Thracian Language
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Thracian Language
Thracian
RegionBulgaria, European Turkey, parts of Southern Serbia, parts of the region of Macedonia (including Paeonia), regions in Northern Greece, small parts of Albania, parts of Romania, parts of Bithynia in Anatolia. Probably also spoken in parts of Dardania.
Extinct6th century AD[1]
Language codes
txh
txh
Glottologthra1250

The Thracian language is an extinct and poorly attested language, spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians. The linguistic affinities of the Thracian language are poorly understood, but it is generally agreed that it was an Indo-European language with satem features.

A contemporary, neighboring language, Dacian is usually regarded as closely related to Thracian. However, there is insufficient evidence with respect to either language to ascertain the nature of this relationship.

The point at which Thracian became extinct is a matter of dispute. However, it is generally accepted that Thracian was still in use in the 6th century AD: Antoninus of Piacenza wrote in 570 that there was a monastery in the Sinai, at which the monks spoke Greek, Latin, Syriac, Egyptian, and Bessian - a Thracian dialect.[2][3][4][5]

Other theories about Thracian remain controversial.

  • Some linguists have suggested that the Albanian language and the ethnogenesis of the Albanians followed a migration by members of the Bessi westward into Albania.[]
  • A classification put forward by some linguists, such as Harvey Mayer, suggests that Thracian (and Dacian) belonged to the Baltic branch of Indo-European.[6] However, this theory has not achieved the status of a general consensus among linguists.

These are among many competing hypotheses regarding the classification and fate of Thracian.[7]

Geographic distribution

The Thracian language or languages were spoken in what is now Bulgaria,[8][9] Romania, North Macedonia, Northern Greece, European Turkey and in parts of Bithynia (North-Western Asiatic Turkey).

Modern-day Eastern Serbia is usually considered by paleolinguists to have been a Daco-Moesian language area. Moesian (after Vladimir Georgiev et al.) is grouped with the Dacian language.

Remnants of the Thracian language

Limits of the (southern) Thracian linguistic territory according to Ivan Duridanov, 1985

Little is known for certain about the Thracian languages, since no phrase beyond a few words in length has been satisfactorily deciphered, and the sounder decipherments given for the shorter phrases may not be completely accurate. Some of the longer inscriptions may indeed be Thracian in origin but they may not reflect actual Thracian language sentences, but rather jumbles of names or magical formulas.[10]

Enough Thracian lexical items have survived to show that Thracian was a member of the Indo-European language family and that it was a satemized language by the time it is attested. Besides the aforementioned inscriptions, Thracian is attested through personal names, toponyms, hydronyms, phytonyms, divine names, etc. and by a small number of words cited in Ancient Greek texts as being specifically Thracian.[11]

Other ancient Greek lexical items were not specifically identified as Thracian by the ancient Greeks but are hypothesized by paleolinguists as being or probably being of Thracian origin. Other lexical items are hypothesized on the basis of local anthroponyms, toponyms, hydronyms, oronyms, etc. mentioned in primary sources (see also List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia, List of Dacian plant names).

Below is a table showing both words cited as being Thracian in classical sources, and lexical elements that have been extracted by paleolinguists from Thracian anthroponyms, toponyms, etc. In this table the closest cognates are shown, with an emphasis on cognates in Bulgarian, Albanian, Baltic, Slavic, Greek, and substratum and/or old-layer words in the Eastern Romance languages: Romanian, Aromanian, et cetera. See also the List of reconstructed Dacian words.

Significant cognates from any Indo-European language are listed. However, not all lexical items in Thracian are assumed to be from the Proto-Indo-European language, some non-IE lexical items in Thracian are to be expected.

There are 23 words mentioned by ancient sources considered explicitly of Thracian origin and known meaning.[12]

Word Meaning Attested by Cognates
(asa) colt's (young asses/horses) foot (Bessi) Dioskurides Lit. dial. as?s 'horse-tail, Equisetum', Latv. a?i, a?as 'horse-tail, sedge, rush'. The -a ending resembles the Slavic singular genitive = os?a, ? (aswa) ("the asses"). Compare The Sanskrit name ? (A?v?) ("horse") derived from the Indo-Iranian root *a?ua- (cf. Avestan asp?), from which also descends the Lithuanian name A?vieniai[13] and the English ass ("donkey"). Also the Pol. po?piech, pospiesza? ("to hurry [by feet]") may be the proto-Iranian form of asp ("horse") often used by ?aka in names, e.g. Vishtaspa, Sparethra. Derived terms include not only Bessi but also Asy/Assy, Ossetians, A?ina, Asud, Iassy... all referring to the turkicized and mankurtized equestrian Massagetae, possibly related to the Getae living among the Thracians.
(bólinthos, vólinthos) Aurochs, and maybe European bison Aristotle Proto-Slavic *vol? ("ox"). Pre-Greek, according to Robert S. P. Beekes 2010: 225. The current toponym (Wo?y?, Volhynia) ("the land of the volinthos") perfectly resembles this archaic name. thus refers to (Volos), related to Aryan ? (Vala), also related to Ne?ili (? Nsaty?, Hittite) Illuyanka (probably of Villuyanka, compare Wilu?a). Toponyms of Wolin (Volin), ? (Volosov Ravine), (Volosovo), (Velestovo), , (Velestovo, CG), Veles, Vele?, Wallachia (Valachia) and eventually also Volcae and Wales refer to this root. The Hellenic cognate is (Tauros) represented by the Celtic Tarvos Trigaranus.

The ancient mythology of bull (or serpent/dragon) protecting the underworld waters (Aurochs and European bison protecting their moist pastures), e.g. (Volos) - ? (Vala) - [V]illuyanka - Tarvos Trigaranus, seems to last for at least 40 millennia - compare Wollunqua of the Aboriginal Australians or Wagyl of the Noongar and their use of Boomerang, which was found also in the Ob?azowa Cave in Poland and among relics of Ancient Egypt, hence the root resembles also the root of "moisture" - both coming from the root vo (wo) of "water": the Russian hydronym Volga () derives from Proto-Slavic *vòlga "wetness, moisture", which is preserved in many Slavic languages, including Ukrainian volóha (?) "moisture", Russian vlaga () "moisture", Bulgarian vlaga () "moisture", Czech vláha "dampness", Serbian vlaga () "moisture", Croatian vlaga "moisture", Slovene vlaga "moisture", and Macedonian vlaga "moisture", Polish wilgo? "moisture" among others.[14] The letter ? has double phonetic value of b and v (w), also Sanskrit ? and ? are often confused, hence vo? = bull.

