)
Office vacant 13 July 1920 - 10 January 1926 Bautista Saavedra
Felipe Segundo
Guzmán
22 10 January 1926
-
28 May 1930
De facto exiled[e]
Abdón Saavedra.jpg Abdón Saavedra PRS General Election of 1925 Constitutional Hernando Siles
Reyes
Office vacant 28 May 1930 - 5 March 1931 Carlos Blanco
Galindo
23 5 March 1931
-
1 December 1934
Assumed presidency
José Luis Tejada Sorzano - 2.jpg José Luis
Tejada Sorzano
Liberal General Election of 1931 Constitutional Daniel Salamanca
Urey
Office vacant 1 December 1934 - 28 May 1938 José Luis
Tejada Sorzano
David Toro
Germán Busch
24 28 May 1938
-
24 April 1939
Dismissed
Enrique Baldivieso.jpg Enrique Baldivieso PSU Elected by the National Convention Constitutional
Office vacant 24 April - 4 December 1939
Carlos Quintanilla
Office blank 4 December 1939 - 24 November 1945
Enrique Peñaranda
Gualberto Villarroel
25 6 November 1945[f]
-
21 July 1946
Deposed by a coup d'état
Julian V.montellano.jpg Julián Montellano MNR Elected by the National Convention Constitutional
Office vacant 21 July 1946 - 10 March 1947 Néstor Guillén
Tomás Monje
26 10 March 1947
-
24 October 1949
Assumed presidency[g]
Mamerto Urriolagoitía.jpg Mamerto Urriolagoitía PURS General Election of 1947 Constitutional Enrique Hertzog
Office vacant 22 October 1949 - 11 April 1952 Mamerto Urriolagoitía
Hugo Ballivián
27 11 April 1952
-
6 August 1956
End of term
Hernán Siles Zuazo2.png Hernán Siles
Zuazo
MNR Installed by a coup d'état De facto Acting to
15 Apr. 1952
Víctor Paz
Estenssoro
28 6 August 1956
-
24 June 1957
Resigned from office
Ñuflo chavez ortiz.jpg Ñuflo Chávez
Ortiz
MNR General Election of 1956 Constitutional Hernán Siles
Zuazo
Office vacant 24 June 1957 - 6 August 1960
29 6 August 1960
-
6 August 1964
End of term
Juan Lechín Oquendo.jpg Juan Lechín
Oquendo
MNR General Election of 1960 Constitutional Víctor Paz
Estenssoro
30 6 August 1964
-
4 November 1964
Assumed presidency
René Barrientos 1.jpg René Barrientos MNR General Election of 1964 Constitutional
Office vacant 5 November 1964 - 6 August 1966 René Barrientos
Alfredo Ovando
Candía
31 6 August 1966
-
27 April 1969
Assumed presidency
Siles Salinas.jpg Luis Adolfo
Siles Salinas
PSD General Election of 1966 Constitutional René Barrientos
Office vacant 27 April 1969 - 10 October 1982
32 10 October 1982
-
14 December 1984
Resigned from office
Jaime Paz Zamora.jpg Jaime Paz
Zamora
MIR General Election of 1980[h] Constitutional Hernán Siles
Zuazo
Office vacant 14 December 1984 - 6 August 1985
33 6 August 1985
-
6 August 1989
End of term
Julio Garrett.jpg Julio Garrett
Ayllón
MNR General Election of 1985 Constitutional Víctor Paz
Estenssoro
34 6 August 1989
-
6 August 1993
End of term
Luis Ossio Sanjinés.jpg Luis Ossio PDC General Election of 1989 Constitutional Jaime Paz
Zamora
35 6 August 1993
-
6 August 1997
End of term
Víctor Hugo Cárdenas.jpg Víctor Hugo
Cárdenas
MRTKL General Election of 1993 Constitutional Gonzalo Sánchez
de Lozada
36 6 August 1997
-
7 August 2001
Assumed presidency
Jorge Quiroga Inter-American 2019 cropped.jpg Jorge Quiroga ADN General Election of 1997 Constitutional Hugo Banzer
Office vacant 7 August 2001 - 6 August 2002 Jorge Quiroga
37 6 August 2002
-
17 October 2003
Assumed presidency
Carlos Mesa, ex-President of Bolivia (cropped).jpg Carlos Mesa MNR General Election of 2002 Constitutional Gonzalo Sánchez
de Lozada
Office vacant 17 October 2003 - 22 January 2006 Carlos Mesa
Eduardo Rodríguez
38 22 January 2006
-
22 January 2010
Legal change
Álvaro García Linera - Participante del Foro Internacional por la Emancipación y la Igualdad 2011 (cropped).jpg Álvaro García
Linera
MAS General Election of 2005 Constitutional Evo Morales

