Signs of the Appearance of Mahdi
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Signs of the Appearance of Mahdi

The signs of the appearance of the Mahdi are the collection of events, according to Islamic eschatology, that will occur before the arrival of the Mahdi, The signs are classified as certain and uncertain signs.[1]

The certain signs

According to some narrations, there are five certain signs that will occur prior to the appearance of the Mahdi. The hadith of Ja'far al-Sadiq mentions these signs: "the appearance of Sufyani and Yamani, the loud cry in the sky, the murder of Nafs-e-Zakiyyah, and the earth swallowing (a group of people) in the land of Bayda which is a desert between Mecca and Medina.[2][3]

Appearance of Sufyani

According to some narrations Sufyani, one of the descendants of Abu Sufyan, will arise before Mahdi's appearance.[3] He has been depicted as an outwardly devout man that will take care to remember Allah at all times. But in reality he will be the most wicked man in the world. He will upraise during the Rajab. After he realizes that Mahdi has appeared, he will send away an army to fight him. Some books say that the army of Sufyani before getting to the army of Mahdi will sink into the earth in the Bayda, a desert between Mecca and Medina.[4][5][6] The appearance of Sufyani is mentioned in both Shia and Sunni narrations.[5][7]

Appearance of Yamani

In some narrations, the appearance of Yamani is mentioned as one of the certain signs of twelfth Imam's reappearance.[3][8][9] The fifth Shia Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, described Yamani in detail in a hadith:"... among these individuals (Sufyani, Yamani and Khorasani) the Yamani is the closest to guidance, for he calls the people to join the Mahdi. When he rises, the trading of weapons will be prohibited for every Muslim. When he rises, join him immediately, for his flag is the flag of guidance and prosperity and no Muslim should oppose it. Any one who does so will go to hell, because the Yamani calls to the right path."[4] Some sources mention that the Yamani and the Khurasani will be allied against the Sufyani.[10]

The loud cry in the sky

The third certain sign that is mentioned in the above narration is the loud cry in the sky.[3] According to tradition two cries will be heard. In the first of them Gabriel will call the name of Al-Qa'im and his father and say that truth is with Ali and his Shia. All people will hear Jibreel's cry in their own language.[11] In a tradition of Ja'far al-Sadiq that is narrated by Zurarah ibn A'yan, it is said that after this cry Shaitan will call certainly, so and so and their followers are victorious ones and his meaning is a man from Banu Umayya. He adds that the person who make the first cry says the truth.[12]

The murder of Nafs al-Zakiyyah

Al-Nafs al-Zakiyyah will be one of the descendants of Husayn ibn Ali.[3][13] He will be without any sin or crime; yet he will be murdered.[2] According to many narrations, he will be the envoy of Mahdi to Mecca before his reappearance. When he arrives in Mecca and delivers his message, the people of Mecca will slay him near the Kaaba.

Earth sinking in the land of Bayda

The sinking of Sufyani's army into the earth is a certain sign of reappearance of Mahdi.[3] In addition to above-mentioned hadith of Ja'far Sadiq, in a hadith Ali ibn Abi Talib mentions that Sufyani's army will sink into the earth, and be swallowed up, in the land of Bayda.[14][15][2][3]

Uncertain signs

Mahdi will be the last of the minor signs of Qayamat. Therefore all the signs before appearance of Mahdi are also signs of the appearance of Mahdi.

