Ukrainian literature is literature written in the Ukrainian language.
Ukrainian literature mostly developed under foreign domination over Ukrainian territories, foreign rule by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Poland, the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Romania, the Austria-Hungary Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, enriched Ukrainian culture and language, and Ukrainian authors were able to produce a rich literary heritage.
Ukrainian literature's precursor: writings in Old-Church Slavonic and Latin in Ukraine
Prior to the establishment of Ukrainian literature in 1700s, many authors from Ukraine wrote in "scholarly" languages of middle-ages - Latin and Old-Church Slavonic. Among prominent authors from Ukraine who wrote in Latin and Old-Church Slavonic are Hryhorii Skovoroda, Yuriy Drohobych, Stanislav Orikhovsky-Roxolan, Feofan Prokopovych, Jan-Toma Yuzefovych, Pavlo Rusyn-Krosnyanyn and others.
The beginnings of oral Ukrainian literature
During this period of history there was a higher number of elementary schools per population in the Hetmanate than in either neighboring Muscovy or Poland. In the 1740s, of 1,099 settlements within seven regimental districts, as many as 866 had primary schools. The German visitor to the Hetmanate, writing in 1720, commented on how the son of Hetman Danylo Apostol, who had never left Ukraine, was fluent in the Latin, Italian, French, German, Polish and Russian languages
Late 16th and early 17th century included the rise folk epics called dumy. These songs celebrated the activities of the Cossacks and were oral retellings of major Ukrainian historical events in modern Ukrainian language (i.e., not in Old-Church Slavonic). This period produced Ostap Veresai, a renowned minstrel and kobzar from Poltava province, Ukraine.
The beginnings of written Ukrainian literature
The establishment of Ukrainian literature is believed to have been triggered by the publishing of a widely successful poem Eneida by Ivan Kotliarevsky in 1798, which is one of the first instances of a printed literary work written in modern Ukrainian language. Due to Kotliarevsky's role as the inaugurator of Ukrainian literature, among literary critics he is often referred to as "the father of Ukrainian literature". Modern Ukrainian prose was inaugurated by Hryhorii Kvitka-Osnovianenko's novel Marusya (1834).
Ukrainian writer Iryna Vilde (pseudonym of Daryna Dmytrivna Makohon) was born on 5 May 1907 in Czernowitz (Chernivtsi), Austro-Hungarian monarchy and died on 30 October 1982 in Lviv. Her father was Dmytro Makohon, a lecturer and writer on folk arts. She graduated from Lviv University in 1932. She was married to Eugene Polotnyuk.
From 1930 to 1939 she published short stories and novels about the life of Western Ukrainian intelligentsia, the petty bourgeoisie and students. In 1935 she, for the first time under the pseudonym "Iryna Vilde" published the novel "The Butterflies in high heels" (Ukrainian "Meteliki na shpilkah").
After the reunification of Western Ukraine with Ukrainian SSR, she continued to describe the familiar themes of family in bourgeois society. She is the author of many short stories, novellas and novels. Her work contain a huge number of characters - protagonists from all public layers of the then Galicia - of the clergy, employees, workers, peasants, petty bourgeoisie, as well as information on the activities of various parties and public organizations, the Polish administration policy, the economy, education and the culture.
Some of her work are: The collection of short stories "Bizarre Heart" (1936), the story "Adult Children" (1939), a collection of lyrical miniatures "Okrushyny" (1969), the trilogy "Butterflies heels" (2007), novels "Adult Children" (1952), "Sisters Richynski" (Book 1 - 1958 book 2 - 1964), the trilogy "Butterflies on hairpins" (2007). "Sisters Richynski" is considered to be her most creative achievement.
Since the late 1980s, and particularly after the independence of Ukraine (1991) and disappearance of Soviet censorship the whole generation of writers emerged: Moysey Fishbein, Yuri Andrukhovych, Serhiy Zhadan, Oksana Zabuzhko, Oleksandr Irvanets, Izdryk, Maria Matios, Ihor Pavlyuk and many others. Many of them are considered to be "postmodernists".
At the same time the post-neoclassical literary trend has grown where the main figures are Igor Kaczurowskyj (d. 2013) and Maksym Strikha.
