The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Get The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints essential facts below. View Videos or join the The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints discussion. Add The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
Official logo since 2020 featuring the Christus statue
OrientationLatter Day Saint movement
Book of Mormon
Doctrine and Covenants
Pearl of Great Price
President[a]Russell M. Nelson
HeadquartersSalt Lake City, Utah, United States
FounderJoseph Smith[b][1]
OriginApril 6, 1830; 192 years ago (1830-04-06)[2] as Church of Christ
Congregations31,315 (2021)[3]
Missionaries54,539 (2021)[3]
Aid organization
Tertiary institutions4[4]
Other name(s)
  • LDS Church,[5]
  • Mormon Church,[6]
  • Church of Jesus Christ,
  • Restored Church of Jesus Christ[7]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, informally known as the LDS Church or Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian Christian church that considers itself to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ. The church is headquartered in the United States in Salt Lake City, Utah, and has established congregations and built temples worldwide. According to the church, it has over 16.8 million members and 54,539 full-time volunteer missionaries.[3] As of 2012, the church was the fourth-largest Christian denomination in the United States,[8] and reported over 6.7 million US members as of 2021.[c][9] It is the largest denomination in the Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith during the early 19th-century period of religious revival known as the Second Great Awakening.

Church theology includes the Christian doctrine of salvation only through Jesus Christ,[10] and his substitutionary atonement on behalf of mankind.[11] The church has an open canon of four scriptural texts: the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants, and the Pearl of Great Price. Other than the Bible, the majority of the church canon consists of material the church's members believe to have been revealed by God to Joseph Smith, including commentary and exegesis about the Bible, texts described as lost parts of the Bible, and other works believed to be written by ancient prophets, including the Book of Mormon. Because of doctrinal differences, Catholic, Orthodox and many Protestant churches consider the church to be distinct and separate from mainstream Christianity.[12]

Latter-day Saints believe that the church president is a modern-day "prophet, seer, and revelator" and that Jesus Christ, under the direction of God the Father, leads the church by revealing his will and delegating his priesthood keys to its president. The president heads a hierarchical structure descending from areas to stakes and wards. Bishops, drawn from the laity, lead the wards. Male members may be ordained to the priesthood, provided they are living the standards of the church. Women are not ordained to the priesthood, but occupy leadership roles in some church organizations.[13]

Both men and women may serve as missionaries. The church maintains a large missionary program that proselytizes and conducts humanitarian services worldwide. The LDS Church also funds and participates in humanitarian projects independent of its missionary efforts.[14][15] Faithful members adhere to church laws of sexual purity, health, fasting, and Sabbath observance, and contribute ten percent of their income to the church in tithing. The church teaches sacred ordinances through which adherents make covenants with God, including baptism, confirmation, the sacrament,[d] priesthood ordination, endowment and celestial marriage.[16]

The church has been criticized throughout its history. Modern criticisms include disputed factual claims, treatment of minorities, and financial controversies. The church's practice of polygamy (plural marriage) was controversial until it was officially rescinded in 1890.


The history of the church is typically divided into three broad time periods: (1) the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, which is in common with all churches associated with the Latter Day Saint movement, (2) a pioneer era under the leadership of Brigham Young and his 19th-century successors, and (3) a modern era beginning around the turn of the 20th century as Utah achieved statehood.[17][18]


Adherents believe that Joseph Smith was called to be a modern-day prophet through a visitation from God the Father and Jesus Christ.

Joseph Smith formally organized the church as the Church of Christ, on April 6, 1830, in western New York.[19] Smith later changed the name to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints after he stated he had received a revelation to do so.[20] Initial converts were drawn to the church in part because of the newly published Book of Mormon, a self-described chronicle of indigenous American prophets that Smith said he had translated from golden plates.[21]

Smith intended to establish the New Jerusalem in North America, called Zion.[22] In 1831, the church moved to Kirtland, Ohio,[23] and began establishing an outpost in Jackson County, Missouri,[24] where Smith planned to eventually move the church headquarters.[25] However, in 1833, Missouri settlers violently expelled the Latter Day Saints from Jackson County.[26] The church attempted to recover the land through a paramilitary expedition, but did not succeed.[27] Nevertheless, the church flourished in Kirtland as Smith published new revelations and the church built the Kirtland Temple,[28] culminating in a dedication of the building similar to the day of Pentecost.[29] The Kirtland era ended in 1838, after a financial scandal rocked the church and caused widespread defections.[30] Smith regrouped with the remaining church in Far West, Missouri,[31] but tensions soon escalated into violent conflicts with the old Missouri settlers.[32] Believing the Latter Day Saints to be in insurrection, the Missouri governor ordered that they be "exterminated or driven from the State".[33] In 1839, the Saints converted a swampland on the banks of the Mississippi River into Nauvoo, Illinois, which became the church's new headquarters.[34]

Nauvoo grew rapidly as missionaries sent to Europe and elsewhere gained new converts who then flooded into Nauvoo.[35] Meanwhile, Smith introduced polygamy to his closest associates.[36] He also established ceremonies, which he stated the Lord had revealed to him, to allow righteous people to become gods in the afterlife,[37] and a secular institution to govern the Millennial kingdom.[38] He also introduced the church to a full accounting of his First Vision, in which two heavenly "personages" appeared to him at age 14.[e] This vision would come to be regarded by the LDS Church as the most important event in human history since the resurrection of Jesus.[39] Members believe Joseph Smith is the first modern-day prophet.[40]

On June 27, 1844, Smith and his brother, Hyrum, were killed by a mob in Carthage, Illinois,[41] while being held on charges of treason.[42] Because Hyrum was Joseph's designated successor, their deaths caused a succession crisis,[43] and Brigham Young assumed leadership over a majority of the church's membership.[44] Young had been a close associate of Smith's and was the senior apostle of the Quorum of the Twelve.

Other splinter groups followed other leaders around this time. These groups have no affiliation with the LDS Church,[45] however they share a common heritage in their early church history. Collectively, they are called the Latter Day Saint movement. The largest of these smaller groups is the Community of Christ, based in Independence, Missouri, followed by the Church of Jesus Christ, based in Monongahela, Pennsylvania. Like the LDS Church, these faiths believe in Joseph Smith as a prophet and founder of their religion. They also accept the Book of Mormon, and most, but not all, accept at least some version of the Doctrine and Covenants. However, they tend to disagree to varying degrees with the LDS Church concerning doctrine and church leadership.[46][47]

Pioneer era

Brigham Young led the LDS Church from 1844 until his death in 1877.

For two years after Smith's death, conflicts escalated between Mormons and other Illinois residents. Brigham Young led his followers, later called the Mormon pioneers, westward to Nebraska and then in 1847 on to what later became the Utah Territory,[48] which at the time had been part of the indigenous lands of the Ute, Goshute, and Shoshone nations, and claimed by Mexico until 1848.[49][50] Over the course of many years, over 60,000 settlers arrived, who then branched out and colonized a large region now known as the Mormon Corridor.

Young incorporated the LDS Church as a legal entity, and initially governed both the church and the state as a theocratic leader. He also publicized the practice of plural marriage in 1852. Modern research suggests that around 20 percent of Mormon families may have participated in the practice.[17]

By 1857, tensions had again escalated between Mormons and other Americans, largely as a result of accusations involving polygamy and the theocratic rule of the Utah Territory by Young.[51] The Utah Mormon War ensued from 1857 to 1858, which resulted in the relatively peaceful invasion of Utah by the United States Army. The most notable instance of violence during this conflict was the Mountain Meadows massacre, in which leaders of a local Mormon militia ordered the massacre of a civilian emigrant party who was traveling through Utah during the escalating military tensions.[52] After the massacre was discovered, the church became the target of significant media criticism for it.[53]

After the Army withdrew, Young agreed to step down from power and be replaced by a non-Mormon territorial governor, Alfred Cumming. Nevertheless, the LDS Church still wielded significant political power in the Utah Territory.[54] Coterminously, tensions between Mormon settlers and indigenous tribes continued to escalate as settlers began colonizing a growing area of tribal lands. While Mormons and indigenous peoples made attempts at peaceful coexistence, skirmishes ensued from about 1849 to 1873 culminating in the armed conflicts of Walkara's War, the Bear River Massacre, and the Black Hawk War.

After Young's death in 1877, he was followed by other church presidents, who resisted efforts by the United States Congress to outlaw Mormon polygamous marriages. In 1878, the United States Supreme Court, in Reynolds v. United States, decreed that "religious duty" to engage in plural marriage was not a valid defense to prosecutions for violating state laws against polygamy. Conflict between Mormons and the U.S. government escalated to the point that, in 1890, Congress disincorporated the LDS Church and seized most of its assets. Soon thereafter, church president Wilford Woodruff issued a manifesto that officially suspended the performance of new polygamous marriages in the United States.[55] Relations with the United States markedly improved after 1890, such that Utah was admitted as a U.S. state in 1896. Relations further improved after 1904, when church president Joseph F. Smith again disavowed polygamy before the United States Congress and issued a "Second Manifesto", calling for all plural marriages in the church to cease. Eventually, the church adopted a policy of excommunicating its members found practicing polygamy.[56] Some fundamentalist groups with relatively small memberships have broken off and continue to practice polygamy, but the Church distances itself from them.[57][58]

Modern times

The Washington D.C. Temple, completed in 1974, was the first built in the eastern half of the United States since 1846.

During the 20th century, the church grew substantially and became an international organization. In 2000, the church reported 60,784 missionaries and global church membership stood at just over 11 million.[59] Worldwide membership surpassed 16 million in 2018. Slightly under half of church membership lives within the United States.[60][f][g]

The church has become a strong proponent of the nuclear family and at times played a prominent role in political matters, including opposition to MX Peacekeeper missile bases in Utah and Nevada,[64] the Equal Rights Amendment,[64] legalized gambling,[65] same-sex marriage,[66] and physician-assisted death.[67] Apart from issues that it considers to be ones of morality, however, the church maintains a position of political neutrality. Despite this it encourages its members to be politically active, to participate in elections, and to be knowledgeable about current political and social issues within their communities, states, and countries.[68]

A number of official changes have taken place to the organization during the modern era. In 1978, the church reversed its previous policy of excluding black men of African descent from the priesthood, which had been in place since 1852;[69] members of all races can now be ordained to the priesthood. Also, since the early 1900s, the church has instituted a Priesthood Correlation Program to centralize church operations and bring them under a hierarchy of priesthood leaders. During the Great Depression, the church also began operating a church welfare system, and it has conducted humanitarian efforts in cooperation with other religious organizations including Catholic Relief Services and Muslim Aid, as well as secular organizations such as the American Red Cross.[70][71]

During the second half of the 20th century and beginnings of the 21st, the church has responded to various challenges to its doctrine and authority. Challenges have included rising secularization,[72][73][74] challenges to the correctness of the translation of the Book of Abraham,[75] and primary documents forged by Mark Hofmann purporting to contradict important aspects of official early church history.[76] The church's positions regarding homosexuality, women, and black people have all been publicly debated during this timeframe.

For over 100 years, the church was a major sponsor of Scouting programs for boys, particularly in the United States. The LDS Church was the largest chartered organization in the Boy Scouts of America, having joined the Boy Scouts of America as its first charter organization in 1913.[77] In 2020, the church ended its relationship with the BSA and began an alternate, religion-centered youth program, which replaced all other youth programs.[78] Prior to leaving the Scouting program, LDS Scouts made up nearly 20 percent of all enrolled Boy Scouts,[79] more than any other church.[80]


Church members believe in a spiritual family, with Jesus Christ being the brother of all who live in this world.[81] The church has a positive view on Adam and Eve's fall, believing that it was essential to allow humankind to experience separation from God to exercise full agency in making decisions for their own happiness.[82][83]

The LDS Church shares various teachings with other branches of Christianity. These include a belief in the Bible,[84] the divinity of Jesus, and his atonement and resurrection. LDS theology also includes belief in the doctrine of salvation through Jesus alone, restorationism, millennialism, continuationism, conditional substitutionary atonement[85] or penal substitution,[86] and a form of apostolic succession.[h]

Nevertheless, the LDS Church differs from other churches within contemporary Christianity in other ways. Differences between the LDS Church and most of traditional Christianity include disagreement about the nature of God, belief in a theory of human salvation that includes three heavens, a doctrine of exaltation which includes the ability of humans to become gods and goddesses in the afterlife,[89] a belief in continuing revelation and an open scriptural canon, and unique ceremonies performed privately in temples, such as the endowment and sealing ceremonies. A number of major Christian denominations view the LDS Church as standing apart from creedal Christianity.[90][12][91] However, church members self-identify as Christians.[92]

Latter-day Saints believe in the resurrection of Jesus, as depicted in this replica of Bertel Thorvaldsen's Christus statue located in the North Visitors' Center on Temple Square in Salt Lake City.

The faith itself views other modern Christian faiths as having departed from true Christianity by way of a general apostasy and maintains that it is a restoration of 1st-century Christianity and the only true and authorized Christian church.[93] Church leaders assert it is the only true church and that other churches do not have the authority to act in Jesus' name.[94]

Nature of God

LDS Church theology includes the belief in a Godhead composed of God the Father, his son, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Ghost as three separate Persons who share a unity of purpose or will; however, they are viewed as three distinct Beings making one Godhead. This is in contrast with the predominant Christian view, which holds that God is a Trinity of three distinct persons in one essence. The Latter-day Saint conception of the Godhead is similar to what contemporary Christian theologians call social trinitarianism.[95] The beliefs of the church also include the belief that God the Father and his son, Jesus Christ, are separate beings with bodies of flesh and bone, while the Holy Ghost lacks such a physical body.[96]

According to statements by church leaders, God sits at the head of the human family and is married to a Heavenly Mother, who is the mother of human spirits.[97] However, church leaders have also categorically discouraged prayers to her and counseled against "speculation" regarding her.[98]

Jesus Christ

Church members believe in Jesus Christ as the literal Son of God and Messiah, his crucifixion as a conclusion of a sin offering, and subsequent resurrection.[99] However, Latter-day Saints (LDS) reject the ecumenical creeds and the definition of the Trinity.[100][101]

The church teaches that Jesus performed a substitutionary atonement; in contrast with other Christian denominations, the church teaches this atonement began in the garden of Gethsemane and continued it to his crucifixion (rather than the orthodox belief that the crucifixion alone was the physical atonement).[102] The church also teaches that Christ appeared to other peoples in the period of time between his death and resurrection, including spirits of the dead in the spirit world, and his followers in the Americas.

The church also teaches that Jesus is the true founder and leader of the church itself. The physical establishment of the church by Smith in 1830 is seen as simply the reestablishment of the same primitive church that existed under Jesus and his Apostles. Similarly, the church teaches that Jesus leads the church presently by means of continual and direct revelation to its leaders, especially its current president.