? (bría, vría) unfortified village Hesychius, compare the Toponyms ?, ?(?), and ? in Thrace. Compared to Greek ? (ríon; "peak, foothills") and Tocharian A ri, B riye ("town") as if < *urih?-. Alternatively, compare Proto-Celtic *brix- ("hill"). In Slavic languages and Breton (mainly Venetic - Vannetais of Bro Gwened) similar words are used for fringes , brieg, brzeg, Breizh, Brest or obstacles on fringes, of the percepted by eyes or accessible horizon, e.g. walls, woods, hills, mountains, riffs, cliffs, shores e.t.c. Related to perimeter.
(bríza, vríza) rye Galen Perhaps of Eastern origin, compare Greek (oriza), Sanskrit vr?hí- ("rice").
? (brynkhós, vrynkhós) guitar or similar string instrument Compared with Slavic *brati "to ring". May also refer to an instrument being played by both hands - ? (v rukhach), w r?kach (v reunkhach), compare Sanskrit ? rekh? ("handrail", "line", "row", "stroke") and ? (v) ("Veena").
(br?tos, vr?tos) beer of barley many May refer to Old Church Slavonic ? (v koryto) ("in the trough") implying the method by which the beer was produced. Germanic *bruþa- ("broth"), Old Irish bruth ("glow"), Latin d?fr?tum ("must boiled down").[a] The root *ryti describes the simplest method of producing such containers - nominative koryto.
dinupula, si/nupyla wild melon Pseudoapuleus Lithuanian ?ùnobuolas, lit. ("dog's apple"), or with Slavic *dynja ("melon"). Compare Silesian nupel ("nipple"). Obviously a juicy fruit, which requires sucking.
(génton, ?énton) meat Herodian., Suid., Hesych From Proto-Indo-European *gn?-tó-s, from *gen- ("to kill", "to slaughter"). Compare Proto-Indo-Aryan *atás, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *atás, Polish [za]r?ni?to ([za]rnénto, [za]rgnénto) ("slaughtered"), from [za]r?n or, without the z- prefix, the Sanskrit hatá ("hit, killed"). Compare Pol. to (?ento) ("scythed, harvested, slaughtered") with the suffix -n for toponym, would still be -? (Sanskrit ?) in Polish.
? (kalamíndar) plane-tree (Edoni) Hesych. Compare the late pomidor.
(kêmos) a kind of fruit with follicle Phot. Lex.
? (ktístai) Ctistae Strabo Maybe akin to the affirmative term Kto? archaic Ktojsi ("Somebody"). Apparently the Hellenic term (Melinofagoi) ("Melanophagi") is also referring to them.
(midne) village inscription from Rome Latvian m?tne ("a place of stay").
(?) (poltym-bría) board fence, a board tower, fenced hill, palissade Compare Slavic p?ot ("board fence") made most often of plain / flat wooden boards, also Slavic palisada ("palissade") made of massive poles / logs. Derivates include Old Norse spjald ("board"), Old English speld ("wood, log"). See above description for ?.
? (rhomphaía) broadsword many Compared with Latin rump? ("to rupture"), Slavic: Russian , Polish r?ba? ("to hack", "to chop", "to slash"), Polish r?baj?o (rhembhaiwo) ("eager swordsman"), Serbo-Croatian rmpalija ("bruiser").
(skálm?) knife, short sword Soph. y Pollux, Marcus Anton., Hesych., Phot. L Albanian shkallmë ("sword"), Old Norse skolm ("short sword, knife"). Compare skalpel.
(skárk?) a silver coin Hesych., Phot. Lex. Compare Polish skarb and Proto-Slavic *s?rebro.
(spínos) a kind of stone? or rather wood Arist. Derived from Proto-Slavic and PIE *p ("trunk", "core") with the genitive prefix s- ("from the trunk"). Compare pindel - an ancient Aryan offerings ritual involving tree hollows, practiced also by Lud (Luwians) and Ne?ili (? Nsaty?, Hittites), the southern neighbours of Thracians - and also pine and derived names Pindar and Spinoza.
? (toréll?) a refrain of lament mourn song Hesych. Compare to Polish treny ("sorrowful lamentations") derived from trele ("birds songs", "trill") and also used as name Trela, Sanskrit (dhrá?ati) ("to sound"), Latin dr?ns?, and Old English dr?n (English drone). Confer also ? (thréomai) ("I cry aloud, shriek"). Robert S. P. Beekes argues for a Pre-Greek origin.
(zalmós) animal hide Porphyr. The German Saum (?, Za?m with Slavic ? / ? pronounced close to uu or w) ("hem") obviously acquired during the Gothic invasion is directly derived of the Thracian (zalmós) made of fur or hide to reinforce the fringes of fabric (hemp, linen) clothing.
(zeira) long robe worn by Arabs and Thracians Hdt., Xen., Hesych. Maybe connected as means of protection to Polish zerka? or rather its alternative form ziera? ("to peep"). Another etymology may be connected to drze? or rather its form zdziera? ("to tear", "to wear down"). There is also an expression - zadziera kiec? - which roughly means [he/she] "lifts" skirt/frock.
? (zelâ), also ? (zêla), (zel?s) wine many Compared with Greek (khális; "unblended wine") and ? (kálithos; "wine"). Apparently wine blended with z?la ("herbs"), from *zel?je ("herb") root with the plural or genitive suffix -a.
? (zetraía) pot Pollux A pot used for *zacier (zar) ("[brewing] mash"), from zetrze? (zet?e?) ("to shred", "to grind", "to rub off"). Again root of the shredded / grinded mash with the plural (for sorts) or genitive suffix -a. The German Getraide is, contrary to other theories, derived from ?, most probably acquired during the invasion by Goths, Heruli e.t.c.
zibythides the noble, most holy one Hesych. Lith. ?ibùt? ("shining"). Maybe the Slavic / Sarmatian / Iranian "from" prefix z- / zy- / zi- Bithynia and -es personal suffix. In Bithynia and in Chaldia east of it lived many Aryan Magi of the House of Suren, who were also active in Chaldea and are almost exclusively associated with the later. They also taught in Thrace and Illyria and introduced minting to Europe. They visited and managed many sacred grooves of Svarog (Surya) and Perun (Indra) across prehistoric Europe. Most of their Scythian guards stationed in Scythia Minor, eastern Thrace. The region of Bytom (Spyra, Sperun, Pernus) with its silvermines and Firenze (Peruzzi) are their last stays. Unfortunately the Etruscan line became corrupted by Romans and Langobards. Illyrian coinage, pl:Denar Princes Polonie and Iak?as coinage of Polabian Slavs (see Polabian language) are just some examples. Eventually they managed the foundation of the Commonwealth of Samo, Great Moravia, Poland, Duchy of Kopanica and of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

