A superscriptLatin gammaˠMODIFIER LETTER SMALL GAMMA (HTML ˠ) after the letter standing for the velarized consonant, as in ⟨t?⟩ (a velarized [t])
To distinguish velarization from a velar fricative release, ⟨?⟩ may be used instead of ⟨?⟩
A superscript ⟨w⟩ ʷMODIFIER LETTER SMALL W indicates either simultaneous velarization and labialization, as in ⟨s?⟩ or ⟨p?⟩, or labialization of a velar consonant, as in ⟨k?⟩.
Although electropalatographic studies have shown that there is a continuum of possible degrees of velarization, the IPA does not specify any way to indicate degrees of velarization, as the difference has not been found to be contrastive in any language. However, the IPA convention of doubling diacritics to indicate a greater degree can be used: ⟨⟩.
For many languages, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that dark l tends to be dental or dentoalveolar, and clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.
Other velarized consonants
Danish realizes /d/ in some environments as a velarized [ð].
Irish and Marshallese have velarized consonants that systematically contrast with palatalized consonants.
Kurdish has three velarized consonants (/?/, /s?/, and /z?/) which contrast with plain ones.
Gilbertese has three velarized consonants (/m?/, /p?/, and //), two of which (/m?/ and /p?/) contrast with a plain form.
The palatalized/velarized contrast is known by other names, especially in language pedagogy: in Irish and Scottish Gaelic language teaching, the terms slender (for palatalized) and broad (for velarized) are often used. In Scottish Gaelic the terms are caol (for palatalized) and leathann (for velarized).
The terms light or clear (for non-velarized or palatalized) and dark (for velarized) are also widespread. The terms "softl " and "hardl " are not equivalent to "light l " and "dark l ". The former pair refers to palatalized ("soft" or iotated) and plain ("hard") Slavic consonants.
Recasens, Daniel; Fontdevila, J; Pallarès, Maria Dolores (1995), "Velarization degree and coarticulatory resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German", Journal of Phonetics, 23 (1-2): 37-52, doi:10.1016/S0095-4470(95)80031-X
Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005), "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 1-25, doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878