Cosmology and plan of salvation

The church's cosmology and plan of salvation include the doctrines of a pre-mortal life, an earthly mortal existence, three degrees of heaven and exaltation.

According to these doctrines, every human spirit is a spiritual child of a Heavenly Father and each has the potential to continue to learn, grow, and progress in the eternities, eventually achieving eternal life,[i] which is to become one with God in the same way that Jesus Christ is one with the Father, thus allowing the children of God to become divine beings - that is, gods - themselves.[103] This view on the doctrine of theosis is also referred to as becoming a "joint-heir with Christ".[89] The process by which this is accomplished is called exaltation, a doctrine which includes the reunification of the mortal family after the resurrection and the ability to have spirit children in the afterlife and inherit a portion of God's kingdom.[89][104] To obtain this state of godhood, the church teaches that one must have faith in Jesus Christ, repent of his or her sins, strive to keep the commandments faithfully, and participate in a sequence of ceremonial covenants called ordinances, which include baptism, receiving the gift of the Holy Ghost, the endowment and celestial marriage.[105][106]

A couple after their marriage in the Manti Utah Temple. The church teaches that marriages, or sealings, performed in their temples may continue after death.

This latter ordinance, known as a sealing ceremony, reflects a singular LDS view with respect to families. According to LDS Church theology, men and women may be sealed to one another so that their marital bond continues into the eternities.[108] Children may also be sealed to their biological or adoptive parents to form permanent familial bonds, thus allowing all immediate and extended family relations to endure past death.[109] The most significant LDS ordinances may be performed via proxy in behalf of those who have died, such as baptism for the dead. The church teaches that all will have the opportunity to hear and accept or reject the gospel of Jesus Christ, either in this life or the next.[110]


The LDS Church teaches that, subsequent to the death of Jesus and his original apostles, his church, along with the authority to act in Jesus Christ's name and the church's attendant spiritual gifts, were lost, due to a combination of external persecutions and internal heresies.[111] The restoration--as represented by the church began by Joseph Smith--refers to a return of the authentic priesthood power, spiritual gifts, ordinances, living prophets and revelation of the primitive Church of Christ.[112][113][114] This restoration is associated with a number of events which are understood to have been necessary to re-establish the early Christian church found in the New Testament, and to prepare the earth for the Second Coming of Jesus.[115] In particular, Latter-day Saints believe that angels appeared to Joseph Smith and a limited number of his associates, and bestowed various priesthood authorities on them.

Prophetic leadership

The church is led by a president, who is considered a "prophet, seer, and revelator." He is considered the only person who is authorized to receive revelation from God on behalf of the whole world or entire church. As such, the church teaches that he is essentially infallible when speaking on behalf of God - although the exact circumstances when his pronouncements should be considered authoritative are debated within the church.[116][117] In any case, modern declarations with broad doctrinal implications are often issued by joint statement of the First Presidency; they may be joined by the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles as well.[118][119][120]

Home and family

The church and its members consider marriage and family highly important, with emphasis placed on large, nuclear families.[13] In 1995, the church's First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve issued "The Family: A Proclamation to the World", which stresses the importance of the family. The proclamation defined marriage as a union between one man and one woman and stated that the family unit is "central to the Creator's plan for the eternal destiny of His children." The document further says that "gender is an essential characteristic of individual premortal, mortal, and eternal identity and purpose," that the father and mother have differing but equal roles in raising children, and that successful marriages and families, founded upon the teachings of Jesus Christ, can last eternally.[121] The proclamation also promotes specific roles essential to maintaining the strength of the family unit - the roles of a husband and father as the family's breadwinner and spiritual leader and those of a wife and mother as a nurturing caregiver. Both parents are charged with the duties of childrearing. The proclamation was issued, in part, due to concerns in the United States about the eroding of family values and the growing social movement promoting same-sex marriages.[122]

LDS Church members are encouraged to set aside one evening each week, typically Monday, to spend together in "Family Home Evening." Family Home Evenings typically consist of gathering as a family to study the faith's gospel principles, and other family activities. Daily family prayer is also encouraged.[17]

Sources of doctrine

The written canon of the LDS Church is referred to as its standard works

The theology of the LDS Church consists of a combination of biblical doctrines with modern revelations and other commentary by LDS leaders, particularly Joseph Smith. The most authoritative sources of theology are the faith's canon of four religious texts, called the "standard works". Included in the standard works are the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Doctrine and Covenants and the Pearl of Great Price.[123]

The Book of Mormon is a foundational sacred book for the church; the terms "Mormon" and "Mormonism" come from the book itself. The LDS Church teaches that the Angel Moroni told Smith about golden plates containing the record, guided him to find them buried in the Hill Cumorah, and provided him the means of translating them from Reformed Egyptian. It claims to give a history of the inhabitants from a now-extinct society living on the American continent and their distinct Judeo-Christian teachings. The Book of Mormon is very important to modern Latter-day Saints, who consider it the world's most perfect text.[124]

The Bible, also part of the church's canon, is believed to be the word of God - subject to an acknowledgment that its translation may be incorrect, or that authoritative sections may have been lost over the centuries. Most often, the church uses the Authorized King James Version.[84] Two extended portions of the Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible have been canonized and are thus considered authoritative.[j] Additionally, over 600[125] of the more doctrinally significant verses from the translation are included as excerpts in the current LDS Church edition of the Bible. Other revelations from Smith are found in the Doctrine and Covenants, and in the Pearl of Great Price.[126]

Another source of authoritative doctrine is the pronouncements of the current Apostles and members of the First Presidency. The church teaches that the First Presidency and the Quorum of Twelve Apostles are prophets[127] and that their teachings are generally given under inspiration from God through the Holy Spirit.

In addition to doctrine given by the church as a whole, individual members of the church believe that they can also receive personal revelation from God in conducting their lives,[128] and in revealing truth to them, especially about spiritual matters. Generally, this occurs through thoughts and feelings from the Holy Ghost, in response to prayer.[129] Similarly, the church teaches its members may receive individual guidance and counsel from God through blessings from priesthood holders. In particular, patriarchal blessings are considered special blessings that are received only once in the recipient's life, which are recorded, transcribed, and archived.[130]


The practices of baptism by immersion, the eucharist,[k] and Sabbath observance are held in common with other Christian denominations.


Baptism by immersion is considered highly important in the LDS Church. This depiction from circa 1850 shows the all-white clothing used in the ordinance.

Church members believe if they participate in ordinances like baptism, under priesthood authority, they are bound to Jesus Christ and he saves them in their imperfection if they continually keep their promises to him.[131] Members believe that through ordinances including the temple sealing and temple endowment, anyone can be eternally connected with their families beyond this life and can be perfected in Jesus Christ to eventually become like their Heavenly Parents--in essence gods.[132][133][134][135]

Word of Wisdom

The LDS Church asks its members to adhere to a dietary code called the Word of Wisdom, in which they abstain from the consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, tobacco, and illicit or harmful substances.[136] The Word of Wisdom also encourages the consumption of herbs and grains along with the moderate consumption of meat.[17]

When Joseph Smith published the Word of Wisdom in 1833, it was considered only advice; violation did not restrict church membership. During the 1890s, though, church leaders started emphasizing the Word of Wisdom more. In 1921, church president Heber J. Grant made obeying the Word of Wisdom a requirement to engage in worship inside of the faith's temples. From that time, church leadership has emphasized the forbidding of coffee, tea, tobacco, and alcohol, but not the other guidelines concerning meat, grains, and herbs.[17]

Law of chastity

Church members are expected to follow a moral code called the law of chastity, which prohibits adultery, homosexual behavior, and sexual relations before or outside of marriage.[137] As part of the law of chastity, the church strongly opposes pornography, and considers masturbation an immoral act.[138]

Tithing and other donations

Church members are expected to donate one-tenth of their income to support the operations of the church, including construction of temples, meetinghouses, and other buildings, and other church uses.[139] Members are also encouraged to fast (abstain from food and drink for two meals) on the first Sunday of each month for at least two consecutive meals. They donate at least the cost of the two skipped meals as a fast offering, which the church uses to assist the poor and needy and expand its humanitarian efforts.[140]

Local leadership is not remunerated financially, and is expected to tithe as well. Missionaries, however, are not expected to pay tithing directly as their living expenses are paid from church funds.

Missionary service

Missionaries typically commit to 18-24 months of full-time service.

All able LDS young men are expected to serve a two-year, full-time proselytizing mission.[17][141] Missionaries do not choose where they serve or the language in which they will proselytize, and are expected to fund their missions themselves or with the aid of their families. Prospective male missionaries must be at least 18 years old and no older than 25, not yet married, have completed secondary school, and meet certain criteria for physical fitness and spiritual worthiness. Missionary service is not compulsory, nor is it required for young men to retain their church membership.

Unmarried women 19 years and older may also serve as missionaries,[142] generally for a term of 18 months. However, the LDS Church emphasizes that women are not under the same expectation to serve as male members are, and may serve solely as a personal decision. There is no maximum age for missionary service for women.[143]

Retired couples are also encouraged to serve missions, and may serve 6-, 12-, 18-, or 23-month terms.[144] Unlike younger missionaries, these senior missionaries may serve in non-proselytizing capacities such as humanitarian aid workers or family history specialists. Other men and women who desire to serve a mission, but may not be able to perform full-time service in another state or country due to health issues, may serve in a non-proselyting mission. They might assist at Temple Square in Salt Lake City or aid in the seminary system in schools.[145]

All proselyting missionaries are organized geographically into administrative areas called missions. The efforts in each mission are directed by an older adult male mission president. As of July 2020, there were 407 missions of the church.[146]

Sabbath day observance

Church members are expected to set aside Sundays as a day of "rest and worship." [147] Typically, weekly worship meetings occur solely on Sundays. Shopping and recreation are discouraged on Sundays as well.

Worship and meetings

Weekly meetings

Meetings for worship and study are held at meetinghouses, which are typically utilitarian in character.[17] The main focus of Sunday worship is the Sacrament meeting, where the sacrament is passed to church members; sacrament meetings also include prayers, the singing of hymns by the congregation or choir, and impromptu or planned sermons by church laity. Also included in weekly meetings are times for Sunday School, or separate instructional meetings based on age and gender, including the Relief Society for women.

Church congregations are organized geographically. Members are generally expected to attend the congregation with their assigned geographical area; however, some geographical areas also provide separate congregations for young single adults, older single adults,[148] or for speakers of alternate languages. For Sunday services, the church is grouped into either larger congregations known as wards, or smaller congregations known as branches. Regional church organizations, encompassing multiple congregations, include stakes, missions, districts and areas.

The church's Young Men and Young Women organizations meet at the meetinghouse once a week, where the youth participate in activities.

Temple worship

In LDS theology, a temple is considered to be a holy building, dedicated as a "House of the Lord" and held as more sacred than a typical meetinghouse or chapel. In temples, church members participate in ceremonies that are considered the most sacred in the church, including marriage, and an endowment ceremony that includes a washing and anointing, receiving a temple garment, and making covenants with God. Baptisms for the dead - as well as other temple ordinances on behalf of the dead[17] - are performed in the temples as well.

Temples are considered by church members to be the most sacred structures on earth, and as such, operating temples are not open to the public. Permission to enter is reserved only for church members who pass periodic interviews with ecclesiastical leaders and receive a special recommendation card, called a temple recommend, that they present upon entry.[18][126] Church members are instructed not to share details about temple ordinances with non-members or even converse about them outside the temple itself.[126] As of November 2022, there are 175 operating temples worldwide.[149]

In order to perform ordinances in temples on behalf of deceased family members, the church emphasizes genealogical research, and encourages its lay members to participate in genealogy.[150] It operates FamilySearch, the largest genealogical organization in the world.


Twice each year, general authorities address the worldwide church through general conference. General conference sessions are translated into as many as 80 languages and are broadcast from the 21,000-seat[151] Conference Center in Salt Lake City. During this conference, church members formally acknowledge, or "sustain", the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve Apostles as prophets, seers, and revelators.[127]

Interior of the Conference Center where the church holds its General Conferences twice a year.

Individual stakes also hold formal conferences within their own boundaries biannually; wards hold conferences annually.[152]

Organization and structure

Name and legal entities

The church teaches that it is a continuation of the Church of Christ established in 1830 by Joseph Smith. This original church underwent several name changes during the 1830s, being called the Church of Jesus Christ, the Church of God,[153] and then in 1834, the name was officially changed to the Church of the Latter Day Saints.[154] In April 1838, the name was officially changed to "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints".[155] After Smith died, Brigham Young and the largest body of Smith's followers incorporated the LDS Church in 1851 by legislation of the State of Deseret under the name "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints",[156] which included a hyphenated "Latter-day" and a British-style lower-case d.[157]

Common informal names for the church include the LDS Church, the Latter-day Saints, and the Mormons. The term Mormon Church is in common use.[158] The church requests that the official name be used when possible or, if necessary, shortened to "the Church", "the Church of Jesus Christ",[159] or "Latter-day Saints".[160] In August 2018, church president Russell M. Nelson asked members of the church and others to cease using the terms "LDS", "Mormon" and "Mormonism" to refer to the church, its membership, or its belief system and instead to call the church by its full and official name.[161][162][l] Subsequent to this announcement, the church's premier vocal ensemble, the Mormon Tabernacle Choir, was officially renamed and became the "Tabernacle Choir at Temple Square".[166] Reaction to the name change policy has been mixed.[167]

In 1887, the LDS Church was legally dissolved in the United States by the Edmunds-Tucker Act because of the church's practice of polygamy.[168] For the next century, the church as a whole operated as an unincorporated entity.[169] During that time, tax-exempt corporations of the LDS Church included the Corporation of the Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a corporation sole used to manage non-ecclesiastical real estate and other holdings; and the Corporation of the President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, which governed temples, other sacred buildings, and the church's employees. By 2021, the Corporation of the Presiding Bishop and Corporation of the President had been merged into one corporate entity, legally named "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints".[170]

Intellectual Reserve is a nonprofit corporation wholly owned by the church, which holds the church's intellectual property, such as copyrights, trademarks, and other media.

Priesthood hierarchy

Russell M. Nelson, President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since 2018.

