Uyghur Khaganate
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Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate

?::?
Toquz O?uz budun
744-840[1]
The Uyghur Khaganate at its greatest extent
The Uyghur Khaganate at its greatest extent
StatusKhaganate (Nomadic empire)
Capital
Common languages
Religion
Tengrism, Manichaeism, Buddhism
GovernmentMonarchy
Uyghur Khagans 
o 744-747
Qutlugh Bilge Köl
o 841-847
Enian Qaghan
History 
o Established
744
o Disestablished
840[1]
Area
800[3][4]3,100,000 km2 (1,200,000 sq mi)

The Uyghur Khaganate (or Uyghur Empire or Uighur Khaganate, self defined as Toquz-Oghuz country,[5][6][7] (Old Turkic: ?::?‎, romanized: Toquz O?uz budun, Tang era names, with modern Hanyu Pinyin: traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Huíhú or traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Huíhé) was a Turkic empire[8] that existed for about a century between the mid 8th and 9th centuries. They were a tribal confederation under the Orkhon Uyghur () nobility, referred to by the Chinese as the Jiu Xing ("Nine Clans"), a calque of the name Toquz Oghuz or Toquz Tughluq.[9]

History

Rise

In 657 the Western Turkic Khaganate was defeated by the Tang dynasty, after which the Uyghurs defected to the Tang. Prior to this the Uyghurs had already shown an inclination towards alliances with the Tang when they fought with them against the Tibetan Empire and Turks in 627.[10][11]

In 742, the Uyghurs, Karluks, and Basmyls rebelled against the Second Turkic Khaganate.[12]

In 744 the Basmyls captured the Turk capital of Ötüken and killed the reigning Özmi? Khagan. Later that year a Uyghur-Karluk alliance formed against the Basmyls and defeated them. Their khagan was killed and the Basmyls ceased to exist as a people. Hostilities between the Uyghurs and Karluks then forced the Karluks to migrate west into Zhetysu and conflict with the Türgesh, whom they defeated and conquered in 766.[13]

The Uyghur khagan's personal name was Qull Boyla (Chinese: ?). He took the title Kutlug I Bilge Kagan "Glorious, wise, mighty khagan", claiming to be the supreme ruler of all the tribes. He built his capital at Ordu-Baliq. According to Chinese sources, the territory of the Uyghur Empire then reached "on its eastern extremity, the territory of Shiwei, on the west the Altai Mountains, on the south it controlled the Gobi Desert, so it covered the entire territory of the ancient Xiongnu".[14]

In 745 the Uyghurs killed the last khagan of the Göktürks, Báiméikèhán G?l?ng (? ), and sent his head to the Tang.[15]

Tribal Composition

Tang Huiyao, vol. 98, listed nine Toquz Oghuz surname tribes ( xìngbù); another list of tribes ( bùluò) was recorded in the Old Book of Tang and the New Book of Tang. According to Japanese scholars Hashimoto, Katayama, and Senga, each name in the lists in the Books of Tang recorded each subtribal surname of each chief, while the other list in Tang Huiyao recorded the names of the Toquz Oghuz tribes proper.[16][17] Walter Bruno Henning (1938)[18] linked nine names recorded in the Saka language "Staël-Holstein Scroll" with those recorded by Han Chinese authors.

Tribal name in Chinese Tribal name in Saka Tribal name in Old Turkic Surname in Old Turkic Surname in Saka Surname in Chinese
Huihe Uy?ur ? Ya?laqar Yah?dakari Yaoluoge
Pugu B?k? *Buqu[t] *(H)Uturqar Huduoge
Hun ? *Qun *Kürebir Kurab?ri Guluowu
Bayegu Bayark?ta Bay?rku *Boqs?q?t B?sik?tti ? Mogexiqi
Tongluo Ttaugara Tongra *Avu?a? A-Wudi
Sijie S?kari *S?qar *Qasar Gesa
Qibi K?ribari Huwasu
A-Busi *Yabutqar Yab?ttikari Yaowuge
Gulunwugu(si) ?(?)[a] *(Q)Ayabir Ayab?ri Xiyawu