An additional 180 Thracian words have been reconstructed.[12]

The proposed Thracian words in the Ancient Greek lexicon are not numerous. They include the parth- element in Parthenon;[] balios ("dappled"; < PIE *bhel-, "to shine", Bul. bel/bial () "white" or bljaskav 'bright, shiny'; Pokorny also cites Illyrian as a possible source, the non-Greek origin is argued on phonological grounds), bounos, "hill, mound".[16]

The Thracian horseman hero was an important figure in Thracian religion, mythology, and culture. Depictions of the Thracian Horseman are found in numerous archaeological remains and artifacts from Thracian regions. From the Duvanlii ring and from cognates in numerous Indo-European languages, mez?na is seen to be a Thracian word for "horse", deriving from PIE *mend-. Another Thracian word for "horse" is hypothesized, but it looks certain, there is no disagreement among Thracologists: aspios, esvas, asb- (and some other variants; < PIE *ekwo [2], the Thracian showing a satem form similar to Sanskrit á?va-, "horse", Avestan aspa, "horse", Ossetic jäfs, Prussian aswinan 'mare milk', Lithuanian a?víenis 'stallion', a?và, dial. e?và 'mare'[17]), from Outaspios, Utaspios, an inscription associated with the Thracian horseman. Ut- based on the PIE root word ud- (meaning "up") and based on several Thracic items, would have meant "upon", "up", and Utaspios is theorized to have meant "On horse(back)", parallel to ancient Greek ephippos (epi-hippos).[18]

The early Indo-European languages had more than one word for horse; for example Latin had equus from PIE *ekwo- and mannus ("a pony") from another IE root, later receiving cabalus as a loanword.

In many cases in current Thracology, there is more than one etymology for a Thracian lexical item. For example, Thracian Diana Germetitha (Diana is from Latin while the epithet Germetitha is from Thracian) has two different proposed etymologies, "Diana of the warm bosom" (Olteanu; et al.?) or "Diana of the warm radiance" (Georgiev; et al.?). In other cases, etymologies for the Thracian lexical items may be sound, but some of the proposed cognates are not actually cognates, thus confusing the affinity of Thracian.

Inscriptions

The following are the longest inscriptions preserved. The remaining ones are mostly single words or names on vessels and other artifacts.

Ezerovo inscription

The Ring of Ezerovo, found in 1912

Only four Thracian inscriptions of any length have been found. The first is a gold ring found in 1912 in the village of Ezerovo (Plovdiv Province of Bulgaria); the ring was dated to the 5th century BC.[19] On the ring an inscription is found written in a Greek script and consisting of 8 lines, the eighth of which is located on the edge, the rim, of the rotating disk; it reads without any spaces between: / / / / / ? / // ?

as Dimitar Dechev (Germanised as D. Detschew) separates the words thus[20][21] ? ? ? i.e. Rolisteneas Nerenea tiltean ?sko Arazea domean Tilezypta mi? era z?lta proposing the following translation:

I am Rolisteneas, a descendant of Nereneas; Tilezypta, an Arazian woman, delivered me to the ground.

Kyolmen inscription

A second inscription, hitherto undeciphered, was found in 1965 near the village of Kyolmen, Varbitsa Municipality, dating to the sixth century BC. Written in a Greek alphabet variant, it is possibly a tomb stele inscription similar to the Phrygian ones; Peter A. Dimitrov's transcription thereof is:[22]

[23]
·[24]
[23]

i.e.

ilasnletednlednenidakatroso
eba·rozesasn?netesaigekoa
nblaba?gn

Duvanlii inscription

A third inscription is again on a ring, found in Duvanlii, Kaloyanovo Municipality, next to the left hand of a skeleton. It dates to the 5th century BC. The ring has the image of a horseman with the inscription surrounding the image. It is only partly legible (16 out of the initial 21):

.....? / ?

i.e.

?uzi?.....dele / mez?nai

The meaning of the inscription is 'Horseman Eusie protect!'

If this reading is correct, the Thracian word mezenai might be cognate to Illyrian Menzanas (as in "Juppiter/Jove Menzanas" 'Juppiter of the foals' or 'Juppiter on a horse');[25] Albanian mëz 'foal'; Romanian mînz 'colt, foal'; Latin mannus 'small horse, pony';[26][27] Gaulish manduos 'pony' (as in tribe name Viromandui[28] 'men who own ponies').[b]

Classification

The Thracian language in linguistic textbooks is usually treated either as its own branch of Indo-European, or is grouped with Dacian, together forming a Daco-Thracian branch of IE. Older textbooks often grouped it also with Illyrian or Phrygian. The belief that Thracian was close to Phrygian is no longer popular and has mostly been discarded.[30] The Thraco-Illyrian grouping has also been called into question.[] Daco-Thracian or Thraco-Dacian is the main hypothesis.[]

No definite evidence has yet been found that demonstrates that Thracian or Daco-Thracian belonged on the same branch as Albanian or Baltic or Balto-Slavic or Greco-Macedonian or Phrygian or any other IE branch. For this reason textbooks still treat Thracian as its own branch of Indo-European, or as a Daco-Thracian/Thraco-Dacian branch.

The generally accepted clades branched from the Proto-Indo-European language are, in alphabetical order, the Proto-Albanian language, Proto-Anatolian language, Proto-Armenian language, Proto-Balto-Slavic language, Proto-Celtic language, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Proto-Italic language, and the Proto-Tocharian language. Thracian, Dacian, Phrygian, Illyrian, Venetic, and Paeonian are fragmentarily attested and cannot be reliably categorized.