The LDS Church is organized in a hierarchical priesthood structure administered by its male members. Latter-day Saints believe that Jesus leads the church through revelation and has chosen a single man as his spokesman on the earth called "the Prophet" or the "President of the Church." Normally, he and two counselors are ordained apostles and form the First Presidency, the presiding body of the church; twelve other apostles form the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles.[171] When a president dies, his successor is chosen from the remaining apostles, and is invariably the longest-tenured of the group.[172] Following the death of church president Thomas S. Monson on January 2, 2018,[173] senior apostle Russell M. Nelson was announced as president on January 16.[174]

Members of the church-wide leadership[m] are called general authorities. They exercise both ecclesiastical and administrative leadership over the church and direct the efforts of regional leaders down to the local level. General authorities and mission presidents work full-time for the church, and typically receive stipends from church funds or investments.[175] As well as speaking in general conference, general authorities speak to church members in local congregations throughout the world; they also speak to youth[176] and young adults[177] in broadcasts and at the Church Educational System (CES) schools, such as Brigham Young University (BYU).[178]

Each active church member is expected to receive one or more callings, or positions of assigned responsibility within the church. Individual members are expected to neither ask for specific callings, nor decline callings that are extended to them by their leaders. Leadership positions in the church's various congregations are filled through the calling system, and the vast majority of callings are filled on a volunteer basis.[n][179][180][181] Members volunteer general custodial work for local church facilities.[182]

All males who are living the standards of the church are generally considered for the priesthood and are ordained to the priesthood as early as age 11.[183][184] Ordination occurs by a ceremony where hands are laid on the head of the one ordained. The priesthood is divided into an order for young men aged 11 years and older (called the Aaronic priesthood) and an order for men 18 years of age and older (called the Melchizedek priesthood).[185][186]

Some church leaders and scholars have spoken of women holding or exercising priesthood power.[187][188] However, women are not formally ordained to the priesthood, as young men and men are, and they do not participate in public functions administered by the priesthood - such as passing the Sacrament, giving priesthood blessings, or holding leadership positions over congregations as a whole. From 2013 to about 2014, the Ordain Women organization actively sought formal priesthood ordination for women.

Programs and organizations

Under the leadership of the priesthood hierarchy are five organizations that fill various roles in the church: Relief Society,[189] the Young Men and Young Women organizations, Primary, and Sunday School. Women serve as presidents and counselors in the presidencies of the Relief Society, Young Women, and Primary, while men serve as presidents and counselors of the Young Men and Sunday School.[190] The church also operates several programs and organizations in the fields of proselytizing, education, and church welfare such as LDS Humanitarian Services. Many of these organizations and programs are coordinated by the Priesthood Correlation Program, which is designed to provide a systematic approach to maintain worldwide consistency, orthodoxy, and control of the church's ordinances, doctrines, organizations, meetings, materials, and other programs and activities.[191]

The carillon tower at Brigham Young University, one of several educational institutions sponsored by the church

The church operates CES, which includes BYU, BYU-Idaho, BYU-Hawaii, and Ensign College. The church also operates Institutes of Religion near the campuses of many colleges and universities. For high-school aged youth, the church operates a four-year Seminary program, which provides religious classes for students to supplement their secular education.[17] The church also sponsors a low-interest educational loan program known as the Perpetual Education Fund, which provides educational opportunities to students from developing nations.[4]

The church's Family History Library is the world's largest library dedicated to genealogical research

The church's welfare system, initiated in 1930 during the Great Depression, provides aid to the poor. Leaders ask members to fast once a month and donate the money they would have spent on those meals to help the needy, in what is called a fast offering.[17] Money from the program is used to operate Bishop's storehouses, which package and store food at low cost. Distribution of funds and food is administered by local bishops. The church also distributes money through its Philanthropies division to disaster victims worldwide.[192]

Other church programs and departments include Family Services, which provides assistance with adoption, marital and family counseling, psychotherapy, and addiction counseling; the LDS Church History Department, which collects church history and records; and the Family History Department, which administers the church's large family history efforts, including FamilySearch, the world's largest family history library and organization.[193] Other facilities owned and operated by the church include Temple Square, the Church Office Building, the Church Administration Building, the Church History Library and the Granite Mountain Records Vault.


Since 1941, the church has been classified by the IRS as a 501(c)(3) organization and is therefore tax-exempt. Donations are tax-deductible in the United States.[194] The church has not released church-wide financial statements since 1959.[195] In the absence of official statements, people interested in knowing the church's financial status and behavior, including both members of the church and people outside the church, have attempted to estimate or guess.[196]

In 1997, Time magazine called the LDS Church one of the world's wealthiest churches per capita.[197] In a June 2011 cover story, Newsweek stated that the LDS Church "resembles a sanctified multinational corporation--the General Electric of American religion, with global ambitions and an estimated net worth of $30 billion".[198] Its for-profit, non-profit, and educational subsidiary entities are audited by an independent accounting firm.[199][200] In addition, the church employs an independent audit department that provides its certification at each annual general conference that church contributions are collected and spent in accordance with church policy.[201]

The church receives significant funds from tithes and fast offerings. According to the church, tithing and fast offering money is devoted to ecclesiastical purposes and not used in for-profit ventures.[202] It has been estimated that the LDS Church received $33 billion in donations from its members in 2010, and that during the 2010s its net worth increased by about $15 billion per year. According to estimates by Bloomberg Businessweek, the LDS Church's net worth was $40 billion as of 2012.[203]

The church's assets are held in a variety of holding companies, subsidiary corporations, and for-profit companies including: Bonneville International, KSL, Deseret Book Company, and holding companies for cattle ranches and farms in at least 12 U.S. States, Canada, New Zealand, and Argentina. Also included are banks and insurance companies, hotels and restaurants, real estate development, forestry and mining operations, and transportation and railway companies.[204][205] Investigative journalism from the Truth & Transparency Foundation in 2022 suggests the church may be the owner of the most valuable real estate portfolio in the United States, with a minimum market value of $15.7 billion.[206] The church has also invested in for-profit business and real estate ventures such as City Creek Center.[207]

In December 2019, a whistleblower alleged the church held over $100 billion in investment funds through its investment management company, Ensign Peak Advisors; that it failed to use the funds for charitable purposes and instead used them in for-profit ventures; and that it misled contributors and the public about the usage and extent of those funds. According to the whistleblower, applicable law requires the funds be used for religious, educational or other charitable purposes for the fund to maintain its tax-exempt status.[209] Other commentators have argued that such expenditures may not be legally required as claimed.[210] In response to the allegations, the church's First Presidency stated that "the Church complies with all applicable law governing our donations, investments, taxes, and reserves," and that "a portion" of funds received by the church are "methodically safeguarded through wise financial management and the building of a prudent reserve for the future".[211] The church has not directly addressed the fund's size to the public, but third parties have treated the disclosures as legitimate.[212][o]

In October 2022, The Sydney Morning Herald announced the results of an investigation it conducted together with multiple other media organizations - that while the church publicly claimed to have donated US$1.35 billion to charity between 2008 and 2020, its private financial reports showed that it actually donated only US$0.177 billion to charity in that period.[213]


Due to the differences in lifestyle promoted by church doctrine and history, members of the church have developed a distinct culture. Some scholars have even argued that church members form a distinctive ethnic group.[214] It is primarily concentrated in the Intermountain West. Many of the church's more distinctive practices follow from their adherence to the Word of Wisdom - which includes abstinence from tobacco, alcohol, coffee, and tea - and their observance of Sabbath-day restrictions on recreation and shopping.

Media and arts

The Church-sponsored Tabernacle Choir at Temple Square has received various awards and travelled extensively since its inception.

LDS-themed media includes cinema, fiction, websites, and graphical art such as photography and paintings. The church owns a chain of bookstores called Deseret Book, which provide a channel through which publications are sold; church leaders have authored books and sold them through the publishing arm of the bookstore. BYU TV, the church-sponsored television station, also airs on several networks. The church also produces several pageants annually depicting various events of the primitive and modern-day church. Its Easter pageant Jesus the Christ has been identified as the "largest annual outdoor Easter pageant in the world".[215] The church encourages entertainment without violence, sexual content, or vulgar language; many church members specifically avoid rated-R movies.[216][217]

The church's official choir, the Tabernacle Choir at Temple Square, was formed in the mid-19th century and performs in the Salt Lake Tabernacle. They have travelled to more than 28 countries,[218] and are considered one of the most famous choirs in the world.[219] The choir has received a Grammy Award, three Emmy Awards,[220] two Peabody Awards,[221] and the National Medal of Arts.[222]

Notable members of the church in the media and arts include: Donny Osmond,[223] an American singer, dancer, and actor; Orson Scott Card,[224] author of Ender's Game; Stephenie Meyer,[225] author of the Twilight series; and Glenn Beck,[226] a conservative radio host, television producer, and author. Notable productions related to the church include Murder Among the Mormons, a 2021 Netflix documentary;[227] and The Book of Mormon, a big-budget musical about Mormon missionaries that received nine Tony Awards.[228]

Political involvement

The LDS Church states it generally takes no partisan role in politics,[68] but encourages its members to play an active role as responsible citizens in their communities, including becoming informed about issues and voting. The church maintains that the faith's values can be found among many political parties.[68]

A 2012 Pew Center on Religion and Public Life survey indicates that 74 percent of U.S. members lean towards the Republican Party.[229] Some liberal members say they feel that they have to defend their worthiness due to political differences.[230] Democrats and those who lean Democrat made up 18% of church members surveyed in the 2014 Pew Research Center's Religious Landscape Survey.[231][232]

The official church stance on staying out of politics does not include if there are instances of what church leaders deem to be moral issues, or issues the church "believes ... directly affect [its] interests."[68] It has previously opposed same-sex marriage in California Prop 8,[233] supported a gay rights bill in Salt Lake City which bans discrimination against homosexual persons in housing and employment,[234][235] opposed gambling,[65] opposed storage of nuclear waste in Utah,[236][237] and supported an approach to U.S. immigration policy as outlined in the Utah Compact.[238] It also opposed a ballot initiative legalizing medicinal marijuana in Utah,[239] but supported a possible alternative to it.[240] In 2019 and 2021, the church stated its opposition to the Equality Act, which would prohibit discrimination in the United States on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity, but supports alternate legislation that it says would protect both LGBTQ rights and religious freedom.[241] In 2022, the church stated its support for "appropriate religious protections" in the Respect for Marriage Act, which would codify same-sex marriage as legal in the United States.[242]

In the 117th United States Congress, there are nine LDS Church members, including all six members of Utah's congressional delegation, all of whom are Republicans.[243] Utah's current governor, Spencer Cox, is also a church member,[244] as are supermajorities in both houses of the Utah State Legislature.[245] Church member and current U.S. Senator Mitt Romney was the Republican Party's nominee in the U.S. 2012 presidential election.[246]


Pew 2014 U.S. Religious Landscape Study[247] LDS (U.S.) U.S. Avg.
Married 66% 49%
Divorced or separated 7% 11%
Have children under 18 41% 31%
Attendance at religious services (weekly or more) 77% 40%
Pew Research Center 2007 Race, Ethnicity[248] LDS (U.S.) U.S. Avg.
White, non-Hispanic 86% 71%
Black, non-Hispanic 3% 11%
Other non-Hispanic 5% 6%
Hispanic 7% 12%

The church reports a worldwide membership[p] of 16 million.[253] According to its statistics, the church is the fourth largest religious body in the United States.[254][255] Although the church does not publish attendance figures, researchers estimate that attendance at weekly LDS worship services globally is around 4 million.[61] Members living in the U.S. and Canada constitute 46 percent of membership, Latin America 38 percent, and members in the rest of the world 16 percent.[256] The 2012 Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life survey, conducted by Princeton Survey Research Associates International, found that approximately 2 percent of the U.S. adult population self-identified as Mormon.[247]

The church saw prodigious numerical growth in the latter half of the 20th century, but the growth has since leveled off.

Membership is concentrated geographically in the Intermountain West, in a specific region sometimes known as the Mormon corridor.[257] Church members and some others from the United States colonized this region in the mid-to-late 1800s, dispossessing several indigenous tribes in the process.[49][50] LDS Church influence in the area -- both cultural and political -- is considered strong.[64][245][258] In the last decade, the church has more than doubled in size in Africa; the largest regional increases by raw numbers occurred in the United States, South America, and Africa.[259]

The church experienced rapid numerical growth in the 20th century, especially in the 1980s and 1990s.[260] In the 21st century, however, church membership growth has slowed.[261]

In the United States, church members tend to be more highly educated than the general population. As of 2012, 54 percent of LDS men and 44 percent of women have post-secondary education; the general American population stands at 37 percent and 28 percent, respectively.[262] The racial and ethnic composition of membership in the United States is one of the least diverse in the country. Church membership is predominantly white;[263] the membership of blacks is significantly lower than the general U.S. population.[264]

The LDS Church does not release official statistics on church activity, but it is likely that only approximately 40 percent of its recorded membership in the United States and 30 percent worldwide regularly attend weekly Sunday worship services.[265][266][267] A statistical analysis of the 2014 Pew Religious Landscape Survey assessed that "about one-third of those with a Latter-day Saint background... left the Church", identifying as disaffiliated.[268] Activity rates vary with age, and disengagement occurs most frequently between age 16 and 25. Young single adults are more likely to become inactive than their married counterparts,[269] and overall, women tend to be more active than men.[270]

Humanitarian services

U.S. Navy sailors moving LDS Church-donated humanitarian supplies to Beirut, Lebanon, in 2006

The LDS Church provides worldwide humanitarian service,[271][272] and is considered widely known for it.[192] The church's welfare and humanitarian efforts are coordinated by Philanthropies, a church department under the direction of the Presiding Bishopric.[192] Welfare efforts, originally initiated during the Great Depression, provide aid for the poor, financed by donations from church members. Philanthropies is also responsible for philanthropic[q] donations to the LDS Church and other affiliated charities, such as the Church History Library, the Church Educational System (and its subsidiary organizations), the Tabernacle Choir at Temple Square and funds for LDS missionaries.[273][274] Donations are also used to operate bishop's storehouses, which package and store food for the poor at low cost, and provide other local services.[275] In 2016, the church reported that it had spent a total of $1.2 billion on humanitarian aid over the previous 30 years.[192]

Church humanitarian aid includes organizing food security, clean water, mobility, and healthcare initiatives, operating thrift stores, maintaining a service project website, and directly funding or partnering with other organizations. The church reports that the value of all charitable donations in 2021 was $906 million.[14][15] Independent reporting has found that the Church's charity organization, LDS Charities, gave a total of $177 million from 2008 to 2020.[276]

The church also distributes money and aid to disaster victims worldwide.[277] In 2005, the church partnered with Catholic Relief Services to provide aid to Niger.[278] In 2010, it partnered with Islamic Relief to help victims of flooding in Pakistan.[279] Latter-day Saint Charities (a branch of the church's welfare department) increased food production during the COVID-19 pandemic and donated healthcare supplies to 16 countries affected by the crisis.[280] The church has donated $4 million to aid refugees fleeing from the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[281] In 2022, the church gave $32 million to the United Nations World Food Programme, in its largest one-time donation to a humanitarian organization to that point.[282]

Discrimination and persecution

The LDS Church and other churches within Mormonism have been the subject of discrimination and sometimes violent persecution. The most vocal and strident opposition occurred during the 19th century, particularly the forceful expulsion from Missouri and Illinois in the 1830s and 1840s, during the Utah War of the 1850s, and in the second half of the century.[283]

Violent persecution against the LDS Church occurred in the early 1830s in Missouri. Mormons tended to vote as a bloc there, wielding "considerable political and economic influence," often unseating local political leadership and earning long-lasting enmity in the frontier communities.[284] These differences culminated in the Missouri Mormon War and the eventual issuing of an executive order (since called the extermination order within the LDS community) by Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs, which declared that "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State." Three days later, a renegade militia unit attacked a Mormon settlement at Haun's Mill, resulting in the death of 18 Mormons and no militiamen. The extermination order was not formally rescinded until 1976.