Notes

  1. ^ Tang Huiyao manuscript[19] has ; Ulrich Theobald (2012) amended ? (kong) to ? (si) & proposed that transcribed O?uz[20]

Golden Age

In 747, the Qutlugh Bilge Köl Kaghan died, leaving his youngest son, Bayanchur Khan to reign as Khagan El etmish bilge "State settled, wise". After building a number of trading outposts with the Tang, Bayanchur Khan used the profits to construct the capital, Ordu-Baliq, and another city further up the Selenga River, Bai Baliq. The new khagan then embarked on a series of campaigns to bring all the steppe peoples under his banner. During this time the Empire expanded rapidly and brought the Sekiz Oghuz, Kyrgyz, Karluks, Turgesh, Toquz Tatars, Chiks and the remnants of the Basmyls under Uyghur rule.

Painted silk fragments of men in armour, from a Manichaean Temple near Qocho. Turkic, 8th century or 9th century CE. Museum für Asiatische Kunst, Berlin.[21]

In 755 An Lushan instigated a rebellion against the Tang dynasty and Emperor Suzong of Tang turned to Bayanchur Khan for assistance in 756. The khagan agreed and ordered his eldest son to provide military service to the Tang emperor. Approximately 4,000 Uyghur horsemen assisted Tang armies in retaking Chang'an and Luoyang in 757. After the battle at Luoyang the Uyghurs looted the city for three days and only stopped after large quantities of silk were extracted. For their aid, the Tang sent 20,000 rolls of silk and bestowed them with honorary titles. In addition the horse trade was fixed at 40 rolls of silk for every horse and Uyghurs were given "guest" status while staying in Tang China.[12][22] The Tang and Uyghurs conducted an exchange marriage. Bayanchur Khan married Princess Ninguo while a Uyghur princess was married to a Tang prince.[15] The Uyghur Khaganate exchanged princesses in marriage with Tang dynasty China in 756 to seal the alliance against An Lushan. The Uyghur Khagan Bayanchur Khan had his daughter Uyghur Princess Pijia (?) married to Tang dynasty Chinese Prince Li Chengcai (), Prince of Dunhuang (), son of Li Shouli, Prince of Bin. while the Tang dynasty Chinese princess Ningguo ?, daughter of Emperor Suzong, married Uyghur Khagan Bayanchur.

In 758, the Uyghurs turned their attention to the northern Yenisei Kyrgyz. Bayanchur Khan destroyed several of their trading outposts before slaughtering a Kyrgyz army and executing their Khan.[22]

In 759 the Uyghurs attempted to assist the Tang in stamping out the rebels but failed. Bayanchur Khan died and his son Tengri Bögü succeeded him as Khagan Qutlugh Tarkhan sengün.[22]

In 762 Tengri Bögü planned to invade the Tang with 4,000 soldiers but after negotiations switched sides and assisted them in defeating the rebels at Luoyang. After the battle the Uyghurs looted the city. When the people fled to Buddhist temples for protection, the Uyghurs burnt them down, killing over 10,000. For their aid, the Tang was forced to pay 100,000 pieces of silk to get them to leave.[23] During the campaign the khagan encountered Manichaean priests who converted him to Manichaeism. From then on the official religion of the Uyghur Khaganate became Manichaeism.[24]

Decline

Soldiers from Karasahr, 8th century CE

In 779 Tengri Bögü planned to invade the Tang dynasty based on the advice of his Sogdian courtiers. However, Tengri Bögü's uncle, Tun Bagha Tarkhan, opposed this plan and killed him and "nearly two thousand people from among the kaghan's family, his clique and the Sogdians."[25] Tun Bagha Tarkhan ascended the throne, with the title Alp Qutlugh Bilge ("Victorious, glorious, wise"), and enforced a new set of laws, which he designed to secure the unity of the khaganate. During his reign Manichaeism was suppressed, but his successors restored it as the official religion.[26]

In 780 a group of Uyghurs and Sogdians was killed while leaving Chang'an with tribute. Tun demanded 1,800,000 strings of cash in compensation and the Tang agreed to pay this amount in gold and silk.[27]

In 789 Tun Bagha Tarkhan died and his son, Tolossu, succeeded him. The Karluks took this opportunity to encroach on Uyghur territory and annexed the Futu valley.[28]

In 790 the Uyghurs and Tang forces were defeated by the Tibetans at Ting Prefecture (Beshbalik).[11] Tolossu died and his son, A-ch'o, succeeded him as Qutlugh Bilge.