Plurinational State of Bolivia (2009-present)

The emergence of the Plurinational State occurred as a consequence of the promulgation of the Political Constitution of 2009. Drafted by the Constituent Assembly in 2007, the new constitution was approved in a popular referendum on 25 January 2009, and was promulgated on 7 February. The Constitution resulted in a change in the official name of the country, leaving behind its previous denominative of Republic of Bolivia to become the Plurinational State of Bolivia. In order to comply with the structural changes of the new constitution, it was decided to advance the general elections to be held on 6 December 2009, with Evo Morales and Vice President Álvaro García Linera winning again, with 64.22% of the votes. This situation made Álvaro García Linera the last vice president of the Republic and the first of the Plurinational State.

Vice Presidency Vice President Party Designation Government President
38 22 January 2010
-
10 November 2019
Resigned from office
under military pressure
Álvaro García Linera - Participante del Foro Internacional por la Emancipación y la Igualdad 2011 (cropped).jpg Álvaro García
Linera
MAS General Election of 2009 Constitutional Evo Morales
General Election of 2014
Office vacant 10 November 2019 - 8 November 2020 Jeanine Áñez
39 8 November 2020
-
Incumbent
David Choquehuanca (cropped).jpg David Choquehuanca MAS General Election of 2020 Constitutional Luis Arce

Timeline

David ChoquehuancaÁlvaro García LineraCarlos MesaJorge QuirogaVíctor Hugo CárdenasLuis OssioJulio Garrett AyllónJaime Paz ZamoraLuis Adolfo Siles SalinasRené BarrientosJuan Lechín OquendoÑuflo Chávez OrtizHernán Siles ZuazoMamerto UrriolagoitíaJulián MontellanoEnrique BaldiviesoJosé Luis Tejada SorzanoAbdón SaavedraJosé Santos QuinterosIsmael Vázquez VirreiraJosé Carrasco TorricoJuan Misael SarachoMacario Pinilla VargasValentín Abecia AyllónEliodoro VillazónAníbal Capriles CabreraLucio Pérez VelascoJenaro Sanjinés CalderónRafael Peña de FloresSevero FernándezSerapio Reyes OrtizJosé Manuel del CarpioJorge OblitasMariano BaptistaBelisario SalinasAniceto ArceMariano Enrique CalvoJosé Miguel de Velasco FrancoJosé Ramón de Loayza

Living former vice presidents

As of 13 June 2021, there are five living former vice presidents:

The most recent death of a former vice president was that of Julio Garrett Ayllón (1985-1989) on 19 March 2018; he was 92 years old.[18]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While José Ramón de Loayza was the inaugural holder of the office of Vice President of Bolivia, Álvaro García Linera was the first Vice President of the Plurinational State of Bolivia in its current form.
  2. ^ On 31 January 1829, José Miguel de Velasco Franco would be elected vice president to Andrés de Santa Cruz. Velasco served as acting president in the absence of Santa Cruz until 24 May 1829 at which point Santa Cruz assumed the office of the presidency and Velasco would exercise the vice presidency.[5]
  3. ^ Andrés de Santa Cruz assumed the position of Supreme Protector of the Peru-Bolivian Confederation in parallel with that of the presidency of Bolivia. On 23 July 1835, Mariano Enrique Calvo is appointed vice president. In 1836, he assumes the acting presidency of Bolivia in Santa Cruz's absence, in order to act as the representative of the Bolivian State in the Confederation, while Santa Cruz was in Lima governing the Confederation.
  4. ^ The second vice presidency remains vacant due to the death of the elected citizen Juan Federico Zuazo before taking office.[13]
  5. ^ In 1926, Hernando Siles Reyes split with the Saavedristas of Bautista Saavedra's Socialist Republican Party (PRS) and formed the Nationalist Party (PN). As a result, Vice President Abdón Saavedra, Bautista Saavedra's brother, was in effect exiled from the country with the excuse of his gratitude tour to the American countries after the celebration of the Centennial of the Republic, although he never officially resigned from the vice presidency. For this reason, Saavedra's term only officially ended upon the resignation of Siles Reyes on 28 May 1930.
  6. ^ On 3 November 1945, Julián Montellano would be proclaimed Vice President of the Republic and inaugurated on 6 November.[14] However, the office of Vice President would remain officially abolished until the promulgation of a new constitution on 24 November.[15]
  7. ^ In 1949, PURS leadership lost confidence in Hertzog and forced his resignation on 22 October in favor of his vice president, Mamerto Urriolagoitía, under the pretext of a non-existent disease. Urriolagoitía held executive power immediately after Hertzog's resignation but his term officially started two days later following his inauguration on 24 October.[16]
  8. ^ On 10 October 1982, the military government of Guido Vildoso recognized the results of the annulled 1980 general elections and handed command to Hernán Siles Zuazo and his vice president, Jaime Paz Zamora.[17]

References

  1. ^ PAZ/ANF, LA. "El salario del Presidente sube de 22.987 a 24.251 bolivianos". Opinión Bolivia (in Spanish).
  2. ^ Cervantes, Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de. "Constitución del Estado del 19 de noviembre de 1826". Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ "EL LABERINTO HISTÓRICO DE LAS SUCESIONES PRESIDENCIALES EN BOLIVIA | Historias de Bolivia". EL LABERINTO HISTÓRICO DE LAS SUCESIONES PRESIDENCIALES EN BOLIVIA | Historias de Bolivia. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ "Acerca del general José Ramón de Loayza". www.eldiario.net (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ "DECRETO SUPREMO No 31-01-1829 del 31 de Enero de 1829 » Derechoteca.com". www.derechoteca.com. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ "Bolivia: Constitución política de 1831, 14 de agosto de 1831". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ "Bolivia: Constitución política de 1839, 26 de octubre de 1839". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ "Bolivia: Constitución política de 1878, 15 de febrero de 1878". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2020.
  9. ^ "Bolivia: Constitución política de 1880, 28 de octubre de 1880". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2020.
  10. ^ "Bolivia: Ley de 24 de enero de 1921". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2020.
  11. ^ "Bolivia: Decreto Ley de 4 de diciembre de 1939". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2020.
  12. ^ "Bolivia: Constitución política de 1945, 24 de noviembre de 1945". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2020.
  13. ^ "Bolivia: Ley de 10 de agosto de 1892". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ "Bolivia: Ley de 3 de noviembre de 1945". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2021.
  15. ^ "Bolivia: Constitución política de 1945, 24 de noviembre de 1945". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2021.
  16. ^ "Bolivia: Ley de 22 de octubre de 1949". www.lexivox.org. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ Yuste, Juan González (10 October 1982). "Siles Zuazo asume la presidencia de Bolivia tras e dos años de caótica gestión militar". El País (in Spanish). ISSN 1134-6582. Retrieved 2020.
  18. ^ "Ex vicepresidente Julio Garrett muere en Sucre a los 92 años de edad". Correo del Sur (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020.

External links


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