Shadda
Get Shadda essential facts below. View Videos or join the Shadda discussion. Add Shadda to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Shadda
00-Taschdid.svg

Shaddah (Arabic: shaddah "[sign of] emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, tashdid tashd?d "emphasis") is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate). It is functionally equivalent to writing a consonant twice in the orthographies of languages like Latin, Italian, Swedish, and Ancient Greek, and is thus rendered in Latin script in most schemes of Arabic transliteration, e.g. = rumm?n 'pomegranates'.

Form

In shape, it is a small letter ? s(h)in, standing for shaddah. It was devised for poetry by al-Khalil ibn Ahmad in the eighth century, replacing an earlier dot.[1]

General
Unicode
Name Transliteration
0651
? ?
shaddah (consonant doubled)

Combination with other diacritics

When a shaddah is used on a consonant which also takes a fat?ah /a/, the fat?ah is written above the shaddah. If the consonant takes a kasrah /i/, it is written between the consonant and the shaddah instead of its usual place below the consonant.

For example, see the location of the diacritics on the letter h in the following words:

Arabic Transliteration Meaning Diacritic Location of the diacritic
yafhamu he understands fat?ah Above the letter
? fahhama he explained fat?ah Above the shaddah
fahima he understood kasrah Below the letter
? fahhim explain! kasrah Between the shaddah and the letter

Significance of marking consonant length

Consonant length in Arabic is contrastive: darasa means "he studied", while ? darrasa means "he taught"; ? ? bak? ?abiyy means "a youth cried" while ? bakk? ?-?abiyy means "a youth was made to cry".

A consonant may be long because of the form of the noun or verb; e.g., the causative form of the verb requires the second consonant of the root to be long, as in darrasa above, or by assimilation of consonants, for example the l- of the Arabic definite article al- assimilates to all dental consonants, e.g. () (a)?-?abiyy instead of (a)l-?abiyy, or through metathesis, the switching of sounds, for example aqall 'less, fewer' (instead of *? aqlal), as compared to ? akbar 'greater'.

A syllable closed by a long consonant is made a long syllable. This affects both stress and prosody. Stress falls on the first long syllable from the end of the word, hence aqáll (or, with i?r?b, aqállu) as opposed to ? ákbar, ? ma?ábbah "love, agape" as opposed to ma?rifah '(experiential) knowledge'. In Arabic verse, when scanning the meter, a syllable closed by a long consonant is counted as long, just like any other syllable closed by a consonant or a syllable ending in a long vowel: ? a-l? tamda?anna 'Will you not indeed praise...?' is scanned as a-l? tam-da-?an-na: short, long, long, short, long, short.

See also

References

  1. ^ Versteegh, 1997. The Arabic language. p 56.



  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Shadda
 



 



 
Music Scenes