In 795 Qutlugh Bilge died and the Yaghlakar dynasty came to an end. A general named also called Qutlugh declared himself the new khagan, under the title Ay Tängridä ülüg bulmïsh alp kutlugh ulugh bilgä kaghan ("Greatly born in moon heaven, victorious, glorious, great and wise Kaghan"),[12] founding a new dynasty, the Ädiz (Chinese: Adie).

In 803 the Uyghurs captured Qocho.[29]

In 808 Qutlugh died and his son Baoyi succeeded him. In the same year the Uyghurs seized Liang Prefecture from the Tibetans.[30]

In 821 Baoyi died and his son Chongde succeeded him. Chongde was considered the last great khagan of the Uyghur Khaganate and bore the title Kün tengride ülüg bulmïsh alp küchlüg bilge ("Greatly born in sun heaven, victorious, strong and wise"). His achievements included improved trade up with the region of Sogdia, and on the battlefield he repulsed a force of invading Tibetans in 821.

In 822 the Uyghurs sent troops to help the Tang in quelling rebels. The Tang refused the offer but had to pay them 70,000 pieces of silk to go home.[27]

In 823 the Tibetan Empire waged war on the Uyghurs.[31]

In 824 Chongde died and was succeeded by a brother, Qasar.

In 832 Qasar was murdered. He was succeeded by the son of Chongde, Hu. In the same year the Tibetan Empire ceased to make war on the Uyghurs.[31]

Fall

In 839 Hu was forced to commit suicide and a minister named Kürebir seized the throne with the help of 20,000 Shatuo horsemen from Ordos. In the same year there was a famine and an epidemic, with a particularly severe winter that killed much of the livestock the Uyghur economy was based on.[32]

In 840, one of nine Uyghur ministers, Kulug Bagha, rival of Kurebir, fled to the Yenisei Kyrgyz and invited them to invade from the north. With a force of around 80,000 horsemen, they sacked the Uyghur capital at Ordu-Baliq, razing it to the ground.[1] The Kyrgyz captured the Uyghur Khagan, Kürebir (Hesa), and promptly beheaded him. They went on to destroy other cities throughout the Uyghur empire, burning them to the ground. Öge, son of Baoyi, became khagan of the defeated Uyghur khaganate.

In 841 Öge led the Uyghurs in an invasion of Shaanxi.

In 843 a Tang army led by Shi Xiong attacked the Uyghurs displaced by the fall of their khaganate and slaughtered 10,000 Uyghurs on February 13, 843 at "Kill the Barbarians" Mountain (Shahu).[33][34]

In 847 the penultimate Uyghur khagan, Öge, was killed after having spent his six-year reign fighting the Kyrgyz, the supporters of his rival Ormïzt, a brother of Kürebir, and Tang dynasty troops in Ordos and Shaanxi.[1][24]

Successors

Uyghur king from Turfan region attended by servants. Mogao cave 409, 11th-13th century.
Ordu-Baliq, capital of the Uyghur Khaganate (745-840) in Mongolia.
Mural of Uyghur Khagan, 8th century CE

The Yenisei Kyrgyz who replaced the Uyghur Khaganate were unsophisticated and had little interest in running the empire which they had destroyed. They held the territory from Lake Baikal in the east to the Irtysh River in the west and left Kulug Bagha, the Uyghur who defected to them, in charge of the Orkhon Valley. During the reign of Emperor Yizong of Tang (860-873), there were three recorded contacts between the Tang and Kyrgyz, but the nature of their relationship remains unclear. Tang policy makers argued that there was no point in building any relations with the Kyrgyz since the Uyghurs no longer threatened them. The Khitans seized the Orkhon Valley from the Kyrgyz in 890 and no further opposition from the Kyrgyz is recorded.[35][36]