Among those with religious motives, Daniel C. Peterson has identified two major streams of modern anti-Mormon thought. The first is "traditional anti-Mormonism"[clarification needed], and the second, Evangelicals who state themselves as being anti-cult practitioners. Peterson alleges that critics in this category generally try to explain Mormonism in naturalistic terms.[285]

In recent years, an increasing number of meetinghouses and other church facilities have been the targets of vandalism or arson.[286] In 2022, the Orem Utah Temple was damaged by arson while under construction.[287][288][289]

Criticism and controversy

The LDS Church has been subject to criticism and the subject of controversy since its early years in New York and Pennsylvania.

Modern criticism of the church includes disputed factual claims, claims of historical revisionism by the church,[290] child sexual abuse, homophobia,[291] racism,[292][293][294] and sexist policies.[295][296] Notable 20th-century critics include Jerald and Sandra Tanner[297] and historian Fawn Brodie.[298][299]

Child sexual abuse

The church has been criticized for a number of alleged abuses perpetrated by local church leadership. In other cases, church leaders have been criticized for allegedly failing to properly report abuse to law enforcement.


In the late 1820s, criticism centered on the claim by Joseph Smith to have been led to a set of gold plates from which the Book of Mormon was reputedly translated.[300][301]

Mainstream academic scholarship does not conclude the Book of Mormon is of an ancient origin and considers the book to be a 19th-century composition.[302] Scholars have pointed out a number of anachronisms within the text. They argue that no evidence of a reformed Egyptian language has ever been discovered.[303][304] Also, general archaeological and genetic evidence has not supported the book's statements about any known indigenous peoples of the Americas.[305][306]

Since its publication in 1842, the Book of Abraham (currently published as part of the canonical Pearl of Great Price) has also been a major source of controversy. Numerous non-Mormon Egyptologists, beginning in the late 19th century,[307] have disagreed with Joseph Smith's explanations of the book's facsimiles. The translation of the original papyri[r] does not match the text of the Book of Abraham as purportedly translated by Joseph Smith.[308] Indeed, the transliterated text from the recovered papyri and facsimiles published in the Book of Abraham contain no direct references to Abraham.[309][310][311] Scholars have also asserted that damaged portions of the papyri have been reconstructed incorrectly by Smith or his associates.

Plural marriage

Polygamy (called plural marriage within the church) was practiced by church leaders for more than half of the 19th century,[312] and practiced publicly from 1852 to 1890 by between 20 and 30 percent of Latter-day Saint families.[313][314] It was instituted privately in the 1830s by founder Joseph Smith and announced publicly in 1852 at the direction of Brigham Young.[314]

For over 60 years, the church and the United States were at odds over the issue: at one point, the Republican platform referenced "the twin relics of barbarism--polygamy and slavery."[315] The church defended the practice as a matter of religious freedom, while the federal government aggressively sought to eradicate it; in 1862, the United States Congress passed the Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act, which prohibited plural marriage in the territories.[314]

In 1890, church president Wilford Woodruff issued a Manifesto that officially terminated the practice,[316] although it did not dissolve existing plural marriages. Some church members continued to enter into polygamous marriages, but these eventually stopped in 1904 when church president Joseph F. Smith disavowed polygamy before Congress and issued a "Second Manifesto," calling for all plural marriages in the church to cease. Several small fundamentalist groups, seeking to continue the practice, split from the LDS Church, but the mainline church now excommunicates members found practicing polygamy and distances itself from those fundamentalist groups.[317]

Ethnic minorities

African Americans

From the administration of Brigham Young until 1978, the church did not allow black people to receive the priesthood[s] or to enter the temple.[318][t] Public pressure during the United States' civil rights movement had preceded the priesthood ban being rescinded.[u]

Native Americans

Church leadership and publications have previously taught that Native Americans are descendants of Lamanites, a dark-skinned and cursed people from the Book of Mormon.[324][325] More recently, claims by Mormon researchers and publications generally favor a smaller geographic footprint of Lamanite descendants.[326] Mainstream science and archaeology fail to provide any evidence for the existence of populations of Lamanites.[v] Current church publications state that the exact extent and identity of Lamanite descendants is unknown.[329][w]

The church ran an Indian Placement Program between the 1950s and the 1990s, wherein indigenous children were adopted by white church members. Criticism resulted during and after the program, including claims of improper assimilation and even abuse.[332][292] However, many of the involved students and families praised the program,[333] and positive outcomes were reported for many participants.[334]


Some Jewish groups criticized the LDS Church in 1995 after discovering that vicarious baptisms for the dead for victims of the Holocaust had been performed by members of the church.[335][336] After that criticism, church leaders put a policy in place to stop the practice, with an exception for baptisms specifically requested or approved by victims' relatives.[337] Jewish organizations again criticized the church in 2002, 2004, 2008, and 2012[338][339] stating that the church failed to honor the 1995 agreement.[337] The LDS Church says it has put institutional safeguards in place to avoid the submission of the names of Holocaust victims not related to Mormon members, but that the sheer number of names submitted makes policing the database of names impractical.[335]

Sexual minorities

The church's views on sexual minorities have been criticized, though these mostly conform to the teaching of conservative Christian Catholic and Protestant churches. In 2008, top leaders requested adherents to donate time and money in the campaign for California's Proposition 8 against same-sex marriage; this sparked heated debate and protest by gay-rights organizations and others.[340][341][342] In 2009 the church expressed support for a Salt Lake City ordinance protecting gay and lesbian people against discrimination in employment and housing, but wanted an exception for religious institutions from this ordinance.[343] Further controversy resulted when, in November 2015, the church adopted a policy considering those in same-sex unions apostates, and barring their children from receiving blessings or being baptized under most circumstances.[344][345] In April 2019, the church reversed this policy, citing efforts to be more accepting to people of all backgrounds.[346][347]

Protesters in front of the Newport Beach California Temple voicing their opposition to the church's support of Prop 8

Criticism of Joseph Smith

In the 1830s, the church was criticized for Smith's handling of a banking failure in Kirtland, Ohio.[348] After the Mormons migrated west, there was fear and suspicion about the LDS Church's political and military power in Missouri,[349] culminating in the 1838 Mormon War and the Mormon Extermination Order (Missouri Executive Order 44) by Governor Lilburn Boggs. In the 1840s, criticism of the church included its theocratic aspirations in Nauvoo, Illinois. Criticism of the practice of plural marriage and other doctrines taught by Smith were published in the Nauvoo Expositor.[350] Opposition led to a series of events culminating in the killing of Smith and his brother while jailed in 1844.[351]

Financial allegations

The church's failure to make its finances public has drawn criticism from commentators who consider its practices too secretive.[352][353][354] The disclosure of the $100 billion church-controlled fund has led to criticism that its wealth may be excessive.[355] Critical commentators have asserted that the church uses its corporate structure to "optimize its asset and capital management by moving money and assets between [its] tax-exempt and regular businesses as loans, donations or investments."[205][x]

The church has been accused of "significant tax evasion" in Australia. According to an investigation by Australian newspapers, The Daily Age and The Sun Herald, the church's corporation LDS Charities Australia was the recipient of nearly $70 million in donations annually (which is tax exempt under Australian law, as opposed to religious donations, which are not) but appeared to actually spend very little of it on charity. According to the investigation, tithing and other religious donations were routed through the corporation to ensure they would be tax exempt. The investigation does not reference any internal church documents to confirm their findings.[357][358] The church has previously fought to keep its internal financial information out of the public record.[359] In Canada, a total of more than 1 billion dollars collected through tithing has been transferred tax-free to church universities over a 15-year period.[360]


Mormon apologetics organizations, such as FAIR and the Maxwell Institute seek to counter criticisms of the church and its leaders. Most of the apologetic work focuses on providing and discussing evidence supporting the claims of Smith and the Book of Mormon. Scholars and authors such as Hugh Nibley,[361] Daniel C. Peterson,[362] and others are well-known apologists within the church.

See also


  1. ^ often referred to as "the Prophet"
  2. ^ The church considers Jesus Christ as the founder, and Joseph Smith as the restorer.[]
  3. ^ as reported by the Church itself.
  4. ^ equivalent to the Eucharist or holy communion
  5. ^ In this account, the personages in question are inferred - though never expressly stated - to be God the Father and his Son, Jesus Christ.Question: Did the actual words "God the Father" and "Jesus Christ" appear in Joseph's 1838 account of the First Vision?, Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research (FAIR)
  6. ^ However, it is estimated based on demographic studies that approximately one-third of the total worldwide membership - about 4.5 million people as of 2014 - are regularly attending churchgoers.[61][62]
  7. ^ The church cautions against overemphasis of growth statistics for comparison with other churches because relevant factors--including activity rates and death rates, methodology used in registering or counting members, what factors constitute membership, and geographical variations--are rarely accounted for in the comparisons.[63]
  8. ^ However, the Catholic Church considers doctrinal differences between the two groups to be so great that it will not accept a prior LDS baptism as evidence of Christian initiation, as it will baptism by other Christian groups, such as the Eastern Orthodox and Protestant churches.[87] The LDS Church, in its turn, does not accept baptisms performed in any other churches, as it teaches that baptism is only valid when it is conducted through proper priesthood authority.[88]
  9. ^ which Latter-day Saints view as distinct from immortality
  10. ^ Joseph Smith-Matthew and the Book of Moses, containing translations and revelatory expansions of Matthew 24 and Genesis 1-7, respectively, are contained in the Pearl of Great Price.
  11. ^ referred to as the sacrament
  12. ^ During the Church's October 2018 General Conference, Nelson declared that the use of nicknames such as Mormon represented "a major victory for Satan."[163][164][165]
  13. ^ consisting of the First Presidency, Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, first two Quorums of Seventy and the Presiding Bishopric
  14. ^ The only paid positions in the Church are general authorities and mission presidents.
  15. ^ Additionally, one of the faith's apostles may have implicitly confirmed the accuracy of the $100 billion figure, as reported in 2019. When speaking before the National Press Club in 2022, Elder David A. Bednar was asked about the figure. He stated (perhaps jokingly) that "if you take a look at the stock market, I don't think it's $100 (billion) anymore."At National Press Club, Elder Bednar responds to questions about church finances, portrayal of church in media. Deseret News.
  16. ^ The church's definition of "membership" includes all persons who were ever baptized, or whose parents were members while the person was under the age of eight (called "members of record"),[249] who have neither been excommunicated nor asked to have their names removed from church records[250] with approximately 8.3 million residing outside the United States, as of December 2011.[251][252]
  17. ^ not tithing or fast offering
  18. ^ by both Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists
  19. ^ and therefore to hold many leadership positions
  20. ^ Prior to 1978, some church leaders taught that those of black races were less valiant in the pre-mortal existence as a justification for the priesthood ban; other church leaders rejected the idea. See Black people and Mormonism#Teachings about black people for additional details. Apostle Joseph Fielding Smith, who would later become the church's 12th President, implied strongly in his book Answers to Gospel Questions that the priesthood ban was eternal and implied that black races were cursed by their nature.Full text of "JFS Answers To Gospel Questions, Vol 1") On the other hand, other church leaders argued that the ban was not eternal.Statements made by Church leaders regarding the priesthood ban Teachings of an eternally cursed black race were explicitly repudiated through official church channels in 2013.[319][320]
  21. ^ In 1963, Hugh B. Brown made a statement on civil rights during General Conference in order to avert a planned protest of the conference by the NAACP.[321] During the late 1960s and 1970s, black athletes at some universities refused to compete against teams from church owned Brigham Young University.[322] A protest in 1974 was in response to the exclusion of black scouts to become leaders in church sponsored Boy Scout troops.[323]
  22. ^ Genetic studies indicate that the indigenous Americans are related to the present populations in Mongolia, Siberia, and the vicinity,[327][328] as opposed to the Middle Eastern origins of Lamanites implied by the Book of Mormon
  23. ^ Prior to 2006, the introduction to church-published editions of the Book of Mormon stated Lamanites form the "principal ancestors of the American Indians." Since the 2006 edition, the same passage now reads they are "among the ancestors of the American Indians." [330][331]
  24. ^ The whistleblower behind the disclosure of the $100-billion church-controlled fund (Ensign Peak Advisors or EPA), echoed these allegations. He stated the Church sends excess tithing income to EPA where it is "merged, sliced and diced into portfolios and limited liability companies designed to fly under radars and reporting limits."[356]