Language/difference according to Duridanov (1985)
Change o > a r > ir, ur (or)
l > il, ul (ol)
m > im, um (om)
n > in, un (on)
k?, g?, g
> k, g (k), g
?, ?,
> s (p), z (d)
p, t, k
> p?, t?, k?
b, d, g
> p, t, k
b?, d?, g?
> b, d, g
sr > str tt, dt > st
Thracian + + + + + + + + + +
Dacian + + + + + - - + + -
Balto-Slavic + + + + + - - + -/+ +
Pelasgian + + + + + + + + ? ?
Albanian + + - +/- +/- - - + - -
Germanic + + + - - - + + + -
Indo-Iranian + - - +/- + - - +/- - +/-
Greek - - - - - - - - - +
Phrygian - - - - + + + + - ?
Armenian - - - - + + + - - ?
Italic - + - - - - - - - -
Celtic - - - - - - - + - -
Hittite + - - - - - + + ? ?
Tocharian +/- - - - - - + + - ?
Divergent sound-changes in Paleo-Balkan languages according to Georgiev (1977)[31]
Proto-Indo-European Dacian Thracian Phrygian
*o a a o
*e ie e e
*ew e eu eu
*aw a au
*r?, *l? ri ur (or), ur (ol) al
*n?, *m? a un an
*M M T T
*T T TA (aspirated) TA
*s s s ?
*sw s s w
*sr str str br

Note: Asterisk indicates reconstructed IE sound. M is a cover symbol for the row of voiced stops (mediae), T for unvoiced stops (tenues) and TA for aspirated stops (tenues aspiratae). ? indicates zero, a sound that has been lost.

Divergent sound-changes in Dacian and Thracian according to Duridanov (1985)[32]
Indo-European Dacian Thracian
*b, *d, *g b, d, g p, t, k
*p, *t, *k p, t, k ph, th, kh
*? ä (a) ?
*e (after consonant) ie e
*ai a ai
*ei e ei
*dt (*tt) s st

Thraco-Dacian has been hypothesized as forming a branch of Indo-European along with Baltic.[33]

For a large proportion of the 300 Thracian geographic names there are cognates within the Baltic toponymy, most similarities between Thracian and Balto-Slavic personal and geographic names were found, especially Baltic. According to Duridinov the "most important impression make the geographic cognates of Baltic and Thracian" "the similarity of these parallels stretching frequently on the main element and the suffix simultaneously, which makes a strong impression". According to him there are occasional similarities between Slavic and Thracian because Slavic is related to Baltic, while almost no lexical similarities within Thracian and Phrygian were found.[34] This significant relatedness show close affinity and kinship of Thracian with Baltic.

The following table shows the cognate Thracian and Baltic place names,[12] some Polish and related Lechitic names from the transitional area of the ancient Veneti-Eneti along the Amber Road were added:

Thracian place Lithuanian place Latvian place Old Prussian place Polish / Lechitic place cognates
Alaaiabria Alajà Lith. aléti 'to be flooded'
Altos Altis
Antisara Sarija Sarape
Armonia Armona, Armenà Lith. armuõ, -eñs 'a swamp, bog', arma 'the same'
Armula Armuli?kis lit. arma 'mud'
Arpessas Varpe, Varput?s, Várpapievis Warpen, Warpunen Latv. v?rpats 'whirlpool'; Lith. varpýti (-pa, -pia) 'to dig'
Arsela Arsen Arsio, Arse Ursynów May refer to multiple etymologies: ursa ("she-bear"), ? artha (ara) ("true meaning", "truthfulness", "honesty", "integrity", "wealth", "prosperity"), some other word derived from ? (A?v?) ("horse"), or rather its back like the English arse or some combination based on selo, e.g. ("village of the honest people", "prosperious hamlet", "wealthy residences", "river of wealth"). The -a ending denotes a plural or feminine form. In Taunus there is Urselbach, originally probably Arsela (compare A?arya near mines in Harz and A?aperk in Vindelicia) from ? ("hope", "desire", "prospect") and/or aa (the Zarathu?trian concept of "truth") next to antique goldmines of the zibythides of Bithynia, Apa?a, Sparda, Sparte, A?a and Chaldia (goldmines, e.g. near Speri) referred above known for their Golden hats.
Aspynthos Latv. apse; Old-Pruss. abse; Lith. apu
Atlas Adula
Asamus a?man- 'stone'; Lit. a?muo, a?menys, also derived from ? ("hope", "desire", "prospect") and/or aa (the Zarathu?trian concept of "truth") - the gem or any kind of [precious] stone being totally "integer", "truthfull" and "honest" not changing "itself", "equal" to "oneself", withstanding interference and passing of time, "promising" "wealth", therefore being object of "desire" from sam?, sam, also "hymns" were composed about its multiple aspects and "weapons" s?m were made of it. The "weapons" of "wrath" were called in Avestan ama and so eventually the terminus ama-da?va Lat. Deus Asmodeus was born. The name Osama, Arsenius but also Arya and Siddhartha may be related. The names around the Thracian river Asamus incl. Yantra point to the presence of Sarmatians, probably Zychy (Zyx) (House of Zyx - Zy- "from" + x or Sanskr. ? short for k?atriya k?atrija x?a?ra (Var?a caste), "ruler, authority, satrap, voivode") who were not only guards of the Solar dynasty, e.g. Iak?aku of Andhra Prade? but also of their European kinsmen, the aforementioned zibythides known as Sperun, Spyra, Pernus e.t.c.. The Yantras of Zyx or their Sindi followers carved in stone have been discovered on Crimea.
Vairos Vaira Lit. vairus 'diverse'
Baktunion Batkunu kaimas
Beres B?r?, B?r?, B?r-upis, B?rup? B?r-upe, Ber?ka Bieru?, Beroun, P?rno Lit. b?ras, Latv. b?rs 'brown, swarthy', Pol. apparently germanized P>B form of original Pieru? / P?roun (sanctuary of Perun - Perk?nas - Perkwunos)
Bersamae Berezina, Brest Brze, Brest (incl. Brest of the Veneti in Armorica), Brest (Drav?nopo?abski), Brzózki (multiple entries), Brzeziny (multiple entries), B?est, Brest (ancient settlement), Brest (Mero?ina), Brest (depopulated), Brest (repopulated) Lith. bér?as; Latv. b?rzs; Old-Pruss. berse, Pol. brzoza 'birch'

The Breton language Brezhoneg, Pol. przybrze?ny less the przy- prefix, of the Veneti, Namn?ti and their Samo?ony of Armorica was considered by the Norman invaders a "tongue of the Dacians", in contrast to the "tongue of the Romans" used by the Gauls and even already by the Franks. Toponyms derived from brzeg, e.g. Brzeg do not appear in the listing, however close to brzoza they may sound.