The Khitan ruler Abaoji did extend his influence onto the Mongolian Plateau in 924, but there is no indication whatsoever of any conflict with the Kyrgyz. The only information we have from Khitan (Liao) sources regarding the Kyrgyz indicates that the two powers maintained diplomatic relations. Scholars who write of a Kyrgyz "empire" from about 840 to about 924 are describing a fantasy. All available evidence suggests that despite some brief extensions of their power onto the Mongolian Plateau, the Kyrgyz did not maintain a significant political or military presence there after their victories in the 840s.[37]

-- Michael Drompp

After the fall of the Uyghur Khaganate, the Uyghurs migrated south and established the Ganzhou Uyghur Kingdom in modern Gansu[38] and the Kingdom of Qocho near modern Turpan. The Uyghurs in Qocho converted to Buddhism, and, according to Mahmud al-Kashgari, were "the strongest of the infidels", while the Ganzhou Uyghurs were conquered by the Tangut people in the 1030s.[39] Even so, Kashjgari praised contemporary Uyghurs as bilingual Turkophones whose Turkic dialect remained "pure" and "most correct" (just like dialects spoken by monolingual Yagmas, and Tuhsis); meanwhile, Kashgari derided other bilingual Turkophones (Qay, Tatars, Basmyls, Chömüls, Yabakus, etc.), for incorporating foreign loanwords and "slurring" in their speeches[40] In 1134, Qocho became a vassal of Yelü Dashi's nascent Qara Khitai empire. In 1209, the Qocho ruler Baurchuk Art Tekin declared his allegiance to Genghis Khan, and the Uyghurs became important civil servants in the later Mongol Empire, which adapted the Old Uyghur alphabet as its official script. According to the New Book of Tang, a third group went to seek refuge among the Karluks.[41]

The Karluks, together with other tribes such as the Chigils and Yagmas, later founded the Kara-Khanid Khanate (940-1212). Some historians associate the Karakhanids with the Uyghurs as the Yaghmas were linked to the Toquz Oghuz. Sultan Satuq Bughra Khan, believed to be a Yagma from Artux, converted to Islam in 932 and seized control of Kashgar in 940, giving rise to the new dynasty, known as Karakhanids.[42]

Relationship with the Sogdians

In order to control trade along the Silk Road, the Uyghurs established a trading relationship with the Sogdian merchants who controlled the oases of Turkestan. As described above, the Uyghur adoption of Manichaeism was one aspect of this relationship--choosing Manichaeism over Buddhism may have been motivated by a desire to show independence from Tang influence.[43] Not all Uyghurs supported conversion--an inscription at Ordu-Baliq states that Manichaens tried to divert people from their ancient shamanistic beliefs.[44] A rather partisan account from a Uyghur-Manichean text of that period demonstrates the unbridled enthusiasm of the khaghan for Manichaeism:

"At that time when the divine Bogu Khan had thus spoken, we the Elects of all the people living within the land rejoiced. It is impossible to describe this ourjoy. The people told the story to one another and rejoiced. At that time, groups of thousands and tens of thousands assembled and with pastimes of all sorts they entertained themselves even unto dawn. And at the break of the day they made a short fast. The divine ruler Bogu Khan and all the elects of his retinue mounted on horses, and all the princes and the princesses led by those of high repute, the big and the small, the whole people, amidst great rejoicing proceeded to the gate of the city. And when the divine ruler had entered the city, he put the crown on his head... and sat upon the golden throne."

-- Uyghur-Manichean text.[44]

As conversion was based on political and economic concerns regarding trade with the Sogdians, it was driven by the rulers and often encountered resistance in lower societal strata. Furthermore, as the khaghan's political power depended on his ability to provide economically for his subjects, "alliance with the Sogdians through adopting their religion was an important way of securing this objective."[43] Both the Sogdians and the Uyghurs benefited enormously from this alliance. The Sogdians enabled the Uyghurs to trade in the Western Regions and exchange silk from China for other goods. For the Sogdians it provided their Chinese trading communities with Uyghur protection. The 5th and 6th centuries saw a large emigration of Sogdians to China. The Sogdians were main traders along the Silk Roads, and China was always their biggest market. Among the paper clothing found in the Astana cemetery near Turfan is a list of taxes paid on caravan trade in the Gaochang kingdom in the 620s. The text is incomplete, but out of the 35 commercial operations it lists, 29 involve a Sogdian trader.[45] Ultimately both rulers of nomadic origin and sedentary states recognized the importance of merchants like the Sogdians and made alliances to further their own agendas in controlling the Silk Roads.