  1. ^ "American Prophet:Joseph Smith". PBS Utah. Archived from the original on May 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021. On April 6, 1830, Joseph Smith organized The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and became its first president.
  2. ^ Green, Doyle L. (January 1971). "April 6, 1830: The Day the Church Was Organized". Ensign. Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Archived from the original on October 24, 2021. Retrieved 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d "2021 Statistical Report for the April 2022 Conference". April 2, 2022. Archived from the original on April 3, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  4. ^ a b "Topic: Education",, LDS Church, May 24, 2011, archived from the original on June 27, 2019, retrieved 2014
  5. ^ "Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints | Description, History, & Beliefs". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  6. ^ "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints established". A&E Television Networks. February 9, 2010. Archived from the original on September 22, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  7. ^ Nelson, President Russell M. (October 2018). "The Correct Name of the Church". Archived from the original on October 7, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  8. ^ "25 Largest Christian Denominations in the United States, 2012". Unitarian Universalist Association. Archived from the original on September 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  9. ^ "LDS Statistics and Church Facts | Total Church Membership". Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Archived from the original on June 28, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  10. ^ "For salvation cometh to none such except it be through repentance and faith on the Lord Jesus Christ." Book of Mormon, Mosiah 3:12
  11. ^ "Salvation and Atonement". BBC - Religions. October 5, 2009. Archived from the original on April 22, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  12. ^ a b Kennedy, John W. (February 2004), "Winning them softly", Christianity Today, vol. 48, no. 2, archived from the original on October 14, 2006, retrieved 2006
  13. ^ a b Mormons. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. May 23, 2018. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  14. ^ a b "This is how much was spent on charity in 2021 by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints". Deseret News. May 13, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  15. ^ a b "What in the world is the LDS Church doing to help those in need?". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2022.
  16. ^ Van Beek, Wouter. Covenants. Encyclopedia of Mormonism. Archived from the original on May 1, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Embry, Jesse L. "Mormons". Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  18. ^ a b Hansen, Klaus. "Mormonism". Encyclopedia of Religion. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  19. ^ Scholars and eyewitnesses disagree whether the church was organized in Manchester, New York at the Smith log home, or in Fayette at the home of Peter Whitmer. Bushman 2005, p. 109; Marquardt 2005, pp. 223-23 (arguing that organization in Manchester is most consistent with eye-witness statements). The LDS Church officially favors organization in Fayette.Lloyd, R. Scott (May 22, 2009), "'Major discovery' discussed at Mormon History Association Conference", LDS Church News, LDS Church, archived from the original on March 27, 2019, retrieved 2014
  20. ^ Doctrine and Covenants 115:4.
  21. ^ Book of Mormon, "Introduction".
  22. ^ Bushman 2005, p. 122; LDS D&C 57:1-3; LDS D&C 84:4: "the city New Jerusalem shall be built by the gathering of the saints, beginning at [Jackson County, Missouri], even the place of the temple, which temple shall be reared in this generation".
  23. ^ Brodie 1971, p. 97 (citing letter by Smith to Kirtland converts, quoted in Howe 1833, p. 111). In 1834, Smith designated Kirtland as one of the "stakes" of Zion, referring to the tent-stakes metaphor of Isaiah 54:2.
  24. ^ Bushman 2005, p. 162; Brodie 1971, p. 109.
  25. ^ Smith said in 1831 that God intended the Mormons to "retain a strong hold in the land of Kirtland, for the space of five years". (Doctrine and Covenants 64:21).
  26. ^ Bushman 2005, pp. 222-27; Brodie 1971, p. 137 (noting that the brutality of the Jackson Countians aroused sympathy for the Mormons and was almost universally deplored by the media).
  27. ^ Brodie 1971, pp. 141, 146-59; Bushman 2005, p. 322.
  28. ^ Brodie 1971, p. 101; Arrington 1992, p. 21 (by summer of 1835, there were 1500 to 2000 Saints in Kirtland); Desert Morning News 2008 Church Almanac p. 655 (from 1831 to 1838, church membership grew from 680 to 17,881).
  29. ^ Bushman 2005, pp. 310-19; Brodie 1971, p. 178.
  30. ^ Bushman 2005, pp. 328-38; Brooke 1994, p. 221 ("Ultimately, the rituals and visions dedicating the Kirtland temple were not sufficient to hold the church together in the face of a mounting series of internal disputes.")
  31. ^ Roberts 1905, p. 24 (referring to the Far West church as the "church in Zion"); Bushman 2005, p. 345 (The revelation calling Far West "Zion" had the effect of "implying that Far West was to take the place of Independence".)
  32. ^ Bushman 2005, pp. 357-364; Brodie 1971, pp. 227-30; Remini 2002, p. 134; Quinn 1994, pp. 97-98.
  33. ^ Bushman 2005, p. 367 (Boggs' executive order stated that the Mormon community had "made war upon the people of this State" and that "the Mormons must be treated as enemies, and must be exterminated or driven from the State if necessary for the public peace"). In 1976, Missouri issued a formal apology for this unconstitutional order (Bushman 2005, p. 398).
  34. ^ Bushman 2005, pp. 383-84.
  35. ^ Bushman 2005, p. 409; Brodie 1971, pp. 258, 264-65.
  36. ^ Brodie 1971, pp. 334-36; Bushman 2005, pp. 437, 644.
  37. ^ Widmer 2000, p. 119 (Smith echoed the words of Paul that faithful saints may become co-heirs with Jesus Romans 8:17); Roberts 1909, pp. 502-03; Bushman 2005, pp. 497-98 (the second anointing provided a conditional guarantee that those persons who were pure and faithful would be exalted, even if they sinned, if they were sealed by the Holy Spirit of promise).
  38. ^ Quinn 1994, pp. 120-22; Bushman 2005, pp. 519-21 (describing the Council of Fifty noting that Smith prophesied "the entire overthrow of this nation in a few years", at which time the Kingdom of God would be prepared to lead)
  39. ^ "Mission of the Prophet Joseph Smith - First Vision: This Is My Beloved Son. Hear Him!",, LDS Church, archived from the original on October 21, 2014, retrieved 2014; Allen 1966, p. 29 (belief in the First Vision now considered second in importance only to belief in the divinity of Jesus.); Hinckley, Gordon B. (November 1998), "What Are People Asking about Us?", Ensign, archived from the original on July 5, 2020, retrieved 2019, [N]othing we teach, nothing we live by is of greater importance than this initial declaration.
  40. ^ Lyon, Stephanie J. (2013). "Psychotherapy and the Mormon Faith". Journal of Religion and Health. 52 (2): 622-630. doi:10.1007/s10943-013-9677-2. ISSN 0022-4197. PMID 23337975. S2CID 29536957.
  41. ^ Garr, Cannon & Cowan 2000, p. 824; Brodie 1971, pp. 393-94; Bushman 2005.
  42. ^ Bentley, Joseph I. (1992), "Smith, Joseph: Legal Trials of Joseph Smith", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1346-1348, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, archived from the original on November 15, 2014, retrieved 2014
  43. ^ Quinn 1994, p. 143; Brodie 1971, p. 398.
  44. ^ Bushman 2005, pp. 556-57.
  45. ^ Quinn 1994, pp. 198-211.
  46. ^ "Community of Christ". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021. The doctrines of the church are derived from the Bible, the Book of Mormon, and the Doctrine and Covenants (recognized revelations to church leaders). Brigham Young and his position on polygamy are rejected; there are other beliefs and practices they do not share with the Mormons, including the ordination of women.
  47. ^ "Other Mormons". Encyclopedia of American Religions. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  48. ^ "Mormon Pioneer National Historic Trail: History & Culture". U.S. National Park Service. Archived from the original on December 8, 2014. The great Mormon migration of 1846-1847 was but one step in the LDS' quest for religious freedom and growth.
  49. ^ a b Farmer 2008, pp. 28, 249-250, 365.
  50. ^ a b Defa, Dennis R. (1994). "Goshute Indians". In Powell, Allen Kent (ed.). Utah History Encyclopedia. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.
  51. ^ See Tullidge, Edward, History of Salt Lake City, 132-35 (Original from the University of Michigan, 1886).
  52. ^ Bowman 2012, pp. 120-123.
  53. ^ "The Mormons". American Eras. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  54. ^ Firmage, Edwin Brown; Mangrum, Richard Collin (2002), Zion in the Courts: A Legal History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 1830-1900, U. of Illinois Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-252-06980-3, archived from the original on October 24, 2021, retrieved 2020
  55. ^ Official Declaration -- 1
  56. ^ Hinckley, Gordon B. (November 1998), "What Are People Asking About Us?", Ensign: 70, archived from the original on July 5, 2020, retrieved 2019
  57. ^ Anderson, J. Max (1992). ""Fundamentalists"". The Encyclopedia of Mormonism. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  58. ^ "Polygamy-Practicing". Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  59. ^ Watson, F. Michael (May 2001), "Statistical Report, 2000", Ensign: 22
  60. ^ Stack, Peggy Fletcher (September 14, 2010), "LDS Church ramps up on global stage", The Salt Lake Tribune, archived from the original on June 29, 2011, retrieved 2011
  61. ^ a b Stack, Peggy Fletcher (July 26, 2005), "Keeping members a challenge for LDS church", The Salt Lake Tribune, archived from the original on February 4, 2012, retrieved 2011
  62. ^ Stack, Peggy (January 13, 2014). "New almanac offers look at the world of Mormon membership". The Washington Post. Religion News Service. Archived from the original on October 23, 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  63. ^ "Background: Growth of the Church",, LDS Church, archived from the original on June 27, 2019, retrieved 2014
  64. ^ a b c "Mormon Political Clout". Berkeley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. August 14, 2018. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  65. ^ a b "Utah's Gambling Referendum Sparks Emotional Debate in Mormon 'Zion'". The Washington Post. August 19, 1992.
  66. ^ "Topic: Same-Gender Attraction",, LDS Church, archived from the original on June 27, 2019, retrieved 2014
  67. ^ "Topic: Euthanasia and Prolonging Life",, LDS Church, archived from the original on June 27, 2019, retrieved 2014
  68. ^ a b c d "News Story: Church Reemphasizes Political Neutrality",, LDS Church, December 6, 2007, archived from the original on June 28, 2019, retrieved 2019
  69. ^ Bush, Lester E. Jr. (1984). "Mormonism's Negro Doctrine: An Historical Overview". In Bush, Lester E. Jr.; Mauss, Armand L. (eds.). Neither White nor Black: Mormon Scholars Confront the Race Issue in a Universal Church. Midvale, Utah: Signature Books. p. 70. ISBN 0-941214-22-2. OCLC 11103077. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  70. ^ "About Us". Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  71. ^ "Catholic Relief Services recognizes Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with Deus Caritas Est Award". Intermountain Catholic. June 15, 2007. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  72. ^ Durham, Cole (August 1999). The Impact of Secularization on Proselytism in Europe: A Minority Religion Perspective. Global Mormonism in the 21st Century. Archived from the original on January 25, 2021. Retrieved 2021. focusing specifically on secularization challenges in Western and Eastern Europe
  73. ^ "The Secular Transition: The Worldwide Growth of Mormons, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Seventh-day Adventists". Sociology of Religion. April 9, 2010. CiteSeerX Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  74. ^ Phil Zuckerman Ph.D. (May 6, 2019). "Secularization Hits the Mormons". Psychology Today. Archived from the original on October 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  75. ^ Sandberg, Karl C. (Winter 1989). "Knowing Brother Joseph Again: The Book of Abraham, and Joseph Smith as Translator". Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 22 (4): 17-37. doi:10.2307/45228258. JSTOR 45228258. S2CID 254389117. See also Dialogue Topic Pages #5: The Book of Abraham Archived June 24, 2021, at the Wayback Machine and sources located there.
  76. ^ Lindsey, Robert (1988). A Gathering of Saints: A true story of money, murder, and deceit. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-65112-9.
  77. ^ Taylor, Scott (May 8, 2018). "Timeline of the Church and Boy Scouts of America". Church News. Archived from the original on August 20, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  78. ^ Hopkinson, Savannah (May 9, 2018). "Church to End Relationship with Scouting; Announces New Activity Program for Children and Youth". Church News. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  79. ^ "Mormon Church breaks all ties with Boy Scouts, ending 100-year relationship". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on January 9, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  80. ^ Boy Scouts of America Membership Report - 2007 (PDF), P.R.A.Y., January 7, 2008, archived from the original (PDF) on May 28, 2008, retrieved 2008
  81. ^ Volluz, Corbin (2006). "Jesus Christ as Elder Brother". Brigham Young University Studies. 45 (2): 141-158. ISSN 0007-0106. JSTOR 43044523.
  82. ^ "The Fortunate Fall of Adam and Eve | Religious Studies Center". Retrieved 2021.
  83. ^ "Agency". Retrieved 2021.
  84. ^ a b Mason, Patrick (September 3, 2015). "Mormonism". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.75. ISBN 978-0-19-934037-8. Archived from the original on October 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  85. ^ "Salvation and Atonement". BBC - Religions. October 5, 2009. Archived from the original on April 22, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  86. ^ Book of Mormon Atonement Doctrine Examined in Context of Atonement Theology in the Environment of its Publication (Thesis). August 9, 2012. Archived from the original on April 23, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  87. ^ Fr. Luis Ladaria, S.J. "The Question of the Validity of Baptism Conferred in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints". Archived from the original on January 16, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  88. ^ "The Restoration of The Gospel in the Latter Days". Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  89. ^ a b c Carter, K. Codell (1992). "Godhood". In Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.). Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Macmillan Publishing. pp. 553-55. ISBN 0-02-879602-0. OCLC 24502140. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved 2014. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints teaches that all resurrected and perfected mortals become gods. [...] Those who achieve this state of perfection will become joint-heirs with Christ. [...] Latter-day Saints believe that those who become gods will have the opportunity to [...] add[] further offspring to the eternal family.
  90. ^ See Presbyterians and Latter-day Saints, archived from the original on January 23, 2010, retrieved 2007 (Presbyterian Church USA, stating that "Mormonism is a new and emerging religious tradition distinct from the historic apostolic tradition of the Christian Church"); Should Lutherans Rebaptize Former Mormons Who Are Joining the Congregation?, archived from the original on February 11, 2006, retrieved 2006 Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, stating that LDS Church doctrine regarding the Trinity is "substantially different from that of orthodox, creedal Christianity".
  91. ^ *Ratzinger, Joseph (June 5, 2001), "Response to a 'dubium' on the validity of baptism conferred by 'The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints', called 'Mormons'", Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, archived from the original on August 14, 2006, retrieved 2006 (the official Roman Catholic view).
  92. ^ Mormons in America: Certain in Their Beliefs, Uncertain of Their Place in Society Archived September 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life 2012, p.10: Mormons are nearly unanimous in describing Mormonism as a Christian religion, with 97% expressing this point of view
  93. ^ Smith, Joseph Jr. (March 1, 1842a), "Church History [Wentworth Letter]", Times and Seasons, 3 (9): 706-10 [707], archived from the original on May 30, 2012, retrieved 2009 (traditional Christian denominations "were believing in incorrect doctrines, and that none of them was acknowledged of God as His church and kingdom"). Smith, Joseph Jr. (April 1, 1842c), "History of Joseph Smith", Times and Seasons, 3 (11): 748-49, archived from the original on November 1, 2009, retrieved 2009 Stating that Jesus told Smith that all existing Christian creeds "were an abomination in his sight".