Minor signs

  1. The coming of fitna (tribulations) and removal of khushoo (fearfulness of God, reverence of God, etc.)[note 1]
  2. A person passing by a grave might say to another the following: "I wish it were my abode."[note 2]
  3. The loss of honesty, as well as authority put in the hands of those who do not deserve it.[note 3]
  4. The loss of knowledge and the prevalence of religious ignorance.[note 4]
  5. Frequent, sudden, and unexpected deaths.[note 5]
  6. Increase in pointless killings.[note 6]
  7. Acceleration of time.[note 7]
  8. Rejection of the Hadith.[note 8]
  9. The spread of riba and zina[note 9][16][note 10][note 11][note 12] and the drinking of alcohol.[note 13]
  10. Widespread acceptance of music.[note 14]
  11. Pride and competition in the decoration of mosques.[note 15]
  12. Women will increase in number and men will decrease in number so much so that fifty women will be looked after by one man. [note 16]
  13. Abundance of earthquakes.[note 17]
  14. Frequent occurrences of disgrace, distortion, public humiliation and defamation.[note 18]
  15. When people wish to die because of the severe trials and tribulations that they are suffering.[note 19]
  16. When paying charity becomes a burden.[note 20]
  17. Nomads will compete in the construction of very tall buildings.[note 21]
  18. Women will appear naked despite their being dressed.[note 22]
  19. People will seek knowledge from misguided and straying scholars.[note 23]
  20. Liars will be believed, honest people disbelieved, and faithful people called traitors.[note 24]
  21. The death of righteous, knowledgeable people.[note 25]
  22. The emergence of indecency (obscenity) and enmity among relatives and neighbours.[note 26]
  23. The rise of idolatry and polytheists within the Ummah.[note 27]
  24. The Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold.[note 28]
  25. The land of the Arabs will return to being a land of rivers and fields.[note 29]
  26. People will increasingly earn money by unlawful (Haram) ways.[note 30]
  27. There will be much rain but little vegetation.[note 31]
  28. Evil people will be expelled from Medina.[note 32]
  29. Wild animals will communicate with humans, and humans will communicate with objects.[note 33]
  30. Lightning and thunder will become more prevalent.[note 34]
  31. There will be a special greeting for people of distinction.[note 35]
  32. Trade will become so widespread that a woman will help her husband in business.[note 36]
  33. No truly honest man will remain and no one will be trusted.[note 37]
  34. Only the worst people will be left; they will not know any good nor forbid any evil (i.e. No one will say there is no god but Allah).[note 38]
  35. Nations will call each other to destroy Islam by any and every means.[note 39]
  36. Islamic knowledge will be passed on, but no one will follow it correctly.[note 40]
  37. Muslim rulers will come who do not follow the guidance and tradition of the Sunnah. Some of their men will have the hearts of devils in a human body.[note 41]
  38. Stinginess will become more widespread and honorable people will perish.[note 42]
  39. A man will obey his wife and disobey his mother, and treat his friend kindly while shunning his father.[note 43]
  40. Voices will be raised in the mosques.[note 44]
  41. The leader of a people will be the worst of them.[note 45]
  42. People will treat a man with respect because they fear the evil he could do.[note 46]
  43. Much wine will be drunk.[note 47]
  44. Muslims shall fight against a nation who wear shoes made of hair and with faces like hammered shields, with red complexions and small eyes.[note 48]
  45. The emergence of the Sufyani within the Syria region.[note 49]
  46. The truce and joint Roman-Muslim campaign against a common enemy, followed by al-Malhama al-Kubra (Armageddon), a Roman vs. Muslim war.[note 50]
  47. The Black Standard will come from Khorasan (see Hadith of black flags), nothing shall turn them back until it is planted in Jerusalem.[note 51]
  48. Emergence of an army, from Yemen, that will make Islam dominant.[note 52][17]
  49. An Arab king will die. There will be disagreement concerning succession. Then a man will emerge from Medina. He will hurry to Mecca, and the people of Mecca will come out to him and urge him and try to force him to accept the Bai'aa.[note 53] One of the last of the lesser signs, and which will signal the coming of the 10 major signs is the appearance of the Mahdi.[18][19][20][21]
  50. Solar eclipse in middle of the month of Ramadhan and lunar eclipse in the end of that month[22][23]
  51. Seeing fire in the sky[24]
  52. Successive wars and death of many people in the world[25]
  53. Creation and development of science and knowledge in Qom[26]
  54. Increasing injustice and corruption in the world[27]
  55. Frequent occurrences of disgrace, distortion, and defamation.[note 54]
  56. When people wish to die because of the severe trials and tribulations that they are suffering.[note 55]
  57. When paying charity becomes a burden.[note 56]
  58. Nomads will compete in the construction of very tall buildings.[note 57]
  59. Women will appear naked despite their being dressed.[note 58]
  60. People will seek knowledge from misguided and straying scholars.[note 59]
  61. Liars will be believed, honest people disbelieved, and faithful people called traitors.[note 60]
  62. The death of righteous, knowledgeable people.[note 61]