List of notable Ukrainian writers
Ukrainian notable writers include (alphabetically):
- 1. Ukrainian Literature at the END of the millennium. Preview By: Chernetsky, Vitaly. World Literature Today, Spring2002
- 2. Iryna Drobot. Vasyl' Stefanyk's Short Stories: The Narrative Modernization Problem.
- 3. The Interdependence of Literature - Webster's Ukrainian. Thesaurus Edition by Georgina Pell Curtis (Kindle Edition - 23 July 2008)
- 4. For a Crust of Bread (Women's Voices in Ukrainian Literature, Vol. VI) by Nataliya Kobrynska and Roma Franko (25 October 2000)
- 5. Ukrainian Literature in the Twentieth Century: A Reader's Guide by George S. N. Luckyj (Mar 1992)
- 6. Anamorphosic Texts and Reconfigured Visions: Improvised Traditions in Contemporary Ukrainian and Irish Literature (Soviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society 62) by Maryna Romanets and Andreas Umland (Paperback - 2 October 2007)
- 7. But... The Lord is Silent : Selected prose fiction by Olha Kobylianska and Yevheniya Yaroshynska (Women's Voices in Ukrainian Literature Vol. III) by Roma Franko (10 September 1999)
- 8. From Heart to Heart : Selected prose fiction by Hrytsko Hryhorenko and Lesya Ukrainka (Women's Voices in Ukrainian Literature Vol. IV) by Hrytsko Hryhorenko (Paperback - 15 November 1999)
- 9. The Life of Paisij Velyckovs'kyj (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Translations) by Anthony-Emil Tachiaos and J. M. E. Featherstone (Hardcover - 15 August 1990)
- 10. Treasury of Ukrainian Love: Poems, Quotations & Proverbs in Ukrainian and English by Helene Turkewicz-Sanko (Kindle Edition - 30 April 1997) - Kindle Book
- 11. The Hagiography of Kievan Rus (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Translations) by Paul Hollingsworth (Paperback - 10 December 1992)
- 12. The Paterik of the Kievan Caves Monastery (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Translations) by Muriel Heppell (Hardcover - 22 June 1989)
- 13. A History of Ukrainian Literature (From the 11th to the End of the 19th Century): With an Overview of the Twentieth Century (Annals of the Ukrainian Academy ... and Sciences in the U.S., Inc, Vol 17-19) by Dmitrij Tschizewskij, George S. N. Luckyj, Dolly Ferguson, and Doreen Gorsline (Hardcover - May 1997)
- 14. The Anti-Imperial Choice: The Making of the Ukrainian Jew by Yohanan Petrovsky-Shtern (Kindle Edition - 28 April 2009)
- 15. Hryjorij Hrabjanka's the Great War of Bohdan Xmel'nyc'kyj (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature:, Vol. 9) by Hryhorij Hrabjanka (1991)
- 16. Canuke Literature: Critical Essays on Canadian Ukrainian Writing. (Book Review): An article from: Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal by George Melnyk (Digital - 31 July 2005) - HTML
- 17. Edificatory Prose of Kievan Rus (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Translations) by Kievan Rus, William R. Veder, and Anatolij A. Turilov (Hardcover - Sep 1994)
- 18. Ukrainian Literature Through the Ages by Yevhen Shabliovsky (1 January 1970) Mistetstvo Publishers (Kiev), 1970, ncrd, (1 January 1970)
- 19. Ukrainian Literature Through the Ages by Yevhen Shabliovsky, Abraham Mistetsky, and Andrew Marko (Paperback - 1 January 2001)
- 20. Ukrainian Literature: Studies of the Leading Authors (Essay index reprint series) by Clarence A. Manning (Hardcover - Dec 1977)
- 21. Ukrainian literature at the end of the millennium: the ten best works of the 1990s. (Currents).: An article from: World Literature Today by Vitaly Chernetsky (Digital - 30 July 2005)
- 22. Bibliography of Ukrainian Literature in English and French: Translations and Critical Works (University of Ottawa Ukrainian Studies) by Oksana Piaseckyj (Paperback - Nov 1989)
- 23. Russian and Ukrainian Literature on the Gypsy Moth: An Annotated Bibliography, by Yuri N. & Nikitenko, Galina N. & Montgomery, Michael E. Baranchikov (Paperback - 1 January 1998)
- 24. The Old Rus' Kievan and Galician-Volhynian Chronicles: The Ostroz'kyj (Xlebnikov) and Cetvertyns'kyj (Pogodin) Codices (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Texts) by Omeljan Pritsak (Hardcover - Feb 1991)
- 25. Sermons and Rhetoric of Kievan Rus (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Translations) by Simon Franklin (Hardcover - 1 April 1991)
- 26. Becoming the hyphen: the evolution of English-language Ukrainian-Canadian literature.: An article from: Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal by Lindy Ledohowski (Digital - 9 December 2008)
- 27. Russian and Ukrainian Literature on the Gypsy Moth: An Annotated Bibliography by Yuri N. & Nikitenko, Galina N. & Montgomery, Michael E. Baranchikov (Paperback - 1 January 1998)
- 28. Development of Ukrainian Literature in Czechoslovakia, 1945-1975 (European University Studies) by Josef Sirka (Paperback - Dec 1978) Peter Lang AG (December 1978)
- 29. Vitaly Chernetsky, Mapping Postcommunist Cultures: Russia and Ukraine in the Context of Globalization (McGill-Queen's University Press, 2007)
- 30. Catherine Wanner, Communities of the Converted: Ukrainians and Global Evangelism (Cornell University Press, 2007).