  94. ^ According to Joseph Smith, Jesus told him that the other churches claiming to be Christian creeds "were an abomination in the Lords sight; that those professors [of religion] were all corrupt". Pearl of Great Price, Joseph Smith-History 1:19.
  95. ^ Paulsen, David L.; Boyd, Hal R. (2015). "The Nature of God in Mormon Thought". In Givens, Terryl L.; Barlow, Philip L. (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Mormonism. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 246-259. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199778362.001.0001. ISBN 9780199778362. "Therefore, the Mormon conception of the Godhead is more akin to what contemporary Christian theologians call Social Trinitarianism" (253).{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  96. ^ Dahl, Paul E. (1992). "Godhead". In Ludlow, Daniel H. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Mormonism. New York: Macmillan Publishing. pp. 552-553. ISBN 978-0-02-904040-9.
  97. ^ ""A Mother There"". BYU Studies. August 6, 2019. Retrieved 2021.
  98. ^ Duin, Julia (June 24, 2022). "God's wife? Mormon women want to know more about 'Heavenly Mother' as church leaders insist the faithful pray only to the Heavenly Father". Newsweek.
  99. ^ "What Mormons Believe About Jesus Christ--LDS Newsroom". Retrieved 2013.
  100. ^ "Joseph Smith History 1:18-19". Retrieved 2013.
  101. ^ Smith, Joseph Fielding, ed. (1976) [1938], Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, p. 370
  102. ^ McConkie, Bruce R. (May 1985), "The Purifying Power of Gethsemane", Ensign: 9
  103. ^ Bushman 2008, p. 74
  104. ^ "Becoming Like God". Gospel Topics Essays. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on October 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  105. ^ Pope, Margaret McConkie (1992), "Exaltation", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, p. 479, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, archived from the original on January 17, 2013, retrieved 2016 ("All Church ordinances lead to exaltation, and the essential crowning ordinances are the Endowment and the eternal marriage covenant of the temple.")
  106. ^ Bushman 2008, p. 61. "Members are baptized, given the gift of the Holy Ghost, endowed, married, and sealed".
  107. ^ Penrose, Charles W. (1897), Mormon Doctrine Plain and Simple, or Leaves from the Tree of Life, Salt Lake City, UT, p. 66 ("In the case of a man marrying a wife in the everlasting covenant who dies while he continues in the flesh and marries another by the same divine law, each wife will come forth in her order and enter with him into his glory.");
    Smith, Joseph Fielding (1954-1956), McConkie, Bruce R. (ed.), Doctrines of Salvation: Sermons and Writings of Joseph Fielding Smith, vol. 2, Bookcraft, p. 2 (stating of his deceased wives: "my wives will be mine forever").
  108. ^ A man may be sealed to more than one wife if his previous wives are either dead or legally divorced from him; a living woman, however, may only be sealed to one husband (LDS Church 2006, p. 85). Thus, there is a common view within the LDS Church that though prohibited by the LDS Church in mortality, plural marriage will exist in the afterlife.[107]
  109. ^ See Hyer, Paul V. (1992), "Sealing: Temple Sealings", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 1289-1290, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, archived from the original on April 18, 2016, retrieved 2016; Thomas, Ryan L. (1992), "Adoption of Children", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, pp. 20-21, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, archived from the original on April 18, 2016, retrieved 2016.
    Children born to biological parents who have been sealed to each other are considered "born in the covenant" and need not be sealed to their parents. See Cottrell, Ralph L. (1992), "Born in the Covenant", in Ludlow, Daniel H (ed.), Encyclopedia of Mormonism, New York: Macmillan Publishing, p. 218, ISBN 0-02-879602-0, OCLC 24502140, archived from the original on March 14, 2016, retrieved 2016
  110. ^ Tingey, Earl C. "The Simple Truths from Heaven--The Lord's Pattern". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on April 17, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  111. ^ Preach My Gospel: A Guide to Missionary Service (PDF). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. p. 33. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 10, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  112. ^ Brown, Matthew B. (2000). All Things Restored: Evidences and Witnesses of the Restoration. American Fork, Utah: Covenant Communications. ISBN 978-1577347125.
  113. ^ Bickmore, Barry R. (2013) [1999]. Restoring the Ancient Church: Joseph Smith and Early Christianity. Redding, California: FairMormon. ISBN 978-1893036161. Archived from the original on January 23, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  114. ^ Shipps, Jan (1988). Hughes, Richard T. (ed.). "The Reality of the Restoration and the Restoration Ideal in the Mormon Tradition". The American Quest for the Primitive Church. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. pp. 181-195. ISBN 978-0252060298. Archived from the original on April 16, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  115. ^ Russell, Thomas A. (2010). Comparative Christianity: A Student's Guide to a Religion and Its Diverse Traditions. Irvine, CA: Universal Publishers: 'Mormon Restorationism is the largest indigenous religious movement found in North America. Among its member churches are the approximately 100 or so groups that trace their roots,' Chapter XVI: 'Joseph Smith, Jr. and Mormon Restorationism,' p. 151.
  116. ^ "Infallible? Mormons told to 'follow the prophet'". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  117. ^ Welker, Holly (March 24, 2014). "The Mormon Version of Infallibility". Religion Dispatches. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  118. ^ Dockstader, Julie (November 4, 1999). "Proclamations, declarations clarify, reaffirm LDS doctrine". The Church News. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  119. ^ "How Rare a Proclamation: A Look at Today's and the 5 Previous Proclamations in Church History - Church News and Events". Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  120. ^ "Proclamations of the First Presidency and the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992)". Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  121. ^ The Family: A Proclamation to the World, LDS Church, 1995. See also: The Family: A Proclamation to the World
  122. ^ Mormons. Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. May 21, 2018. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  123. ^ Williams, Clyde J. "Standard Works". Encyclopedia of Mormonism (1992). Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  124. ^ Jana Kathryn Riess. Book of Mormon. Contemporary American Religion. Archived from the original on April 26, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  125. ^ Scott H. Faulring, Kent P. Jackson, and Robert J. Matthews, eds. Joseph Smith's New Translation of the Bible: Original Manuscripts. Provo, Utah: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2004, p. 39.
  126. ^ a b c "Mormons". Worldmark Encyclopedia of Cultures and Daily Life. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  127. ^ a b Eyring, Henry B. (November 2012), "The Sustaining of Church Officers", Ensign, archived from the original on October 24, 2021, retrieved 2019
  128. ^ Oaks, Dallin H. (May 2008), "Testimony", Ensign, archived from the original on October 24, 2021, retrieved 2019
  129. ^ Preach My Gospel: A Guide to Missionary Service (PDF). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. p. 39. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 10, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  130. ^ "Patriarchal Blessings". Retrieved 2021.
  131. ^ "BBC - Religions - Mormon: Baptism". Retrieved 2021.
  132. ^ "Sealing". Retrieved 2021.
  133. ^ "Endowment". Retrieved 2021.
  134. ^ "BBC - Religions - Mormon: Deification". Retrieved 2021.
  135. ^ ""The Mismeasure of Man"". BYU-Pathway. Retrieved 2021.
  136. ^ Forgie, Adam (August 14, 2019). "LDS Church clarifies 'Word of Wisdom' on vaping, green tea, coffee, marijuana, opioids". KUTV. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  137. ^ Mason, Patrick (September 3, 2015). "Mormonism". Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Religion. doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199340378.013.75. ISBN 978-0-19-934037-8. Archived from the original on October 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021. Observant Mormons... adhere to the "law of chastity," meaning that they engage in no premarital or extramarital sexual relations and confine sex only to monogamous heterosexual marriages.
  138. ^ "Latter-day Saint sex therapist faces excommunication over views on sexuality". April 16, 2021. Archived from the original on April 20, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  139. ^ "Gospel Topics: Tithing",, LDS Church, archived from the original on October 24, 2021, retrieved 2019
  140. ^ "Gospel Topics: Fasting and Fast Offerings",, LDS Church, archived from the original on October 24, 2021, retrieved 2019
  141. ^ "Preparing to Serve". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on August 19, 2021. Retrieved 2021. The First Presidency has stated: 'There are worthy individuals who desire to serve but do not qualify for the physical, mental, or emotional challenges of a mission. We ask stake presidents and bishops to express love and appreciation to these individuals and to honorably excuse them from full-time missionary labors.' In such cases, service missions can be a great blessing, allowing you to live at home and receive appropriate medical care while growing and maturing in the service of the Lord. Talk to your bishop or branch president for more information on Church service missions
  142. ^ Walker, Joseph (October 6, 2012), "LDS Church lowers age requirement for missionary service", Deseret News, archived from the original on October 8, 2012, retrieved 2012
  143. ^ Newlin, David Self; Stagg, Jennifer (October 8, 2012), LDS Church members respond to new mission age rules, KSL, archived from the original on May 13, 2013, retrieved 2013
  144. ^ "Missionary Policy Changes Give More Seniors Opportunity to Serve" Archived October 17, 2020, at the Wayback Machine, LDS Church News Release, June 2, 2011.
  145. ^ "Church-Service Missionary". Archived from the original on June 6, 2019. Retrieved 2017.
  146. ^ Eight New Missions to Open in July 2020 Archived June 12, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Newsrooom, November 21, 2019. Retrieved February 20, 2020.
  147. ^ "Sabbath Day". Intellectual Reserve, Inc. Retrieved 2019.
  148. ^ "16. Single Members", Handbook 2: Administering the Church, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, archived from the original on October 24, 2021, retrieved 2021
  149. ^ "List of Temples". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  150. ^ "Genealogy and Mormon Archives". PBS. Archived from the original on September 6, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  151. ^ "LDS Conference Center - Mormon Sites". Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  152. ^ "Conferences". Encyclopedia of Mormonism. 1992. Archived from the original on September 30, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  153. ^ Roberts, B. H (1905), History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, vol. 3, Deseret News, pp. 23, 24, archived from the original on November 2, 2020, retrieved 2020
  154. ^ Smith, Joseph Jr.; Williams, Frederick G.; Cowdery, Oliver (1834), "Minutes of a Conference of the Elders of the Church of Christ, May 3, 1834", The Evening and the Morning Star, 2 (20): 160, archived from the original on October 1, 2018, retrieved 2007
  155. ^ Smith, Joseph, Jr (August 1838), "Special Collections", Elders' Journal of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 1 (4): 52, archived from the original on March 16, 2007, retrieved 2007., Manuscript History of the Church, book A-1, LDS Church Archives, 1838, p. 37, reproduced in Jessee, Dean C., ed. (1989), The Papers of Joseph Smith: Autobiographical and Historical Writings, vol. 1, Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book, pp. 302-303. Marquardt, H. Michael; Walters, Wesley P., eds. (1994), Inventing Mormonism: Tradition and the Historical Record, Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books, p. 160
  156. ^ The initial incorporation by the non-existent State of Deseret "(1851) Laws and Ordinances of the State of Deseret (Utah) Compilation 1851". Archived from the original on January 17, 2008. Retrieved 2020. was not legally valid, but was soon ratified by the Utah Territory in 1851 "(1851) Acts Resolutions and Memorials Passed by the First Annual and Special Sessions of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Utah, 1851". Archived from the original on May 22, 2008. Retrieved 2008. and 1855. See Late Corporation of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints v. Romney, 136 U.S. 44-45 (1890).
  157. ^ "State of Deseret: An Ordinance, incorporating the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints". February 4, 1851. Archived from the original on January 17, 2008. Retrieved 2020.
  158. ^ "Guide to AP Style". Archived from the original on January 24, 2010.
  159. ^ "Topic: Style Guide -- The Name of the Church",, LDS Church, April 9, 2010, archived from the original on June 13, 2019, retrieved 2014
  160. ^ "Our Beliefs | ComeUntoChrist". Retrieved 2022. "Latter-day Saints" is a good way to refer to your friends who are members of the Church.
  161. ^ "Don't use 'Mormon' or 'LDS' as church name, president says". NBC News. August 16, 2018. Archived from the original on September 15, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  162. ^ "Stop calling the Mormon Church 'Mormon,' says church leader. 'LDS' is out, too". Washington Post. August 17, 2018. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  163. ^ Peggy Fletcher Stack; Scott D. Pierce; David Noyce (October 7, 2018). "Members 'offend' Jesus and please the devil when they use the term 'Mormon,' President Nelson says". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2018.
  164. ^ "General Conference, October 2018, Russell M. Nelson". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved 2018.
  165. ^ Nelson, President Russell M. "The Correct Name of the Church". Retrieved 2020.
  166. ^ "Mormon Tabernacle Choir renamed in church shift". PBS. October 5, 2018. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  167. ^ Riess, Jana (August 20, 2019). "A year later, how successful is the war on the word 'Mormon'?". Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on July 28, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  168. ^ Montoya, Maria; Belmonte, Laura A.; Guarneri, Carl J.; Hackel, Steven; Hartigan-O'Connor, Ellen (2016). Global Americans: A History of the United States. Cengage Learning. p. 442. ISBN 9781337515672. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved 2017.
  169. ^ Munoz, Vincent Phillip (2015). Religious Liberty and the American Supreme Court: The Essential Cases and Documents. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 312. ISBN 9781442250321. Archived from the original on March 28, 2018. Retrieved 2017.
  170. ^ "LDS Corp. -- The church long's journey to stay on the right side of the law and its principles". Salt Lake Tribune. June 1, 2021. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  171. ^ Haight, David B. (May 1986), "A Prophet Chosen of the Lord", Ensign, p. 7, archived from the original on October 24, 2021, retrieved 2019
  172. ^ "For Mormons, Succession Drama is Against their Religion". The New York Times. January 3, 2018. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  173. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (January 3, 2018). "Thomas Monson, President of the Mormon Church, Dies at 90". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 14, 2019. Retrieved 2021.
  174. ^ "Mormon Church Names Russell M. Nelson As New Leader". NPR. January 16, 2018. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  175. ^ Ludlow, Daniel H., Latter-day Prophets Speak: Selections from the Sermons and Writings of Church Presidents, 1948/1993, ch. 32.
  176. ^ "Face to Face with President and Sister Nelson". Archived from the original on July 17, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  177. ^ "Worldwide Devotional for Young Adults". Archived from the original on June 6, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  178. ^ "BYU Devotionals, Forums, Commencement Addresses - BYU Speeches". BYU Speeches. Archived from the original on February 24, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  179. ^ Brian L. Pitcher, "Callings" Archived October 2, 2021, at the Wayback Machine in Encyclopedia of Mormonism.
  180. ^ "30. Callings in the Church". Archived from the original on October 2, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  181. ^ For a time, the church had a paid local clergy; however, that practice was discontinued in the early 1900s. See D. Michael Quinn (1997), Mormon Hierarchy: Extensions of Power, Salt Lake City: Signature Books, ch. 6.
