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Treaty of Tianjin
Four treaties signed by Qing dynasty of China in 1858, during the Second Opium War (1856-1860), respectively with United Kingdom, Second French Empire, Russian Empire and United States. Four of the second series of unequal treaties in modern Chinese history.
Following the pattern set by the great powers of Europe, the United States took on a protectionist stance, built up its navy, and tried to create a mercantile empire. The United States was one of the leading "treaty powers" in China, forcing open a total of 23 foreign concessions from the Chinese government. While it is often noted that the United States did not control any settlements in China, it shared British land grants and was actually invited to take land in Shanghai but refused because the land was thought to be disadvantageous.
Russia, which had previously been limited to trading at designated border posts, received the right to trade with the treaty ports by sea.Most-favored nation clauses in each treaty further ensured that all concessions were shared by the four powers.
The extraterritoriality of American citizens and Russian, British, and French subjects was reaffirmed. They further received the right to travel throughout the Qing Empire for pleasure or business so long as they possessed a valid passport, but the Qing Empire was able to prevent them from lawfully residing in the interior with extraterritoriality.
The Qing Empire permitted foreign vessels to navigate on the Yangtze River but established that no legal trade would be permitted with areas held by the Taiping Rebellion until their reconquest. Foreign trade was to be limited to Zhenjiang,[i] pledged to be opened within the year, and a further three ports to be opened after the suppression of the Taipings. This clause was later used to establish treaty ports at Wuhan[j] and Jiujiang.[k]
China was forbidden from using the character ? (understood to mean "barbarian") in official documents to refer to officials, subjects, or citizens of the four nations.
China was forbidden from establishing or permitting any further monopolies or cartels over its domestic trade.
Addenda to the treaties settled China's duties and tariffs on terms advantageous to the victors and pledged the Qing Empire would pay an indemnity of 6,000,000 taels of silver: 2 million to France, 2 million to Britain for military expenses, and 2 million as compensation to British merchants.
The Treaties of Tientsin uses several words that have somewhat ambiguous meanings. For example, the words "settlement" and "concession" can often be confused. The term "settlement" refers to a parcel of land leased to a foreign power and is composed of both foreign and national peoples; locally elected foreigners govern them. The term "concession" refers to a long-term lease of land to a foreign power where the foreign nation has complete control of the land; it is governed by consular representation.
Chan, Mitchell. "Rule of Law and China's Unequal Treaties: Conceptions of the Rule of Law and Its Role in Chinese International Law and Diplomatic Relations in the Early Twentieth Century." Penn History Review 25.2 (2018): 2. online
Cassel, Pär (2012), Grounds of Judgment, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Johnstone, William C. (October 1937), "International Relations: The Status of Foreign Concessions and Settlements in the Treaty Ports of China", The American Political Science Review, 31, American Political Science Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 942-8, doi:10.2307/1947920, JSTOR1947920, OCLC5545237072.