Veleka Vel?kas g (multiple entries), Wielu?, Wylewa, Wysieka Lit. vel?kl?s 'place in the water', Pol. g 'flood-meadow, riparian forest', wylewa 'overflows, spills over', wycieka present tense 3rd person singular 'leaks out', wysi?ka 'leaks out' (less intensive)
Bolba bria Balvi, Bàlvis, Bolva Lith. Bálvis 'a lake'; Old-Pruss. Balweniken
Brenipara Brenna (Brennabor), Branibor / Braniborsko, Brenna, Brenno, Brenica, Brenik, Brennik (multiple entries), Brynica (multiple entries), Branew (Thracians among settlers), Branica (multiple entries) Messapian brendon, Latv. briedis 'deer', Pol. Branibor 'the protecting forest/woods'
Calsus Kalsi, Kalsi, Kals-Strauts 'dry stream' Kalisz Latv. kalst, kalt?t 'dry', the town Kalisz already mentioned by Ptolemy
Chalastra cha?astra, ha?astra Lith. sravà 'a stream'; Latv. strava 'stream, torrent', Pol. ha?astra 'a disorderly crowd, stream of peoples, mob', cha?tura 'an ad hoc job, unprepared performance (often of low quality), a forced slaverish work', cha?a 'substandard, poor quality, worthless' - so the toponym may mean a "worthless stream" (muddy or poisonous water)
Daphabae Lith. dãpas 'a flood'; Old-Pruss. ape 'river'
Dingion Dingas, Dindze, Dingupite Dinge Dynów Latv. dinga 'a plant' and 'fertile place'
Dimae D?m? D?mis Dumen Dukla (Scythian settlement since 2nd millennium BCE) Lit. d?mas 'dark (for beef)'; Latv. d?ms 'dark-brown'
Egerica Veger? Vedzere
Ereta Veretà
Gesia Gesavà Dzêsiens Gesaw G?siek, Rzeszów? Latv. dz?se 'heron', Pol. g 'goose', Gesia (G?sia) in Pol. genitive 'of the goose', G?siek nominative from g+zasieki 'fenced goose', compare Gusle and Duzaga? Pol. du?a g 'big goose' - apparently a certified poultry weight found among "Kassite deities". G?sia seems to be one of the most popular IE words.
Ginula Ginu?i Ginulle Goni?dz Latv. g'inis, g'inst 'to spoil', Pol. gin 'to get lost, to perish', compare Engl. gone
Armonia Armona Lit. armuo, -ens 'quagmire'
Iuras J?ra, J?r?, J?rupis Jura Lit. and Latv. j?ra 'sea'
Kabyle Kabile Cabula
Kallindia Galindo, Galinden, Galynde Golina, Goleniów, Go?dap, Go?a?cz Galindai, Lit. galas 'end'
Kapisturia Kaplava Kapas-gals Kappegalin Kopanica (multiple entries)

Latv. kãpa, kãpe 'long mountainous strip, dune, slope'; Lith. kopà 'sandy hill', Pol. directly from kopa 'heap, pile', from kopati 'to dig', e.g. kop+pernik 'dig+rock/stone' Kopernik 'rock digger, miner' > Copper 'dugout/mined rock', Kopa is still the original Venetic name of the main mountain massive of the Hallstatt culture

Kurpisos, Kourpissos Kurp? kámas, Kurpulaukis Kaz?kurpe, Kurpesgr?vis, Kurpkalns Kurpie Lit. kurpti 'to dig', Pol. kierpce (kurp?) - archaic mocassinss called in Romania opinc?
Kersula Ker?uli?ki? kaimas Lit. ker?ulis 'pigeon'
Knishava Knisà Kn?si, Kni, Kn?sukalns Knyszyn Lith. knìsti 'to dig, to rummage'
Kypsela Kup?eliai Kup?e?i Kutno?
Lingos Ling?, Lingenai Lingas, Lingi, Lingasdikis Lingwar L?dziny, Le?ajsk, Legnica, Lit. leng? 'valley'
Markellai Mark?lis, Markel?ne Marken Marki (mesolithic settlement) Lit. marka 'pit', merkti 'dunk'
Meldia Meld?, Meldínis Meldine, Meldini Mildio, Mildie Zhemait. Mel?d?ikvirshe, Mel?d?in?i, Lith. meldà, méldas 'marsh reed'; Latv. meldi 'reed'
Mygdonia M?k? Mukas Myszków, My?no Zhemait. river Muka, Mukja, Pol. mysz 'mouse' (the same in Iranian languages) is cognate rather with Moesia, another region of Thrace and Mysia across Propontis. Mygdonia is rather akin to 'land of heroes' or more precisely 'land, that gives men/(heroes)'
Ostophos Uõstas, ?stas Uostupe, ?ostup Ustup (part of Zakopane), Ústup, Puszczykowo Lit. pu?ynas 'spurs forest', Pol. ost?p (regional: ustup) 'wilderness', 'section set aside', compare pustynia 'desert', pustkowie 'wasteland'
Paisula Pai?eliai Paissyn Pask, Pasym Lit. pai?ai 'soot'
Palae Palà Po?czyn-Zdrój, Pelpin, Pe?czyce, Poltava Lit. palios 'swamp'
Palnma Palmin?s, Palmajos káimas Pa?muota Palmiry Lit. palios 'swamp'
Panion Panewniki Old-Pruss. pannean 'swamp, quagmire', Pol. panew (panewka) 'frying pan, flash pan, socket', compare Panis, Punics, Pan, Pan (god), Pannonia...
Pannas Panyen Panewniki Old Pruss. pannean 'quagmire', Pol. panew (panewka) 'frying pan, flash pan, socket', compare Panis, Punics, Pan, Pan (god), Pannonia..., Gothic fani
Pautalia Pa?tupis Paute?i, Pautup?te, Pautustrauts Pauta, Pauten Puck, Pu?tusk, Pu?awy Lith. putà, pl. pùtos 'foam, froth', putóti 'to foam'; Latv. putas 'foam'
Pizos Pisa ?z?rs Pissa, Pissen, Pisse, Pysekaym, Piselauk Pyskowice Latv. p?sa 'swamp'
Praizes Limne Praustuv? Praga Lith. pra?sti (prausiù, -sia?) 'to wash', praus?n?s 'washing'; Latv. prauslât 'to spray, to sprinkle', Pol. pra? 'to wash, to beat'
Pusinon Pusyne, Pu?in?, Pu?yno káimasPu?in? Pszczyna Lit. pu?ynas 'spurs forest', Zhemait. Pushina 'a stream', Pushine 'meadows', Pol. pszczo?a 'bee', an animal living on the meadows
Pupensis vicus(village) Pupi? káimas, Pupin? Pupa Pupkaym, Paupayn Latinized vicus for 'village', Lit. and Latv. pupa 'beans', kaimas 'village'(cf. Bobov Dol)
Purdae Porden, Purde Zhemait. Purdjaknis? Popel?ki
Raimula Raimoche Lith. ráimas 'motley, particoloured'
Rhakule Rãkija, Rakavos káimas Roklawken, Rocke Raci, Racibórz Lith. ràkti, rankù, rakia? 'to dig out, unearth'; Latv. rakt, rùoku 'to dig', rak?ât 'to dig'
Rhamae Rãmis, Ramùne R?mava Ramio, Rammenflys Rumia (populated since 6th century BC) Lit. ramus 'quiet'
Rhodope Mountains Rudupe Rudawy, Rudawy, Rudoho?í, Rudnik, Ruda ?l?ska, Rudno, Rudniki, Rudnia e.t.c. Zhemait. Rudupja, Rudup?, Rudupi, Lith. rùdas 'reddish, ruddy, dark yellow', Lith. ùp? 'river', Pol. directly from ruda 'ore, mineral'
Rhusion Russe, Russien, Rusemoter Lith. r?s?s (and rúsas) 'a pit for potatoes; cellar, basement'; Latv. r?sa 'a pit'
Rumbodona Rum?ba, Rum?ba, Rum?b, Rum?bas, Rumbai Por?bka, Zar?by, R?baczów e.t.c. Latv. rum?ba 'waterfall, river rapids'; Lith. rum?bas, rùmbas, rumbà 'periphery', Pol. r?ba? 'to chop, to hew, to fell, to cut down'
Sarte Sar?t?, Sartà S?r?te, S?rtupe Zhemait. Sarta, Sarti, Lit. sartas 'red (horse)'; Latv. sarts 'ruddy'
Scretisca Skreti?k? Zakr?t Lit. skret? 'circle', Pol. skr?ci? si? 'to twist, to turn' + the suffix -si? '-oneself'
Seietovia Sietuvà, Si?tuvas Zhemait. Setuva, Lit. sietuva 'whirlpool'
Sekina kin? Siekierki, Sieczka Lith. kas 'recently mowed down grass, hay'; Latv. sêks 'the same', Pol. siekiera, sieczka directly from sekyra 'axe' and si 'to chop, cut, mow' - from those roots derived also the Aryan name , , ?aka, ka of the 'Scythians' and of any kind of 'chopped herbs/vegetables' and also of the Engl. 'Scythe' and everything 'Scottish'. Via the proto-Celto-Scythian Iak?as and Kau with the help of chariots and ships of the Panis, Pany (gemstone, ores, fabrics, fragrants, ghee and pan traders) and Pany (of their western colony) those and many other words, customs and inventions (Amber, I?kur, Sugar, Mead, Chariot, Bearing, Lathe, Industry, Wrought iron...) of proto-Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian origin entered Mesopotamia, Arabia, Ancient Egypt, Kingdom of Kush e.t.c., see Scythopolis.

Some IE languages and dialects render , , ?aka, ka as Saka, Sákai, Sacae, Sieka-, Siepa- (also variant Sierp, Serbi, Serboi...), Csaka, Caka, ?aka (Ciaka-, Ciacha-), ?aka (Czaka-, Chaka-) related to the Scythians of Haraxvait? / Haravati, ?echy (Czechy), ?esko (Czesko-)... and Romance-Celto-Germanic borrowings (most from Magyarized version Csák) include Shaka, Shako, Sakko, Sacco, Sjako, Sciaccò, Chacó, Checo, Tchéqu, Tschako, Tschecho, Tsjech. The name Tesla (Cie?la) ('carpenter') has similar roots. Another prominent , , ?aka, ka name used in Sogdia and Europe, incl. ancient Thrace and ?kudra is ?koda ('archer').