  182. ^ "LDS congregation members still clean own meetinghouses". Ogden Standard-Examiner. February 14, 2015. Archived from the original on November 15, 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  183. ^ "Age Changes for Youth Progression and Ordination Announced - Church News and Events". Archived from the original on July 14, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  184. ^ "Age-Group Progression for Children and Youth, January 2019" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on June 29, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  185. ^ "Aaronic Priesthood | The Priesthood of Aaron". Archived from the original on October 24, 2021. Retrieved 2015.
  186. ^ "Melchizedek Priesthood". Retrieved 2015.
  187. ^ Elder and Sister Renlund: 4 ways women exercise priesthood power and authority
  188. ^ The Keys and Authority of the Priesthood, by Elder Dallin H. Oaks
  189. ^ "Topic: Relief Society History",, LDS Church, September 29, 2012, archived from the original on June 27, 2019, retrieved 2014
  190. ^ "Organization How the Church Is Organized",, LDS Church, retrieved 2014
  191. ^ "Correlation of the Church Administration". Archived from the original on February 22, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  192. ^ a b c d "LDS Church has Spent 1.2 Billion on Welfare and Humanitarian Efforts". World Religion News. July 18, 2016. Archived from the original on April 16, 2021. Retrieved 2020.
  193. ^ AAG International Research, AAG International Research, AAG, archived from the original on December 12, 2009, retrieved 2009
  194. ^ Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Charity Navigator. Accessed September 5, 2022.
  195. ^ Stack, Peggy Fletcher. "Order to release financial data has LDS Church, courts on collision course". Salt Lake Tribune. July 13, 2007. Accessed July 13, 2007.
  196. ^ Brunson, Samuel (Spring 2015). "The Present, Past, and Future of LDS Financial Transparency" (PDF). Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought. 8 (1): 1-44. doi:10.5406/dialjmormthou.48.1.0001. S2CID 181493367. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 4, 2021. In 1915, though, and continuing until 1959, the church made an annual public disclosure of its finances. As part of the annual April General Conference, somebody--often the president of the LDS Church or one of his counselors--would inform the assembled congregation of how much money the Church had spent in a variety of categories. In 1959, in the wake of significant deficit spending by the Church and of massive investment losses, the Church ended its detailed public financial disclosure, and instead limited its financial disclosure to the Auditing Department report. As a result of its silence about the details of its finances, members, critics, and the interested public have been left to guess at the Church's wealth and the scope of its charitable spending, among other things.
  197. ^ Van Biema, David (August 4, 1997). "Kingdom Come". Time. Archived from the original on July 21, 2013. Retrieved 2018.
  198. ^ Kirn, Walter (June 5, 2011). "The Mormon Moment". Newsweek. Archived from the original on December 8, 2014.
  199. ^ "Belo Corp 8-K/A SEC Filing § 3". EDGAR Online. April 10, 1995. Archived from the original on January 7, 2009.
  200. ^ "Financial Planning". Archived from the original on May 27, 2008. Retrieved 2018.
  201. ^ Cantwell, Robert W. (May 2007), "Church Auditing Department Report, 2006", Ensign
  202. ^ "How the Church of Jesus Christ Uses Tithes and Donations". December 20, 2019. Archived from the original on February 16, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  203. ^ Fletcher, Peggy. "Historian digs into the hidden world of Mormon finances, shows how church went from losing money to making money -- lots of it - The Salt Lake Tribune". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on October 16, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  204. ^ "LDS Church Real-Estate Holdings Include Farms, Ranches, Buildings". Deseret News. July 2, 1991. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  205. ^ a b "The Corporate Structure of the Mormon church". Mormonism 101. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  206. ^ "LDS Church has Most Valuable Private Real Estate Portfolio in the US, Evidence Suggests". Truth & Transparency. April 5, 2022.
  207. ^ Winter, Caroline (July 10, 2012). "How the Mormons Make Money". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on January 13, 2015. Retrieved 2018.
  208. ^ Swaine, Jon; MacMillan, Douglas; Boorstein, Michelle (December 16, 2019). "Mormon Church has misled members on $100 billion tax-exempt investment fund, whistleblower alleges". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 17, 2019. Retrieved 2019. Harvard University has the country's largest academic endowment at $40.9 billion. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation is the largest private philanthropic foundation in the world at $47.8 billion.
  209. ^ If confirmed, the $100 billion net worth would exceed the combined net worths of the world's largest university endowment (Harvard University) and the world's largest philanthropic foundation (Gates Foundation).[208]
  210. ^ Reilly, Peter J. (December 17, 2019). "$100 Billion In Mormon Till Does Not Merit IRS Attention". Forbes. Archived from the original on December 19, 2019. Retrieved 2019. Ensign Peak Advisors is exempt as an integrated auxiliary of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), ... And there is nothing in the tax law that prevents churches from accumulating wealth.
  211. ^ "First Presidency Statement on Church Finances: Statement provided in response to media stories", Newsroom, LDS Church, December 17, 2019, archived from the original on December 18, 2019, retrieved 2019
  212. ^ "The Mormon Church Amassed $100 Billion. It Was the Best-Kept Secret in the Investment World". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on February 8, 2021. Retrieved 2021.. See also "LDS Church kept the lid on its $100B fund for fear tithing receipts would fall, account boss tells Wall Street Journal". Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on September 30, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  213. ^ Schneiders, Ben; Steinfort, Tom; Clancy, Natalie (October 29, 2022). "Mormon church invests billions of dollars while grossly overstating its charitable giving". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2022.
  214. ^ Embry, Jesse L. "Mormons". Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America. Archived from the original on April 25, 2021. Retrieved 2021. Scholars disagree on whether Mormons, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), can rightly be considered an ethnic group. Using survey results, sociologist Armand Mauss shows that Mormons are typical Americans. Canadian anthropologist Keith Parry, however, contends that Mormons have a distinctive lifestyle and language that set them apart from mainstream America.
  215. ^ Griffiths, Lawn (March 24, 2007), "Mesa Mormon temple prepares for Easter pageant", East Valley Tribune, archived from the original on September 11, 2007, retrieved 2008
  216. ^ "Here's how the R rating, which turns 50 this year, became off-limits to many Mormon moviegoers -- and why it may not be the case anymore". Salt Lake Tribune. October 3, 2018. For many LDS faithful, though, the R rating -- which is marking its 50th anniversary this fall -- is a line they will not cross. While the rule is rigid in the minds of many members, its origins come from a handful of comments made by church leaders through the years.
  217. ^ "Mixed Signals". New Era (Church magazine). June 2001. The fact is, a prophet of God has said not to go to R-rated movies. That ought to be enough.
  218. ^ "FAQs". Archived from the original on June 27, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  219. ^ Montero, David (October 5, 2018). "One of the most famous singing groups in the world is changing its name. So long, Mormon Tabernacle Choir". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on November 9, 2020. Retrieved 2019.
  220. ^ "BYU Broadcasting, Tabernacle Choir Awarded Emmys - Church News and Events". November 23, 2013. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved 2013.
  221. ^ Williams, Danna (July 12, 2013). "George Foster Peabody Award Winners" (PDF). Athens, GA: George Foster Peabody Awards. p. 23. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 22, 2020. Retrieved 2014.
  222. ^ "National Medal of Arts Recipients for 2003". The White House. November 12, 2002. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved 2009.
  223. ^ "In Mormon Channel interview, Donny Osmond explains why his LDS faith remains strong". Deseret News. April 10, 2015. Archived from the original on May 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  224. ^ "The Repression Of Ender's Game". Forbes. November 13, 2013. Archived from the original on October 20, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  225. ^ "At Its Core, the 'Twilight' Saga Is a Story About". The Atlantic. November 15, 2012. Archived from the original on October 10, 2019. Retrieved 2021.
  226. ^ "'Journeys of Faith with Paula Faris': Glenn Beck on how his Mormon faith saved him". Good Morning America. May 29, 2019. Archived from the original on August 14, 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  227. ^ Strouse, Jackie (February 4, 2021). "Netflix Sets 'Murder Among the Mormons' Docuseries on 1985 Utah Bombings (Exclusive)". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on March 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  228. ^ "The Book of Mormon Tops 2011 Tony Awards With Nine Wins". Broadway Buzz. June 12, 2011. Archived from the original on April 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  229. ^ "Majority of Mormons Lean Republican; Half Cite Discrimination Against Their Faith". ABC News. January 12, 2012. Archived from the original on September 28, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  230. ^ "Liberal Mormons: A Minority Within a Minority". USA Today. October 30, 2012. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  231. ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. Pew Research Center. 2014. Archived from the original on May 25, 2022. Retrieved 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  232. ^ Emily Kaplan (September 27, 2021). "The Rise of the Liberal Latter-day Saints: And the battle for the future of Mormonism". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2022.
  233. ^ Stephen Holden (June 18, 2010). "Marching in the War on Gay Marriage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved 2022.
  234. ^ Johnson, Kirk (November 11, 2009), "Mormon Support of Gay Rights Statute Draws Praise", The New York Times, archived from the original on October 22, 2016, retrieved 2017
  235. ^ "News Story: Statement Given to Salt Lake City Council on Nondiscrimination Ordinances",, LDS Church, January 1, 2009, archived from the original on June 30, 2019, retrieved 2019
  236. ^ No to nuclear storage, LDS say, Deseret News, May 5, 2006, archived from the original on October 22, 2016, retrieved 2016
  237. ^ LDS joins N-storage foes, The Salt Lake Tribune, May 5, 2006, archived from the original on March 7, 2016, retrieved 2020
  238. ^ "Immigration: Shurtleff can't find support for Compact". Salt Lake Tribune. April 27, 2011. Archived from the original on June 4, 2021. Retrieved 2021. The LDS Church did not sign, but has endorsed, the Utah Compact.
  239. ^ "Church sends email to Utah Latter-day Saints urging them to vote no on marijuana initiative". Deseret News. August 23, 2018. Archived from the original on October 10, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  240. ^ "Coalition Seeks Safe and Compassionate Alternative to Utah's Medical Marijuana Initiative". August 23, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  241. ^ Tabin, Sara (February 27, 2021). "LDS Church says it supports Rep. Chris Stewart's alternative to the Equality Act". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on February 27, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  242. ^ "Statement on the United States Congress Respect for Marriage Act". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. November 15, 2022. Retrieved 2022. We are grateful for the continuing efforts of those who work to ensure the Respect for Marriage Act includes appropriate religious freedom protections...
  243. ^ Rappleye, Christine (January 8, 2021). "There are 9 Latter-day Saints in U.S. Congress". Archived from the original on June 5, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  244. ^ "How an 'angsty' farm boy grew up to become Utah's next governor". January 1, 2021. Archived from the original on March 17, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  245. ^ a b "Latter-day Saints are Overrepresented in Utah's Legislature, Holding 9 of Every 10 Seats". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  246. ^ Vance, Lauren (June 25, 2011). "Mormon Mission: Mitt Romney, Jon Huntsman Challenged by Stereotypes". ABC News. Archived from the original on September 13, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  247. ^ a b "Mormons". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. 2014. Archived from the original on November 16, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  248. ^ Portrait of Mormons in the U.S. Archived July 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life, July 24, 2009
  249. ^ LDS Church 2006, pp. 145-146.
  250. ^ LDS Church 2006, pp. 116, 148-149.
  251. ^ Subtracting U.S. membership of 6,144,582 (December 31, 2011) from total worldwide membership (December 31, 2011) of 14,441,346, results in 8,296,764 (rounded to 8.3 million) members outside the United States of America
  252. ^ "Facts and Statistics: United States",, LDS Church, archived from the original on June 28, 2019, retrieved 2014
  253. ^ "Facts and Statistics". Mormon Newsroom. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on July 18, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  254. ^ "Mainline Protestant churches no longer dominate NCC Yearbook's list of top 25 U.S. religious bodies". National Council of Churches. Archived from the original on March 14, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  255. ^ "Largest U.S. Churches, 2005". Information Please Database ( Pearson Education. Archived from the original on December 8, 2014.
  256. ^ "Facts and Statistics",, LDS Church, archived from the original on July 18, 2019, retrieved 2019
  257. ^ Allen & Leonard 1992, p. 273, 276.
  258. ^ "The LDS Church and Utah Politics". Huffington Post. February 22, 2016. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021. *"The Mormon Culture Region: Strategies and Patterns in the Geography of the American West, 1847-1964". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. June 1965. JSTOR 2561754. Archived from the original on September 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  259. ^ "Africa, Philippines Lead Church Growth". May 12, 2022.
  260. ^ "LDS Church growing at warp speed, sociologist says". Deseret News. May 23, 1998.
  261. ^ Mormon growth slows to its lowest level since 1937. Here's why that's great news. Religion News Service, April 19, 2016. Archived June 9, 2021, at the Wayback Machine * Mormon growth continues to slow, church report shows. Religion News Service, April 6, 2019. Archived June 9, 2021, at the Wayback Machine* Utah sees Latter-day Saint slowdown and membership numbers drop in Salt Lake County, Salt Lake Tribune. January 5, 2020 Archived March 30, 2020, at the Wayback Machine* Growth In The LDS Church Is Slowing -- But Not For Reasons You Might Suspect. Religion Unplugged. April 20, 2020. Archived June 9, 2021, at the Wayback Machine *Latest from Mormon Land: COVID led to slowest church growth in 160 years; new group seeks to elect LDS women. Salt Lake Tribune, April 15, 2021. Archived June 9, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
  262. ^ editor, Joel Kotkin is a City Journal contributing; University, the Distinguished Presidential Fellow in Urban Futures at Chapman (December 23, 2015). "It's Mormon in America". City Journal. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021. {{cite web}}: |last1= has generic name (help)
  263. ^ "The most and least racially diverse U.S. religious groups". July 27, 2015.
  264. ^ "Racial and ethnic composition among Mormons". Retrieved 2021.
  265. ^ Stack, Peggy Fletcher (January 17, 2014). "New Almanac Offers Look at the World of Mormon Membership". Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on April 29, 2021. Retrieved 2022.
  266. ^ "LDS Demographics Published, then Scrubbed by Deseret News". Mormon News, October 13-17. Signature Books. October 2014. Archived from the original on April 20, 2015. Retrieved 2015. Reporting on a presentation given by the church's chief information officer, a Deseret News article indicated that one of Maxfield's statistics was that "about 36% [of church members] attend weekly sacrament meetings". The Deseret News later retracted this and a few other statistics and added the following disclaimer: "some of the statistics originally reported in this article have been removed because they have not been verified by the LDS Church. The information was removed at the request of the speaker."
  267. ^ Duke, James T.; Cornwall, Marie; Albrecht, Stan L.; Cunningham, Perry H.; Pitcher, Brian L. (1998), "The Consequential Dimension of Mormon Religiosity: A Conceptual Model with an Empirical Test", in Duke, James T. (ed.), Latter-day Saint Social Life: Social Research on the LDS Church and Its Members, Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, pp. 253-292, ISBN 1-57008-396-7, OCLC 38962731, archived from the original on October 6, 2011, retrieved 2011