- 31. Alexandra Hrycak, "Foundation Feminism and the Articulation of Hybrid Feminisms in Post-Socialist Ukraine," East European Politics and Societies 20.1 (2006): 69-100
- 32. Natan M. Meir, "Jews, Ukrainians, and Russians in Kiev: Intergroup Relations in Late Imperial Associational Life," Slavic Review 65.3 (2006): 475-501
- 33. Karel C. Berkhoff. The 'Russian' Prisoners of War in Nazi-Ruled Ukraine as Victims of Genocidal Massacre" (in Holocaust and Genocide Studies, vol. 15, nr. 1, 2001)
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- 35. 3Karel C. Berkhoff. Despair: Life and Death in Ukraine under Nazi Rule. (Harvard University Press Harvest, 2004)
- 36. Canuke Literature: Critical Essays on Ukrainian Writing by Sonia Mycak (Hardcover - Feb 2001)
- 37. Rus Restored: Selected Writings of Meletij Smotryckyj (1610-1630) (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Translations) by Meletij Smotryckyj and David Frick (Hardcover - 31 March 2006)
- 38. Ukrainian Literature Through The Ages by Yevhen (Translated By Abraham Mistetsky, Andrew Marko, Anatole Bilenko, & John Weir) Shabliovsky (Hardcover - 1 January 1970)
- 39. From Heart to Heart : Selected prose fiction by Hrytsko Hryhorenko and Lesya Ukrainka (Women's Voices in Ukrainian Literature Vol. IV) by Hrytsko Hryhorenko (Paperback - 15 November 1999)
- 40. The Life of Paisij Velyckovs'kyj (Harvard Library of Early Ukrainian Literature: Translations) by Anthony-Emil Tachiaos and J. M. E. Featherstone (Hardcover - 15 August 1990)
- 41. Shakespeare in the Undiscovered Bourn: Les Kurbas, Ukrainian Modernism, and Early Soviet Cultural Politics. University of Toronto Press (20 April 2004)
- 42. Irena R. Makaryk is a professor in the Department of English at the University of Ottawa.
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- 54. Christianity and the Eastern Slavs, Vol. III: Russian Literature in Modern Times. (California Slavic Studies) by Boris Gasparov, Robert P. Hughes, Irina Paperno, and Olga Raevsky-Hughes (Hardcover - 4 January 1996)
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- 66. Beyond Postmodernism: Reassessments in Literature, Theory, and Culture by Klaus Stierstorfer (Hardcover - Sep 2003)
- 67. Letters from Heaven: Popular Religion in Russia and Ukraine by John-Paul Himka and Andriy Zayarnyuk (Hardcover - 30 December 2006)
- 68. The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature: Volume 4, 1800-1900 (The Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature 3) by Joanne Shattock (Hardcover - 28 March 2000)
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- 71. The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999 by Mr. Timothy Snyder (Hardcover - 11 January 2003)
- 72. The American Historical Association's Guide to Historical Literature by Mary Beth Norton and Pamela Gerardi (Hardcover - April 1995)
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- 77. Nikolai Gogol: Between Ukrainian and Russian Nationalism by Edyta M. Bojanowska (Hardcover - 28 February 2007)
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