Serme Sermas May be connected to Sarmatians, most probably to Siraces, who traded with Ancient Egypt and Syria or to Zychy (Zyx, Zichi..., Zakaryans of Armenia, House of Zik of the Seven Great Houses of Iran and finally the kidnapped by Nogais young Zych of Zychia who established the Burji dynasty of Egypt) who protected Thacians, Dacians, Kotyni, Speroi e.t.c. from the invasion of the Roman Empire, annihilated the Roman Legio XXI Rapax in battle [35][36][37] until Trajan crushed their forces. Legio XXII Deiotariana was then sent to subdue Kingdom of Pontus, Kingdom of Armenia (both partners of the Iazyges), Judea, Egypt and Nubia.
Silta ?iltupis Siltie, Siltums, Siltine Lit. ?iltas 'warm, nice'; Latv. sìlts 'warm'
Skaptopara, Skalpenos, Skaplizo Skalbupis, Skalbýnupis, Skalbstas, Skaptotai, Skaptùtis Toporów Lith. skãplis 'a type of axe'; Lith. skaptúoti 'to cut, to carve', Pol. topór a special kind of siekiera 'axe' - a 'cutting axe' using asymmetric cutting edge
Skarsa Skarsin, Skarsaw Skoczów Lith. sker?sas 'transverse, oblique, slanting', Sker?s?, Sker?s-up?s, Sker?sravi, Pol. directly from skakati 'to hop, to leap'
Scombros Lith. kumbr?s, kum?bris 'hill, top of a mountain; small mountain'; Latv. kum?bris 'hump, hunch'
Spindea Spind?i? káimas, Spind?iùs Spindags Lit. spind?ius, spindis, 'clearing'; Latv. spindis 'spark'
Stambai Str?obas, Struõbas Lit. stramblys 'cob'; Old-Pruss. strambo 'stubble-field'
Strauneilon Str?nel?, Str?nà Lit. sr(i)?ti 'flow'
Strymon Stryj, Strumie?, Czerwony Strumie?, Strumie? Godowski e.t.c. Lit. sraumuo 'stream', Pol. strumie? 'stream'
Strauos Str?va Strawa, Strawka (rivers) Latv. strava, Lit. srava 'course', Pol. strawa 'food, fodder' also 'costs, expenses' - 'something that vanishes' or precisely 'something that is being digested' but also 'something that traces (a path)', obviously names of small streams and a source of Celtic and English etymology of 'trace'
Suitula Svite ?wiecie Lit. ?vitulys 'light', Pol. ?wiat?o 'light', ?wieci? 'to light', ?wit 'dawn', ?witula 'the dawning one' (feminine)
Souras S?ris, S?rup?, S?upis Sure So?a, Solina, Solinka, Wis?a (Vyso?a), (Weso?a) Lit. s?ras 'salty', Pol. direct from sol? 'salt', (Weso?a may have a different etymology vesel? 'merry')
Succi ?ukis Sukas, Sucis Sucha (multiple entries) Pol. suchy 'dry', susi (akin to Succi) is the masculine plural nominative form
Tarpodizos Tárpija Târpi, T?rpu p?ava Tarnów, , Tarnowola, Tarnowskie Góry, Tarnowo (multiple entries) Lith. tárpas 'an interstice' and 'a gap, a crack'; Zhemait. Tarpu kal?ne, Tarpdovd?i
Tarporon Poronin Lith. tárpas 'an interstice', Pol. roni? 'to shed, to moult', poroni? 'to miscarry', compare Perkwunos - Perun - Tar?unz - Tarchon - Taranis. Maybe a syncretism Tar(hun/?unz/chon/anis)-Poron(Perun) ? Something abrupt, shocking, hard... ?
Tarpyllos Terpìn?, Tárpija Cierplewo, Cierpisz, ?a?cut County, Cierpisz, Ropczyce-S?dziszów County, Cierpi?ta (multiple entries), Cierpigórz (multiple entries), Cierpice (multiple entries) Pol. cierpienie 'suffering, anguish', cierpliwo 'patience'
Tirsai Tirza Tirskaymen Lith. tirtis 'density, thickness' and 'thicket, brush-wood'
Tranoupara Tran?s Trani, Tranava Lit. tranas 'hornet'
Trauos Traupis Lith. trati 'to break, to crumble', trau?us 'brittle'; Latv. trau?s, trausls 'brittle, fragile'
Tynta Tunti, Tunte Thuntlawken Lit. tumtas, tuntas 'flock'
Urda, Urdaus Ùrdupis, Urdenà Urdava Zhemait. Urdishki; Lit. urdulys 'mount stream', virti 'spring'
Veleka Vel?kas Wielichowo (Pomerania), Wielichowo Lith. vel?kles 'a place, used for washing'
Verzela Vér?a, Vér?as Lith. vár?as 'a basket for fish'; Latv. varza 'dam'
Vevocasenus Vàive Woywe, Wewa, Waywe Latin vicus
Zburulus ?iburi? káimas Lit. ?ibur?s 'a fire, a light, something burning; a torch'
Zilmissus ?ilmà, ?ilmas Latv. zelme 'green grass or wheat'
Zyakozeron ?vakùt? Zvak Lith. ?vãk? 'a light, a candle'

Fate of the Thracians and their language

According to Skordelis, when Thracians were subjected by Alexander the Great they finally assimilated to Greek culture and became as Greek as Spartans and Athenians, although he considered the Thracian language as a form of Greek.[38] In fact they were closer related to the Scythians, Parni, Sporoi, Dacians, Lud (Luwians), Lu?i (Ligii, Lechiti), Eneti-Veneti, Illyrii and to the Indo-European Graeci-Epirotes, Makedonians and Achaei-Achaioi (Danaoi, Argeioi)-Danann-Duninowie then to other Hellenes of Colchian, Hurrian, Hebrew (e.g. slavetraders of Korinth and Byzantion) or Egyptian (intensive under Psamtik I) origin or even to the Celts. Most scholars confuse Hellenes and Greeks and even Celtic, Slavic and Germanic tribes. According to Crampton (1997) most Thracians were eventually Hellenized or Romanized, with the last remnants surviving in remote areas until the 5th century.[39] According to Marinov the Thracians were likely completely Romanized and Hellenized after the last contemporary references to them of the 6th century.[40] This theory holds the Christianization of the Roman Empire as the main factor of immediate assimilation.

A quick extinction would intensely contrast the avoidance of Hellenization at least by Albanian till the present, possibly with the help of isolated mountainous areas.

Another author considers that the interior of Thrace have never been Romanized or Hellenized (Trever, 1939).[41] This was followed also by Slavonization. According to Weithmann (1978) when the Slavs migrated, they encountered only a very superficially Romanized Thracian and Dacian population, which had not strongly identified itself with Imperial Rome, while Greek and Roman populations (mostly soldiers, officials, merchants) abandoned the land or were killed.[42] Because Pulpudeva survived as Plovdiv in Slavic languages, not under Philippopolis, some authors suggest that Thracian was not completely obliterated in the 7th century.[43][44]

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Valdés (2017) cites other cognates to the root: Celtic deity Borvo and Latin ferveo "I boil" (from e-grade).[15]
  2. ^ A similarly looking word Mandicae 'to Mandica' is attested in an inscription from Asturia. It has been suggested to mean the name of a goddess related to foals.[29]

