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Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
Freon 11
CFC 11
R 11
Arcton 9
Freon 11A
Freon 11B
Freon HE
Freon MF
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.812 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 200-892-3
RTECS number
  • PB6125000
  • InChI=1S/CCl3F/c2-1(3,4)5 checkY
  • InChI=1/CCl3F/c2-1(3,4)5
  • C(F)(Cl)(Cl)Cl
  • ClC(Cl)(Cl)F
Molar mass  g·mol-1
Appearance Colorless liquid/gas
Odor nearly odorless[1]
Density 1.494 g/cm3
Melting point -110.48 °C (-166.86 °F; 162.67 K)
Boiling point 23.77 °C (74.79 °F; 296.92 K)
1.1 g/L (at 20 °C)
log P 2.53
Vapor pressure 89 kPa at 20 °C
131 kPa at 30 °C
Safety data sheet See: data page
ICSC 0047
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
26,200 ppm (rat, 4 hr)
100,000 ppm (rat, 20 min)
100,000 ppm (rat, 2 hr)[2]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1000 ppm (5600 mg/m3)[1]
REL (Recommended)
C 1000 ppm (5600 mg/m3)[1]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
2000 ppm[1]
Supplementary data page
Refractive index (n),
Dielectric constant (?r), etc.
Phase behaviour
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY?N ?)
Infobox references

Trichlorofluoromethane, also called freon-11, CFC-11, or R-11, is a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). It is a colorless, faintly ethereal, and sweetish-smelling liquid that boils around room temperature.[3] CFC-11 is a Class 1 ozone-depleting substance which damages Earth's protective stratospheric ozone layer.[4]

Historical use

Trichlorofluoromethane was first widely used as a refrigerant. Because of its high boiling point (compared to most refrigerants), it can be used in systems with a low operating pressure, making the mechanical design of such systems less demanding than that of higher-pressure refrigerants R-12 or R-22.

Trichlorofluoromethane is used as a reference compound for fluorine-19 NMR studies.

Trichlorofluoromethane was formerly used in the drinking bird novelty, largely because it has a boiling point of 23.77 °C (74.79 °F). The replacement, dichloromethane, boiling point 39.6 °C (103.3 °F), requires a higher ambient temperature to work.

Prior to the knowledge of the ozone depletion potential of chlorine in refrigerants and other possible harmful effects on the environment, trichlorofluoromethane was sometimes used as a cleaning/rinsing agent for low-pressure systems.[5]

Production moratorium

Trichlorofluoromethane was included in the production moratorium agreed in the Montreal Protocol of 1987. It is assigned an ozone depletion potential of 1.0, and U.S. production was ended on January 1, 1996.[4]

Regulatory challenges

In 2018, the atmospheric concentration of CFC-11 was noted by researchers to be declining more slowly than expected,[6][7] and it subsequently emerged that it remains in widespread use as a blowing agent for polyurethane foam insulation in the construction industry of China.[8] In 2021 researchers announced that emissions declined by 20,000 U.S. tons from 2018 to 2019, which mostly reversed the previous spike in emissions.[9]


See also


  1. ^ a b c d NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0290". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  2. ^ "Fluorotrichloromethane". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. ^ Siegemund, Günter; Schwertfeger, Werner; Feiring, Andrew; Smart, Bruce; Behr, Fred; Vogel, Herward; McKusick, Blaine (2002). "Fluorine Compounds, Organic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a11_349.
  4. ^ a b "International Treaties and Cooperation about the Protection of the Stratospheric Ozone Layer". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "R-10 ,R-11 ,R-12 GASES - ? HVACafe". ? HVACafe (in Arabic). 2017-05-25. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Montzka, S.A.; Dutton, G.S.; Yu, P.; et al. (2018). "An unexpected and persistent increase in global emissions of ozone-depleting CFC-11". Nature. Springer Nature. 557 (7705): 413-417. Bibcode:2018Natur.557..413M. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0106-2. hdl:1983/fd5eaf00-34b1-4689-9f23-410a54182b61. PMID 29769666. S2CID 21705434.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ Johnson, Scott (5 May 2018). "It seems someone is producing a banned ozone-depleting chemical again". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2018. Decline of CFC-11 has slowed in recent years, pointing to a renewed source
  8. ^ McGrath, Matt (9 July 2018). "China 'home foam' gas key to ozone mystery". BBC News. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ Jennifer Chu (2021-02-10). "Reductions in CFC-11 emissions put ozone recovery back on track". MIT News.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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