  63. The emergence of indecency (obscenity) and enmity among relatives and neighbours.[note 62]
  64. The rise of idolatry and polytheists in the community.[note 63]
  65. The Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold.[note 64]
  66. The land of the Arabs will return to being a land of rivers and fields.[note 65]
  67. The Romans will form a majority amongst people.[note 66]
  68. People will increasingly earn money by unlawful (Haram) ways.[note 67]
  69. There will be much rain but little vegetation.[note 68]
  70. Evil people will be expelled from Al-Madinah.[note 69]
  71. Wild animals will communicate with humans, and humans will communicate with objects.[note 70]
  72. Lightning and thunder will become more prevalent.[note 71]
  73. There will be a special greeting for people of distinction.[note 72]
  74. Trade will become so widespread that a woman will help her husband in business.[note 73]
  75. No truly honest man will remain and no one will be trusted.[note 74]
  76. Only the worst people will be left; they will not know any good nor forbid any evil (i.e. No one will say there is no god but Allah).[note 75]
  77. Nations will call each other to destroy Islam by any and every means.[note 76]
  78. Islamic knowledge will be passed on, but no one will follow it correctly.[note 77]
  79. Muslim rulers will come who do not follow the guidance and tradition of the Sunnah. Some of their men will have the hearts of devils in a human body.[note 78]
  80. Stinginess will become more widespread and honorable people will perish.[note 79]
  81. A man will obey his wife and disobey his mother, and treat his friend kindly while shunning his father.[note 80]
  82. Voices will be raised in the mosques.[note 81]
  83. The leader of a people will be the worst of them.[note 82]
  84. People will treat a man with respect because they fear the evil he could do.[note 83]
  85. Muslims shall fight against a nation who wear shoes made of hair and with faces like hammered shields, with red complexions and small eyes.[note 84]
  86. All Islamic knowledge will be lost to the extent that people will not say "L? il?ha ill? ll?h" (There is no god but Allah), but instead old people will babble without understanding, "God, God".
  87. People will fornicate in the streets "like donkeys".
  88. There will be disagreement concerning succession. Then a man will emerge from Madina. He will hurry to Makkah, and the people of Makkah will come out to him and urge him and try to force him to accept the Bai'aa.[note 85]
  89. A pleasant breeze will blow from the south that shall cause all believers to die peacefully.
  90. The Moon will split in two, but non-believers will insist it isn't happening for real.[note 86]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 0213
  2. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6947
  3. ^ Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 076, Hadith 503
  4. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Hadith Number 81
  5. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 7040
  6. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Number 184
  7. ^ Imam Ahmed, recorded in Muslim
  8. ^ Abu Dawud Book 35, Hadith 4587
  9. ^ For further informations, see the articles Sexual slavery in Islam and Ma malakat aymanukum.
  10. ^ For further informations, see the concept of Sotadic Zone, which includes both the Arab and Islamic world. See also Child sexual abuse, Sexual exploitation of children, Bacha bazi, and The Dancing Boys of Afghanistan.
  11. ^ For further informations, see the articles Capital punishment in Islam, LGBT in Islam, Lut (prophet in Islam), and Sexual taboo in the Middle East.
  12. ^ For further informations, see the articles Cousin marriage in Islam, Cousin marriage in the Middle East, and Mahram.
  13. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 7015
  14. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 69, Hadith 494
  15. ^ Sahih ibn Majah 610
  16. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Hadith 81
  17. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Hadith Number 237
  18. ^ Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 485, Book 1, Hadith 3
  19. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Hadith Number 231
  20. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 009, Book 088, Hadith Number 236
  21. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 009, Book 088, Hadith Number 237
  22. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 40, Hadith Number 6840
  23. ^ Musnad Imam Ahmad (no.21,334 and no.21,335
  24. ^ Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2209
  25. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Hadith Number 81
  26. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  27. ^ Abu-Dawud, Book 30, Number 4239 (and others)
  28. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 041, Hadith Number 6918
  29. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 5, Hadith 2208
  30. ^ Al-Bukhari
  31. ^ Reported by Anas and declared Sahih by Hasan al Albani
  32. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 7, Hadith Number 3188
  33. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  34. ^ Ahmad
  35. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  36. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  37. ^ Sahih Bukhari
  38. ^ Ahmad
  39. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  40. ^ Tirmidhee 2653 and Ibn Maajah 4048
  41. ^ Sahih Muslim 1847
  42. ^ Mujamma'uz-Zawaa'id 7/327
  43. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  44. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  45. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  46. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  47. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  48. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6960
  49. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6926
  50. ^ Narrated with sound chains from Dhu Mikhbar al-Najashi by Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim who declared it sahih and al-Dhahabi concurred. See Shaykh Shu`ayb Arna'ut's documentation of this hadith in his edition of Sahih Ibn Hibban (15:101-103 #6708-6709).
  51. ^ Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2269 (Weak) https://muflihun.com/tirmidhi/33/2269
  52. ^ Hadith of Aden-Abyan
  53. ^ The Promised Deliverer (Kitab Al-Mahdi) Dawud : Book 36 : Hadith 4273
  54. ^ Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 485, Book 1, Hadith 3
  55. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Hadith Number 231
  56. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 009, Book 088, Hadith Number 236
  57. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 009, Book 088, Hadith Number 237
  58. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 40, Hadith Number 6840
  59. ^ Musnad Imam Ahmad (no.21,334 and no.21,335
  60. ^ Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2209
  61. ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Hadith Number 81
  62. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  63. ^ Abu-Dawud, Book 30, Number 4239 (and others)
  64. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 041, Hadith Number 6918
  65. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 5, Hadith 2208
  66. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 041, Hadith Number 6925
  67. ^ Al-Bukhari
  68. ^ Reported by Anas and declared Sahih by Hasan al Albani
  69. ^ Sahih Muslim Book 7, Hadith Number 3188
  70. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  71. ^ Ahmad
  72. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  73. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  74. ^ Sahih Bukhari
  75. ^ Ahmad
  76. ^ Musnad Ahmad
  77. ^ Tirmidhee 2653 and Ibn Maajah 4048
  78. ^ Sahih Muslim 1847
  79. ^ Mujamma'uz-Zawaa'id 7/327
  80. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  81. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  82. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  83. ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
  84. ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6960
  85. ^ The Promised Deliverer (Kitab Al-Mahdi) Dawud : Book 36 : Hadith 4273
  86. ^ Qu'ran Surah Al-Qamar 54:1-2
  1. ^ Kitab al-Ghayba
  2. ^ a b c Mikyalul Makarim fee Fawaaid al-Duaa lil Qa'im, Page v2
  3. ^ a b c d e f g al-shia.org
  4. ^ a b Gheybah of Nu'mani, Page 9
  5. ^ a b Amini, Chapter 10
  6. ^ Al-Kourani, Page 30
  7. ^ Hashemi Shahidi, Page 524
  8. ^ Shaykh Tusi, Page 267
  9. ^ en.abna24.com
  10. ^ Leghaei
  11. ^ Hosayni Mutlaq
  12. ^ Gheybah of Nu'mani, Page 246
  13. ^ Tafsir Ayyashi, Page 64
  14. ^ Gheybah of Nu'mani, Page 279
  15. ^ Sadr, Page 648
  16. ^ Rowson, Everett K. (30 December 2012) [15 December 2004]. "HOMOSEXUALITY ii. IN ISLAMIC LAW". Encyclopædia Iranica. XII/4. New York: Columbia University. pp. 441-445. ISSN 2330-4804. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 2021. While there are no references to homosexuality in the hadith collections of Bori and Moslem, and no hadith at all reporting an actual occasion in which the Prophet dealt with it in any way, the other "canonical" collections do record, in various forms, his condemnation of the "act of the people of Lot," usually in the form of a command to "Kill both the active and passive partner." Non-canonical hadith add little more, except for one labeling sexual relations between women (seh?q) a form of fornication (zen?) and another declaring that men marrying boys will be one of the signs of the eschaton. All the relevant hadith are conveniently brought together in a series of monographs attacking the sin of sodomy (?amm al-lew?t), the earliest of which is that of al-Hay?am b. ?alaf Duri (d. 307/919) but which were still being produced as late as the eleventh/seventeenth century.
  17. ^ "Hadeeth about 12,000 coming out of Aden-Abyan". islamweb.net. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Richardson, Joel (7 April 2006). Antichrist: Islam's Awaited Messiah. Pleasant Word-A Division of WinePress Publishing. p. 284. ISBN 9781414104409.
  19. ^ Jon R. Stone. Expecting Armageddon: Essential Readings in Failed Prophecy.
  20. ^ "Hadith - Book of Tribulations - Sunan Ibn Majah - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad ( ? ? ? )". sunnah.com. Retrieved .
  21. ^ "Hadith - Book of Tribulations - Sunan Ibn Majah - Sunnah.com - Sayings and Teachings of Prophet Muhammad ( ? ? ? )". sunnah.com. Retrieved .
  22. ^ Montakhab al-Asar, Page 440
  23. ^ english.almaaref.org
  24. ^ Bihar al-Anwar, Page 240
  25. ^ Montakhab al-Asar, Page 560
  26. ^ Montakhab al-Asar, Page 443
  27. ^ Bihar al-Anwar, Pages 256-260

References


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