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Signs of the Appearance of Mahdi
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The signs of the appearance of the Mahdi are the collection of events, according to Islamic eschatology, that will occur before the arrival of the Mahdi, The signs are classified as certain and uncertain signs.
According to some narrations Sufyani, one of the descendants of Abu Sufyan, will arise before Mahdi's appearance. He has been depicted as an outwardly devout man that will take care to remember Allah at all times. But in reality he will be the most wicked man in the world. He will upraise during the Rajab. After he realizes that Mahdi has appeared, he will send away an army to fight him. Some books say that the army of Sufyani before getting to the army of Mahdi will sink into the earth in the Bayda, a desert between Mecca and Medina. The appearance of Sufyani is mentioned in both Shia and Sunni narrations.
Appearance of Yamani
In some narrations, the appearance of Yamani is mentioned as one of the certain signs of twelfth Imam's reappearance. The fifth Shia Imam, Muhammad al-Baqir, described Yamani in detail in a hadith:"... among these individuals (Sufyani, Yamani and Khorasani) the Yamani is the closest to guidance, for he calls the people to join the Mahdi. When he rises, the trading of weapons will be prohibited for every Muslim. When he rises, join him immediately, for his flag is the flag of guidance and prosperity and no Muslim should oppose it. Any one who does so will go to hell, because the Yamani calls to the right path." Some sources mention that the Yamani and the Khurasani will be allied against the Sufyani.
The loud cry in the sky
The third certain sign that is mentioned in the above narration is the loud cry in the sky. According to tradition two cries will be heard. In the first of them Gabriel will call the name of Al-Qa'im and his father and say that truth is with Ali and his Shia. All people will hear Jibreel's cry in their own language. In a tradition of Ja'far al-Sadiq that is narrated by Zurarah ibn A'yan, it is said that after this cry Shaitan will call certainly, so and so and their followers are victorious ones and his meaning is a man from Banu Umayya. He adds that the person who make the first cry says the truth.
The murder of Nafs al-Zakiyyah
Al-Nafs al-Zakiyyah will be one of the descendants of Husayn ibn Ali. He will be without any sin or crime; yet he will be murdered. According to many narrations, he will be the envoy of Mahdi to Mecca before his reappearance. When he arrives in Mecca and delivers his message, the people of Mecca will slay him near the Kaaba.
Earth sinking in the land of Bayda
The sinking of Sufyani's army into the earth is a certain sign of reappearance of Mahdi. In addition to above-mentioned hadith of Ja'far Sadiq, in a hadith Ali ibn Abi Talib mentions that Sufyani's army will sink into the earth, and be swallowed up, in the land of Bayda.
Mahdi will be the last of the minor signs of Qayamat. Therefore all the signs before appearance of Mahdi are also signs of the appearance of Mahdi.
An Arab king will die. There will be disagreement concerning succession. Then a man will emerge from Medina. He will hurry to Mecca, and the people of Mecca will come out to him and urge him and try to force him to accept the Bai'aa.[note 53] One of the last of the lesser signs, and which will signal the coming of the 10 major signs is the appearance of the Mahdi.
The leader of a people will be the worst of them.[note 82]
People will treat a man with respect because they fear the evil he could do.[note 83]
Muslims shall fight against a nation who wear shoes made of hair and with faces like hammered shields, with red complexions and small eyes.[note 84]
All Islamic knowledge will be lost to the extent that people will not say "L? il?ha ill? ll?h" (There is no god but Allah), but instead old people will babble without understanding, "God, God".
People will fornicate in the streets "like donkeys".
There will be disagreement concerning succession. Then a man will emerge from Madina. He will hurry to Makkah, and the people of Makkah will come out to him and urge him and try to force him to accept the Bai'aa.[note 85]
A pleasant breeze will blow from the south that shall cause all believers to die peacefully.
The Moon will split in two, but non-believers will insist it isn't happening for real.[note 86]
^Narrated with sound chains from Dhu Mikhbar al-Najashi by Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim who declared it sahih and al-Dhahabi concurred. See Shaykh Shu`ayb Arna'ut's documentation of this hadith in his edition of Sahih Ibn Hibban (15:101-103 #6708-6709).
^Rowson, Everett K. (30 December 2012) [15 December 2004]. "HOMOSEXUALITY ii. IN ISLAMIC LAW". Encyclopædia Iranica. XII/4. New York: Columbia University. pp. 441-445. ISSN2330-4804. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 2021. While there are no references to homosexuality in the hadith collections of Bori and Moslem, and no hadith at all reporting an actual occasion in which the Prophet dealt with it in any way, the other "canonical" collections do record, in various forms, his condemnation of the "act of the people of Lot," usually in the form of a command to "Kill both the active and passive partner." Non-canonical hadith add little more, except for one labeling sexual relations between women (seh?q) a form of fornication (zen?) and another declaring that men marrying boys will be one of the signs of the eschaton. All the relevant hadith are conveniently brought together in a series of monographs attacking the sin of sodomy (?amm al-lew?t), the earliest of which is that of al-Hay?am b. ?alaf Duri (d. 307/919) but which were still being produced as late as the eleventh/seventeenth century.