Karabalghasun

The Uyghurs created an empire with clear Persian influences, particularly in areas of government.[46] Soon after the empire was founded, they emulated sedentary states by establishing a permanent, settled capital, Karabalghasun (Ordu-Baliq), built on the site of the former Göktürk imperial capital, northeast of the later Mongol capital, Karakorum. The city was a fully fortified commercial center, typical along the Silk Road, with concentric walls and lookout towers, stables, military and commercial stores, and administrative buildings. Certain areas of the town were allotted for trade and handcrafts, while in the center of the town were palaces and temples, including a monastery. The palace had fortified walls and two main gates, as well as moats filled with water and watchtowers.

The khaghan maintained his court there and decided the policies of the empire. With no fixed settlement, the Xiongnu had been limited in their acquisition of Chinese goods to what they could carry. As stated by Thomas Barfield, "the more goods a nomadic society acquired the less mobility it had, hence, at some point, one was more vulnerable trying to protect a rich treasure house by moving it than by fortifying it."[46] By building a fixed city, the Uyghurs created a protected storage space for trade goods from China. They could hold a stable, fixed court, receive traders, and effectively cement their central role in Silk Road exchange.[46] However, the vulnerability that came with having a fixed city was to be the downfall of the Uyghurs.[43]

List of Uyghur Khagans

The following list is based on Yihong Pan's "Sui-Tang Foreign Policy: Four case studies".[47]

Personal Name Turkic title Chinese title Reign
Yaoluoge Yibiaobi Qutlugh Bilge Köl Qaghan Huairen Khagan (?) 744-747
Yaoluoge Moyanchuo Tengrida Bolmish El Etmish Bilge Qaghan Yingwu Weiyuan Pijia Qaghan () 747-759
Yaoluoge Yidijian Tengrida Qut Bolmish El Tutmish Alp Külüg Bilge Qaghan Yingyi Qaghan (?) 759-780
Yaoluoge Dunmohe Alp Qutlugh Bilge Qaghan Wuyi Chenggong Qaghan ()

Changshou Tianqin Qaghan ()

780-789
Yaoluoge Duoluosi Kulug Bilge Qaghan Zhongzhen Qaghan (?) 789-790
Yaoluoge Achuo Qutluq Bilge Qaghan Fengcheng Qaghan (?) 790-795
Adie Guduolu, later

Yaoluoge Guduolu

Ay Tengride Ulugh Bolmish Alp Qutluq Külüg Bilge Qaghan Huaixin Qaghan (?) 795-808
Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish Alp Bilge Qaghan Baoyi Qaghan (?) 808-821
Gün Tengride Ulugh Bolmish Küçlüg Bilge Qaghan Chonde Qaghan (?) 821-824
Yaoluoge Hesa Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish Alp Bilge Qaghan Zhaoli Qaghan (?) 824-833
Yaoluoge Hu Ay Tengride Qut Bolmish Alp Külüg Bilge Qaghan Zhangxin Qaghan (?) 833-839
Jueluowu or

Yaoluoge Hesa

Qasar Qaghan (?) 839-840
Yaoluoge Wuxi Uge Qaghan (?) 841-846
Yaoluoge E'nian Enian Qaghan (?) 846-848

Images of Buddhist and Manichean Uyghurs

Images of Buddhist and Manichean Uyghurs from the Bezeklik caves and Mogao grottoes.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "History of Central Asia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ "Data" (PDF). www.tekedergisi.com. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires". Journal of World-Systems Research. 12 (2): 222. ISSN 1076-156X. Retrieved 2016.
  4. ^ Rein Taagepera (September 1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly. 41 (3): 475-504. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053. JSTOR 2600793.
  5. ^ E.J. Brill (1962). Four studies on the history of Central Asia. p. 88.
  6. ^ Scott C. Levi (2009). Islamic Central Asia: An Anthology of Historical Sources. p. 29.
  7. ^ V. V. Barthold (1956). Four Studies on Central Asia. p. 88.
  8. ^ Benson 1998, p. 16-19.
  9. ^ Bughra 1983, p. 50-51.
  10. ^ Latourette 1964, p. 144.
  11. ^ a b Haywood 1998, p. 3.2.
  12. ^ a b c Sinor 1990, p. 317-342.
  13. ^ Sinor 1990, p. 349.
  14. ^ "Chapter 217 part 1". [New Book of Tang]. ?,,?,?
  15. ^ a b Barfield 1989, p. 151.
  16. ^ Golden 1992, p. 156-157.
  17. ^ Senga, T. (1990). "The Toquz Oghuz Problem and the Origins of the Khazars". Journal of Asian History. 24 (1): 57-69. JSTOR 419253799.
  18. ^ Henning 1938, p. 554-558.
  19. ^ Tang Huiyao, Vol. 98
  20. ^ Theobald, U. "Huihe , Huihu , Weiwur , Uyghurs" in ChinaKnowledge.de - An Encyclopaedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art
  21. ^ SKUPNIEWICZ, Patryk (Siedlce University, Poland) (2017). Crowns, hats, turbans and helmets.The headgear in Iranian history volume I: Pre-Islamic Period. Siedlce-Tehran: K. Maksymiuk & G. Karamian. p. 253.
  22. ^ a b c Barfield 1989, p. 152.
  23. ^ Barfield 1989, p. 152-153.
  24. ^ a b Bosworth 2000, p. 70.
  25. ^ Asimov 1998, p. 194.
  26. ^ Barfield 1989, p. 153.
  27. ^ a b Barfield 1989, p. 154.
  28. ^ "Chapter 195". [Old Book of Tang]. ,?, [translation: "The Karluks took the opportunity to win control of Uyghur's Fu-tu valley; the Uyghurs, shaken with fear, moved their north-western tribes, with sheep and horses, to the south of the capital to escape."] (In Xin Tangshu, Fu-tu valley () was referred to as Shen-tu Valley )
  29. ^ Bregel 2003, p. 20.
  30. ^ Wang 2013, p. 184.
  31. ^ a b Wang 2013, p. 187.
  32. ^ "chapter 217 part 2". [New Book of Tang]. ,,,
  33. ^ Drompp 2005, p. 114.
  34. ^ John W. Dardess (10 September 2010). Governing China: 150-1850. Hackett Publishing. pp. 32-. ISBN 978-1-60384-447-5.
  35. ^ Barfield 1989, p. 165.
  36. ^ Golden 1992, p. 181.
  37. ^ https://www.academia.edu/10197431/The_Yenisei_Kyrgyz_from_Early_Times_to_the_Mongol_Conquest
  38. ^ Golden 2011, p. 47.
  39. ^ Millward 2007, p. 50.
  40. ^ Ma?m?d al-Kaari. "D?w?n Lut al-Turk". Edited & translated by Robert Dankoff in collaboration with James Kelly. In Sources of Oriental Languages and Literature. (1982). Part I. p. 82-84
  41. ^ [New Book of Tang]. ,,?,,, [Translation: Soon the great chief Julumohe and the Kirghiz gathered a hundred thousand riders to attack the Uyghur city; they killed the Kaghan, executed Jueluowu, and burnt the royal camp. All the tribes were scattered--its ministers Sazhi and Pang Tele with fifteen clans fled to the Karluks, the remaining multitude went to the Tibetan Empire and Anxi.]
  42. ^ Sinor 1990, p. 355-357.
  43. ^ a b c Sinor 1990.
  44. ^ a b Prof. R. Roemer, ed. (1984). "The Uighur Empire of Mongolia (chapter 5)". Guo ji zhongguo bian jiang xue shu hui yi lun wen chu gao. Taipei.
  45. ^ de la Vaissière, Étienne. "Sogdians in China: a short history and some new discoveries".
  46. ^ a b c Barfield 1992.
  47. ^ Pan, Yihong (1990). "Sui-Tang foreign policy: four case studies". doi:10.14288/1.0098752. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)

Bibliography

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Further reading


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