References

  1. ^ Thracian at MultiTree on the Linguist List
  2. ^ Arnold Joseph Toynbee, Some problems of Greek history, Oxford University Press, 1969, p. 56: In the late sixth century there were still Bessian-speaking monks in the monastery at the foot of Mount Sinai (see P. Geyer Itinera Hierosolymitana, Vienna 1898, Templaky, pp. 184; 213.)
  3. ^ Oliver Nicholson as ed., The Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity; Oxford University Press, 2018; ISBN 0192562460, p. 234:...The "Piacenza Pilgrim (56) mentioned Bessian-speaking monks on the Sinai Peninsula. ABA J. J. Wilkes, The Illyrians (1992)...
  4. ^ J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams as ed., Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture; Taylor & Francis, 1997; ISBN 1884964982, p. 576: The most recently attested Thracian personal names are found in two monasteries in the Near East (the Bessi of Mt Sinai) dating to the sixth century AD.
  5. ^ Bessian is the language of the Bessi, one of the most prominent Thracian tribes. The origin of the monasteries is explained in a mediaeval hagiography written by Symeon the Metaphrast in Vita Sancti Theodosii Coenobiarchae in which he wrote that Saint Theodosius founded on the shore of the Dead Sea a monastery with four churches, in each being spoken a different language, among which Bessian was found. The place at which the monasteries were founded was called "Cutila", which may be a Thracian name.
  6. ^ Harvey E. Mayer. DACIAN AND THRACIAN AS SOUTHERN BALTOIDIC LITUANUS. LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. Volume 38, No.2 - Summer 1992. Editor of this issue: Antanas Klimas, University of Rochester . ISSN 0024-5089. 1992 LITUANUS Foundation, Inc.
  7. ^ 1994 Gottfried Schramm: A New Approach to Albanian History
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of European peoples, Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, Infobase Publishing, 2006, ISBN 0-8160-4964-5, p. 205.
  9. ^ Archaeology and language: the puzzle of Indo-European origins, Colin Renfrew, CUP Archive, 1990, ISBN 0-521-38675-6, p. 71.
  10. ^ Olteanu et al.
  11. ^ Duridanov, Ivan. "The Language of the Thracians". Retrieved .
  12. ^ a b c Duridanov, I. (1976). The Language of the Thracians (An abridged translation of Ezikyt na trakite, Ivan Duridanov, Nauka i izkustvo, Sofia, 1976. (c) Ivan Duridanov).
  13. ^ Lubotsky, Alexander. "Indo-Aryan Inherited Lexicon". Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Project. Leiden University. s.v. á?va-.
  14. ^ See Max Vasmer's dictionary under "".
  15. ^ Valdés, Marcos Obaya. "Averamientu al astúricu. Vocalización de les nasales del grau-cero indo-européu: *mo > am / *no > an, y delles propuestes etimolóxiques". In: Lletres asturianes: Boletín Oficial de l'Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Nº. 117, 2017, p. 64. ISSN 2174-9612
  16. ^ Olteanu hypothesizes that the Thracian toponym Basibounon may contain bouno(n), a Greek word for "hill" that may also be a Thracian word
  17. ^ In Old Church Slavonic is found ehu, which may be a loan from Germanic[]; otherwise the Slavic word for horse from ekwo- was lost, due perhaps to the lack of equestrianism among the early Slavs[]
  18. ^ Georgiev, Olteanu et al.
  19. ^ "Golden ring with Thracian inscription. NAIM-Sofia exhibition". National Archaeological Institute with Museum, Sofia.
  20. ^ Duridanov, Ivan (1985). Die Sprache der Thraker. Bulgarische Sammlung (in German). 5. Hieronymus Verlag. ISBN 3-88893-031-6. Ich bin Rolisteneas, Sprößling des Nereneas; Tilezypta, Arazerin nach ihrer Heimat, hat mich der Erde übergeben (d.h. begraben).
  21. ^ Russu, Ion I. (1969). Die Sprache der Thrako-Daker (in German). Ed. ?tiin?ific?.
  22. ^ Dimitrov, Peter A. (2009). "The Kyolmen Stone Inscription". Thracian Language and Greek and Thracian Epigraphy. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4438-1325-9.
  23. ^ a b Written from right to left.
  24. ^ Written from left to right.
  25. ^ Meudler, Marcel. "[www.persee.fr/doc/rea_0035-2004_2003_num_105_1_5647 Mézence, un théonyme messapien?]. In: Revue des Études Anciennes. Tome 105, 2003, n°1. pp. 5-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/rea.2003.5647
  26. ^ Kaluzkaja, Irina. "Thracian-Illyrian language parallels: Thrac. MEZENAI - Illyr. Menzanas". In: Thracian World at Crossroad of Civilizations - Proceedings of 7th International Congress of Thracology. Bucharest: 1996. pp. 372-373.
  27. ^ Francisco Marcos-Marin. "Etymology and Semantics: Theoretical Considerations apropos of an Analysis of the Etymological Problem of Spanish mañero, mañeria." In: Historical Semantics--Historical Word-Formation. de Gruyter, 1985. p. 381.
  28. ^ Balmori, C. Hernando. "[www.persee.fr/doc/ecelt_0373-1928_1941_num_4_1_1177 Notes on the etymology of sp. 'perro']". In: Etudes Celtiques, vol. 4, fascicule 1, 1941. p. 49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3406/ecelt.1941.1177
  29. ^ Valdés, Marcos Obaya. "Averamientu al astúricu. Vocalización de les nasales del grau-cero indo-européu: *mo > am / *no > an, y delles propuestes etimolóxiques". In: Lletres asturianes: Boletín Oficial de l'Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Nº. 117, 2017, p. 67. ISSN 2174-9612
  30. ^ See C. Brixhe - Ancient languages of Asia Minor, Cambridge University Press, 2008
    We will dismiss, at least temporarily, the idea of a Thraco-Phrygian unity. Thraco-Dacian (or Thracian and Daco-Mysian) seems to belong to the eastern (satem) group of Indo-European languages and its (their) phonetic system is far less conservative than that of Phrygian (see Brixhe and Panayotou 1994, §§ 3ff.)
  31. ^ Georgiev 1977, p. 63, 128, 282.
  32. ^ Duridanov, 1985 & ch. VIII.
  33. ^ Holst (2009):66.
  34. ^ [1](Duridanov 1978. 128)
  35. ^ Grainger 2004, p. 22.
  36. ^ Jones 1908, p. 143.
  37. ^ Swan 2004, p. 165.
  38. ^ Daskalov, Roumen; Vezenkov, Alexander (13 March 2015). Entangled Histories of the Balkans - Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies. BRILL. p. 51. ISBN 9789004290365.
  39. ^ R.J. Crampton (1997). A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-521-56719-X.
  40. ^ Daskalov, Roumen; Vezenkov, Alexander (13 March 2015). Entangled Histories of the Balkans - Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies. BRILL. p. 10. ISBN 9789004290365.
  41. ^ Trever, Albert Augustus. History of Ancient Civilization. Harcourt, Brace. p. 571
  42. ^ Michael W. Weithmann, Die slawische Bevolkerung auf der griechischen Halbinsel (Munich 1978)
  43. ^ Mallory, J. P.; Adams, Douglas Q. (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. p. 576. ISBN 978-1-884964-98-5.
  44. ^ Kati?i?, Radoslav (1976). Ancient Languages of the Balkans. Mouton. p. 136.

Further reading

External links


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