  268. ^ Cranney, Stephen (2019). "Who Is Leaving the Church?: Demographic Predictors of Ex-Latter-day Saint Status in the Pew Religious Landscape Survey". BYU Studies Quarterly. 58 (1): 99-108. Archived from the original on December 31, 2021.
  269. ^ Riess, Jana (October 5, 2016). "Worldwide, Only 25% of Young Single Mormons Are Active in the LDS Church". Religion News Service. Archived from the original on May 30, 2021. Retrieved 2022.
  270. ^ Bushman 2008, p. 55.
  271. ^ "The Mormons: Humanitarian Programs". American Experience website. PBS. Archived from the original on July 5, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  272. ^ Riley, Naomi Schaefer (Fall 2012). "A Welfare System That Works". Philanthropy. Philanthropy Roundtable. Archived from the original on May 13, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  273. ^ "Online Donations - Q&A". Philanthropies. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  274. ^ "What is Philanthropies?". Philanthropies. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  275. ^ "Overview of Bishops' Storehouses", Welfare Operations Training, LDS Church, retrieved 2014
  276. ^ LDS Church finances are under scrutiny abroad
  277. ^ "Mormon Helping Hands Make a Difference", Meridian Magazine, October 20, 2005, archived from the original on February 1, 2010
  278. ^ Moore, Carrie A. (March 11, 2005), "LDS-Catholic aid for Niger", Deseret News, archived from the original on September 4, 2011, retrieved 2011
  279. ^ Askar, Jamshid Ghazi (September 11, 2010), "Mormon church, Islamic Relief team up for Pakistan flood relief", Deseret News, archived from the original on January 15, 2012, retrieved 2011
  280. ^ *"Coronavirus: Church is helping Iran, Italy, China and 13 other countries with medical supplies, ramps up food production". March 20, 2020. Archived from the original on March 23, 2020. Retrieved 2020. *"How Latter-day Saint Charities is helping during coronavirus crisis -- in Utah and around the world". Archived from the original on March 26, 2020. Retrieved 2020. *"LDS Church donates thousands of masks, goggles to China amid coronavirus outbreak". January 29, 2020. Archived from the original on February 27, 2020. Retrieved 2020. *"Church Makes Local Food Distributions During COVID-19 Crisis | Goldsboro Daily News". Archived from the original on May 3, 2020. Retrieved 2020. *"LDS Church announces hefty food donation throughout the U.S." September 28, 2018. Archived from the original on October 13, 2018. Retrieved 2020.
  281. ^ "The LDS Church donates millions to aid displaced Ukrainian refugees". ABC 4 Utah. March 14, 2022.
  282. ^ Church gives $32 million to World Food Programme in largest one-time donation to date. Church News.
  283. ^ Fluhman 2012
  284. ^ Monroe, R.D. "Congress and the Mexican War, 1844-1849". Archived from the original on June 13, 2006. Retrieved 2006.
  285. ^ Introvigne, pp. 154,158. Cf. also Peterson, pp. 231-260.
  286. ^ What the church says about increased vandalism
  287. ^ Tavss, Jeff (July 26, 2022). "Fire breaks out in under-construction Orem Temple". FOX13 Salt Lake City. Retrieved 2022.
  288. ^ Walch, Tad (September 6, 2022). "Investigators say July fire at Orem Utah Temple was arson, ATF offers cash reward for information". Deseret News. Retrieved 2022.
  289. ^ Pierce, Scott D. (September 6, 2022). "ATF investigating Orem LDS Temple fire as arson, offers $5K reward for info". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2022.
  290. ^ "Brown: Race Relations and the LDS Church: A Problematic History of Revisionism". Daily Utah Chronicle. February 5, 2019. Archived from the original on August 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021. Much of what LDS prophets and leaders have said in the past is often disavowed depending on the contemporary social needs of the LDS church at the time.
  291. ^ "Mormons, Anglicans, and Why Global Churches Struggle Over LGBT Rights". Religion and Politics. February 23, 2016. Archived from the original on August 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021. LDS ...-sanctioned anti-gay theologies have created cultural climates in which LGBT people within and outside Mormon ... communities have become victims of violence as well as victims of self-loathing, even self-harm.
  292. ^ a b "When Mormons Aspired to Be a 'White and Delightsome' People". The Atlantic. September 18, 2017. Archived from the original on August 14, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  293. ^ "Mormon past steeped in racism". Chicago Tribune. July 26, 2005. Archived from the original on August 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021. Early Mormon teachings spoke of black people as inferior, cursed by God and unworthy to serve as clergy. Not until 1978 did the church lift the ban that barred blacks from the priesthood.
  294. ^ "Mormons Grapple With Church's History Of Discrimination Amid Wider Racial Reckoning". September 22, 2020. Archived from the original on August 13, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  295. ^ Reiss, Jana (September 10, 2019). "Mormon men are groomed not to listen to women". Religion News Service. Archived from the original on August 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  296. ^ "Latter-day Saints Take a Stand on Feminism...and It Isn't Pretty". Non Profit Quarterly. January 29, 2020. Archived from the original on August 29, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  297. ^ The Notorious Tanners Archived June 24, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Salt Lake City Weekly. June 11, 2007.
  298. ^ The Legend of Legacy of Fawn Brodie, BYU Scholars Archive. Louis Midgley, 2001. Archived June 24, 2021, at the Wayback Machine (where Brodie is called the "quintessential critic of Mormondom.")
  299. ^ Fawn Brodie and Her Quest for Independence Archived June 25, 2021, at the Wayback Machine Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought Vol. 22, No. 2 (Summer 1989), pp. 79-95.
  300. ^ Bushman (2005, pp. 116-118)
  301. ^ Brodie (1971, pp. 80-82, 87) (discussing an organized boycott of Book of Mormon by residents of Palmyra, and opposition by Colesville and Bainbridge residents).
  302. ^ Palmer, Grant H. (2002). An insider's view of Mormon origins ([Nachdr.] ed.). Salt Lake City: Signature Books. ISBN 1560851570.
  303. ^ Tanner 1987, p. 91.
  304. ^ Standard language references such as Peter T. Daniels and William Bright, eds., The World's Writing Systems (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996) (990 pages); David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language (Cambridge University Press, 1997); and Roger D. Woodard, ed., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages (Cambridge University Press, 2004) (1162 pages) contain no reference to "reformed Egyptian." "Reformed Egyptian" is also ignored in Andrew Robinson, Lost Languages: The Enigma of the World's Undeciphered Scripts (New York: McGraw Hill, 2002), although it is mentioned in Stephen Williams, Fantastic Archaeology: The Wild Side of North American Prehistory (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1991).
  305. ^ Duffy 2004, p. 37
  306. ^ Abanes 2003, pp. 74-77
  307. ^ Ritner 2013, p. 61.
  308. ^ Larson 1992, p. 61.
  309. ^ Reeve & Parshall 2010, p. 269.
  310. ^ Ashment 2000, p. 126.
  311. ^ Ritner 2013, p. 66.
  312. ^ "Polygamy: Latter-day Saints and the Practice of Plural Marriage". Church Newsroom. Archived from the original on March 6, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  313. ^ Flake, Kathleen (2004). The Politics of American Religious Identity. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 65, 192. ISBN 0807855014.
  314. ^ a b c Embry, Jessie L. (1994), "Polygamy", in Powell, Allan Kent (ed.), Utah History Encyclopedia, Salt Lake City, Utah: University of Utah Press, ISBN 0874804256, OCLC 30473917, archived from the original on April 17, 2017, retrieved 2022
  315. ^ US website
  316. ^ Official Declaration 1
  317. ^ The church repudiates polygamist groups and excommunicates their members if discovered Bushman (2008, p. 91); "Mormons seek distance from polygamous sects". NBC News. 2008.
  318. ^ Bowman, Matthew (May 29, 2018). "Mormons confront a history of Church racism". The Conversation. Archived from the original on February 16, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  319. ^ Mueller, Max (December 12, 2013). "An Evolving Mormon Church Finally Addresses a Racist Past". Religion & Politics. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  320. ^ "Race and the Priesthood".
  321. ^ "Black History Timeline". Archived from the original on March 21, 2017. Retrieved 2016.
  322. ^ Collisson, Craig. "The BSU takes on BYU and the UW Athletics Program, 1970". Seattle Civil Rights & Labor History Project. Archived from the original on October 19, 2021. Retrieved 2016.
  323. ^ Bringhurst, Newell. Saints, Slaves, and Blacks: The Changing Place of Black People Within Mormonism. p. 185.
  324. ^ Rust, Richard Dilworth (2016). "A Mission to the Lamanites: D&C 28, 30, 32". In McBride, Matthew; Goldberg, James (eds.). Revelations in Context: The Stories Behind the Sections of the Doctrine and Covenants. Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Archived from the original on August 16, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  325. ^ Lamanites and the Book of Mormon, 1974 Archived July 2, 2020, at the Wayback Machine
  326. ^ "Why Native Americans struggle to make their stories and traditions fit with the Book of Mormon". Salt Lake Tribune. July 2, 2021. Archived from the original on September 27, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  327. ^ Merriwether, D. Andrew; et al. (1996), "mtDNA Variation Indicates Mongolia May Have Been the Source for the Founding Population for the New World", American Journal of Human Genetics, 59 (1): 204-12, PMC 1915096, PMID 8659526
  328. ^ M. Raghavan et al., "Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans," Nature, (July 2013)
  329. ^ "Lamanite Identity, Gospel Topics Essays". Archived from the original on May 7, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  330. ^ Stack, Peggy Fletcher (November 8, 2007). "Single word change in Book of Mormon speaks volumes". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved 2022.
  331. ^ Moore, Carrie A. (November 8, 2007). "Debate renewed with change in Book of Mormon introduction". Deseret News. Retrieved 2022.
  332. ^ "The Making of a Lamanite: A Brief History Between the LDS Church and Indigenous Communities". Daily Utah Chronicle. February 14, 2019. Archived from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  333. ^ Garrett, Matthew (August 2016). Making Lamanites: Mormons, Native Americans, and the Indian Student Placement Program, 1947-2000. University of Utah Press. ISBN 9781607814948.
  334. ^ Allen, James B. (1998). "The Rise and Decline of the LDS Indian Student Placement Program, 1947-1996". Mormons, Scripture, and the Ancient World: Studies in Honor of John L. Sorenson. Provo: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies: 85-119. Archived from the original on August 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021. (PDF)
  335. ^ a b Urbina, Ian (December 21, 2003). "New York Times: Again, Jews Fault Mormons Over Posthumous Baptisms". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  336. ^ Bushman 2006, pp. 86
  337. ^ a b "The LDS Agreement: the Issue of The Mormon Baptisms of Jewish Holocaust Victims",, Museum of Jewish Heritage - A Living Memorial to the Holocaust, archived from the original on December 18, 2008, retrieved 2012
  338. ^ Oppenheimer, Mark (March 2, 2012), "A Twist on Posthumous Baptisms Leave Jews Miffed at Mormon Rite", The New York Times, archived from the original on November 10, 2012, retrieved 2012
  339. ^ "Mormons crack down on proxy baptisms; whistleblower's access blocked". Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  340. ^ Jesse McKinley and Kirk Johnson (November 14, 2008), "Mormons Tipped Scale in Ban on Gay Marriage", The New York Times, archived from the original on April 6, 2012, retrieved 2012, Jeff Flint, another strategist with Protect Marriage, estimated that Mormons made up 80 percent to 90 percent of the early volunteers who walked door-to-door in election precincts. ... In the end, Protect Marriage estimates, as much as half of the nearly $40 million raised on behalf of the measure was contributed by Mormons.
  341. ^ "San Diego march for marriage equality draws 20,000 protesters", Gay & Lesbian Times, archived from the original on February 14, 2009, retrieved 2009{{citation}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  342. ^ "Commentary: California and Same-Sex Marriage",, LDS Church, June 30, 2008, archived from the original on July 7, 2019, retrieved 2019, The following letter was sent from the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to Church leaders in California to be read to all congregations on 29 June 2008: ... We ask that you do all you can to support the proposed constitutional amendment by donating of your means and time to assure that marriage in California is legally defined as being between a man and a woman. Our best efforts are required to preserve the sacred institution of marriage.
  343. ^ Taylor, Scott (November 10, 2009), "Mormon Church Backs Gay Protecting City Ordinances", Deseret News, archived from the original on November 14, 2009, retrieved 2009
  344. ^ Dobner, Jennifer (November 6, 2015). "New Mormon policy makes apostates of married same-sex couples, bars children from rites". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on January 10, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  345. ^ "Mormons Reinforce Stand on Same-Sex Marriage". The New York Times. November 6, 2015.
  346. ^ Stack, Peggy Fletcher. "LDS Church dumps its controversial LGBTQ policy, cites continuing 'revelation' from God". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on April 4, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  347. ^ "First Presidency Shares Messages From General Conference Leadership Session". Mormon Newsroom. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. April 4, 2019. Archived from the original on July 1, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  348. ^ Brodie (1971, pp. 195-96); Bushman (2005, pp. 328, 330, 334).
  349. ^ (Bushman 2005, p. 357) (noting that in Daviess County, Missouri, non-Mormons "watched local government fall into the hands of people they saw as deluded fanatics").
  350. ^ Bushman (2005, p. 539); Brodie (1971, pp. 374) (arguing that given its authors' intentions to reform the church, the paper was "extraordinarily restrained" given the explosive allegations it could have raised); Quinn (1994, p. 138) A prospectus for the newspaper was published on May 10, and referred to Smith as a "self-constituted monarch".
  351. ^ Oaks, Dallin H.; Hill, Marvin S. (1979). Carthage Conspiracy, the Trial of the Accused Assassins of Joseph Smith. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. p. 52. ISBN 025200762X.
  352. ^ Ostling, Richard and Joan (October 20, 1999). Mormon America. pp. 113-129. ISBN 0-06-066371-5.
  353. ^ Tanner, Jerald and Sandra (1980), The Changing World of Mormonism, Chicago: Moody Press, ISBN 0-8024-1234-3, OCLC 5239408, archived from the original on October 8, 2019, retrieved 2020
  354. ^ Tanner, Jerald and Sandra (1982) [1972], Mormonism - Shadow or Reality? (4th, enl. and rev ed.), Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Lighthouse Ministry, OCLC 15339569, pgs. 516-528
  355. ^ "LDS Church insists it obeys all financial laws, but some wonder if the faith is hoarding too much money". Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on January 30, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  356. ^ Whistleblower Alleges $100 Billion Secret Stockpile By Mormon Church. Religion Unplugged. Archived June 9, 2021, at the Wayback Machine Quoting Letter to an IRS Director, by Lars Nielsen Archived April 6, 2021, at the Wayback Machine
  357. ^ "Mormons Inc: Church accused of multinational tax rort". The Sydney Morning Herald. April 3, 2022.
  358. ^ "Making money, losing faith: The Mormons in Australia". The Sydney Morning Herald. April 3, 2022.
  359. ^ In a legal fight centering on Ensign Peak Advisors, the church's lawyers have fought to keep information about its spending of tithing funds under seal, stating that their public disclosure would reveal parts of the church's "proprietary trade secrets or corporate strategy." "LDS Church seeks to keep 'extremely sensitive' financial data under wraps in fight with James Huntsman". Salt Lake Tribune. March 16, 2022.
  360. ^ Angelovski, Ivan; Sawa, Timothy; Kelley, Mark. "Mormon Church in Canada moved $1B out of the country tax free -- and it's legal". CBC News. Retrieved 2022.
  361. ^ "Hugh Nibley, Outspoken Mormon Scholar, Dies at 94". The New York Times. February 25, 2005. Retrieved 2021.
  362. ^ Stack, Peggy Fletcher (June 26, 2012). "Shake-up hits BYU's Mormon studies institute". Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on June 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.


Further reading

External links

Listen to this article (45 minutes)
Spoken resource icon
This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 12 January 2007 (2007-01-12), and does not reflect subsequent edits.

Official church websites

Other sites

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes