|o Body||Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein|
|o Minister-President||Daniel Günther (CDU)|
|o Governing parties||CDU / Greens / FDP|
|o Bundesrat votes||4 (of 69)|
|o Total||15,763.18 km2 (6,086.20 sq mi)|
(31 December 2017)
|o Density||180/km2 (470/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||DE-SH|
|Vehicle registration||formerly: S (1945-1947), SH (1947), BS (1948-1956)|
|GRP (nominal)||EUR98 billion (2019)|
|GRP per capita||EUR34,000 (2019)|
very high · 13th of 16
Schleswig-Holstein (German: ['?le:sv?ç 'h?l?ta?n]) is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig. Its capital city is Kiel; other notable cities are Lübeck and Flensburg.
The region is called Slesvig-Holsten in Danish and pronounced [?sle?:svi 'h?l?sten]. In more dated English, it is also known as Sleswick-Holsatia. The Low German name is Sleswig-Holsteen, and the North Frisian name is Slaswik-Holstiinj. Historically, the name can also refer to a larger region, containing both present-day Schleswig-Holstein and the former South Jutland County (Northern Schleswig; now part of the Region of Southern Denmark) in Denmark.
Schleswig was under Danish control beginning in the Viking Age, but escaped full control and became a duchy in the 12th century. It bordered Holstein, which was nominally a part of the Holy Roman Empire. From 1460, both Schleswig and Holstein were ruled together by a common Duke. In the 19th century it became the subject of an intractable political and territorial dispute: the Schleswig-Holstein Question. The "question" came to a head as Denmark tried to formally annex the area in 1848. Prussia, the leading German state before unification, balked at the attempt; it had some claim to the territory and the population was majority ethnic German. It invaded and began the First Schleswig War, which ended in a Danish victory and the 1852 London Protocol. This did not solve the issue for good: fighting broke out again in 1864 with the Second Schleswig War. The second war saw a German victory, with the territory being absorbed into Prussia. After the German defeat in World War I, the 1920 Schleswig plebiscites were held at the command of the Allies which resulted in the return of some territory to Denmark. After World War II, it took in over a million refugees.
Schleswig-Holstein's economy is known for its agriculture, such as its Holstein cows. Its position on the Atlantic makes it a major trade point and shipbuilding site; it is also the location of the Kiel Canal. Offshore oil wells and wind farms produce significant amounts of energy. Fishing is a major industry and accounts for a unique local cuisine. It is a favorite tourist spot for Germans.
The term "Holstein" derives from Old Saxon Holseta Land, (Holz and Holt mean wood in modern Standardised German and in literary English, respectively). Originally, it referred to the central of the three Saxon tribes north of the River Elbe: Tedmarsgoi (Dithmarschen), Holstein and Sturmarii (Stormarn). The area of the tribe of the Holsts was between the Stör River and Hamburg, and after Christianization, their main church was in Schenefeld. Saxon Holstein became a part of the Holy Roman Empire after Charlemagne's Saxon campaigns in the late eighth century. Since 811, the northern frontier of Holstein (and thus the Empire) was marked by the River Eider.
The term Schleswig comes from the city of Schleswig. The name derives from the Schlei inlet in the east and vik meaning inlet in Old Norse or settlement in Old Saxon, and cognate with the "-wick" or "-wich" element in place-names in Britain.
The Duchy of Schleswig or Southern Jutland was originally an integral part of Denmark, but was in medieval times established as a fief under the Kingdom of Denmark, with the same relation to the Danish Crown as for example Brandenburg or Bavaria vis-à-vis the Holy Roman Emperor. Around 1100, the Duke of Saxony gave Holstein, as it was his own country, to Count Adolf I of Schauenburg.
Schleswig and Holstein have at different times belonged in part or completely to either Denmark or Germany, or have been virtually independent of both nations. The exception is that Schleswig had never been part of Germany until the Second Schleswig War in 1864. For many centuries, the King of Denmark was both a Danish Duke of Schleswig and a German Duke of Holstein. Essentially, Schleswig was either integrated into Denmark or was a Danish fief, and Holstein was a German fief and once a sovereign state long ago. Both were for several centuries ruled by the kings of Denmark. In 1721, all of Schleswig was united as a single duchy under the king of Denmark, and the great powers of Europe confirmed in an international treaty that all future kings of Denmark should automatically become dukes of Schleswig, and consequently Schleswig would always follow the same order of succession as the one chosen in the Kingdom of Denmark. In the church, following the reformation, German was used in the southern part of Schleswig and Danish in the northern part. This would later prove decisive for shaping national sentiments in the population, as well as after 1814 when mandatory school education was introduced. The administration of both duchies was conducted in German, despite the fact that they were governed from Copenhagen (from 1523 by the German Chancellery which was in 1806 renamed Schleswig-Holstein Chancellery).
The German national awakening that followed the Napoleonic Wars gave rise to a strong popular movement in Holstein and Southern Schleswig for unification with a new Prussian-dominated Germany. This development was paralleled by an equally strong Danish national awakening in Denmark and Northern Schleswig. This movement called for the complete reintegration of Schleswig into the Kingdom of Denmark and demanded an end to discrimination against Danes in Schleswig. The ensuing conflict is sometimes called the Schleswig-Holstein Question. In 1848, King Frederick VII of Denmark declared that he would grant Denmark a liberal constitution and the immediate goal for the Danish national movement was to ensure that this constitution would give rights to all Danes, i.e. not only to those in the Kingdom of Denmark, but also to Danes (and Germans) living in Schleswig. Furthermore, they demanded protection for the Danish language in Schleswig (the dominant language in almost a quarter of Schleswig had changed from Danish to German since the beginning of the 19th century).
A liberal constitution for Holstein was not seriously considered in Copenhagen, since it was well known that the political élite of Holstein were more conservative than Copenhagen's. Representatives of German-minded Schleswig-Holsteiners demanded that Schleswig and Holstein be unified and allowed its own constitution and that Schleswig join Holstein as a member of the German Confederation. These demands were rejected by the Danish government in 1848, and the Germans of Holstein and southern Schleswig rebelled. This began the First Schleswig War (1848-51), which ended in a Danish victory at Idstedt.
In 1863, conflict broke out again when Frederick VII died without legitimate issue. According to the order of succession of Denmark and Schleswig, the crowns of both Denmark and Schleswig would pass to Duke Christian of Duchy of Glücksburg, who became Christian IX. The transmission of the duchy of Holstein to the head of the (German-oriented) branch of the Danish royal family, the House of Augustenborg, was more controversial. The separation of the two duchies was challenged by the Augustenborg heir, who claimed, as in 1848, to be rightful heir of both Schleswig and Holstein. The promulgation of a common constitution for Denmark and Schleswig in November 1863 prompted Otto von Bismarck to intervene and Prussia and Austria declared war on Denmark. This was the Second War of Schleswig, which ended in Danish defeat. British attempts to mediate in the London Conference of 1864 failed, and Denmark lost Schleswig (Northern and Southern Schleswig), Holstein, and Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria.
Contrary to the hopes of German Schleswig-Holsteiners, the area did not gain its independence, but was annexed as a province of Prussia in 1867. Also following the Austro-Prussian War in 1866, section five of the Peace of Prague stipulated that the people of Northern Schleswig would be consulted in a referendum on whether to remain under Prussian rule or return to Danish rule. This condition, however, was never fulfilled by Prussia. During the decades of Prussian rule within the German Empire, authorities attempted a Germanisation policy in the northern part of Schleswig, which remained predominantly Danish. The period also meant increased industrialisation of Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Kiel and Flensburg as important Imperial German Navy locations. The northernmost part and west coast of the province saw a wave of emigration to America, while some Danes of North Schleswig emigrated to Denmark.
Following the defeat of Germany in World War I, the Allied powers arranged a plebiscite in northern and central Schleswig. The plebiscite was conducted under the auspices of an international commission which designated two voting zones to cover the northern and south-central parts of Schleswig. Steps were taken to also create a third zone covering a southern area, but zone III was cancelled again and never voted, as the Danish government asked the commission not to expand the plebiscite to this area.
In zone I covering Northern Schleswig (10 February 1920), 75% voted for reunification with Denmark and 25% voted for Germany. In zone II covering central Schleswig (14 March 1920), the results were reversed; 80% voted for Germany and just 20% for Denmark. Only minor areas on the island of Föhr showed a Danish majority, and the rest of the Danish vote was primarily in the town of Flensburg.
|Electorate||German name||Danish name||For Germany||For Denmark|
|Zone I (Northern Schleswig), 10 February 1920||25.1 %||25,329||74.9 %||75,431|
|Northern part of District of||Tondern||Tønder||40.9%||7,083||59.1%||10,223|
|Northern part of District of||Flensburg||Flensborg||40.6%||548||59.4%||802|
|Zone II (Central Schleswig), 14 March 1920||80.2 %||51,742||19.8 %||12,800|
|Southern part of District of||Tondern||Tønder||87.9%||17,283||12.1%||2,376|
|Southern part of District of||Flensburg||Flensborg||82.6%||6,688||17.4%||1,405|
|Northern part of District of||Husum||Husum||90.0%||672||10.0%||75|
On 15 June 1920, Northern Schleswig officially returned to Danish rule. The Danish/German border was the only one of the borders imposed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles after World War I which was never challenged by Adolf Hitler.
In 1937, the Nazis passed the so-called Greater Hamburg Act (Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz), where the nearby Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg was expanded, to encompass towns that had formerly belonged to the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein. To compensate Prussia for these losses (and partly because Hitler had a personal dislike for Lübeck), the 711-year-long independence of the Hansestadt Lübeck came to an end, and almost all its territory was incorporated into Schleswig-Holstein.
After World War II, the Prussian province Schleswig-Holstein came under British occupation. On 23 August 1946, the military government abolished the province and reconstituted it as a separate Land.
Due to the forced migrations of Germans between 1944 and 1950, Schleswig-Holstein took in almost a million refugees after the war, increasing its population by 33%. A pro-Danish political movement arose in Schleswig, with transfer of the area to Denmark as an ultimate goal. This was supported neither by the British occupation administration nor the Danish government. In 1955, the German and Danish governments issued the Bonn-Copenhagen Declarations confirming the rights of the ethnic minorities on both sides of the border. Conditions between the nationalities have since been stable and generally respectful.
Schleswig-Holstein lies on the base of Jutland Peninsula between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Strictly speaking, "Schleswig" refers to the German Southern Schleswig (German: Südschleswig or Landesteil Schleswig, Danish: Sydslesvig), whereas Northern Schleswig is in Denmark (South Jutland County, Region of Southern Denmark). The state of Schleswig-Holstein further consists of Holstein, as well as Lauenburg and the formerly independent city of Lübeck.
Schleswig-Holstein borders Denmark (Southern Denmark) to the north, the North Sea to the west, the Baltic Sea to the east, and the German states of Lower Saxony, Hamburg, and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern to the south.
In the western part of the state, the lowlands have virtually no hills. The North Frisian Islands, as well as almost all of Schleswig-Holstein's North Sea coast, form the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (Nationalpark Schleswig-Holsteinisches Wattenmeer) which is the largest national park in Central Europe. Germany's only high-sea island, Heligoland, is situated in the North Sea.
The Baltic Sea coast in the east of Schleswig-Holstein is marked by bays, fjords, and cliff lines. Rolling hills (the highest elevation is the Bungsberg at 168 metres or 551 feet) and many lakes are found, especially in the eastern part of Holstein called the Holstein Switzerland and the former Duchy of Lauenburg (Herzogtum Lauenburg). Fehmarn is the only island off the eastern coast. The longest river besides the Elbe is the Eider.
Typical landscape (from West to East):
Schleswig-Holstein is divided into 11 Kreise (districts):
Furthermore, the four separate urban districts are:
Schleswig-Holstein has an aging population. Since 1972 there has been a decrease in the natural rate of population change. In 2016 the total fertility rate reached 1.61, highest value in 40 years (the average value being 1.4). In 2016 there were 25,420 births and 33,879 deaths, resulting in a natural decrease of -8,459.
The region has been strongly Protestant since the time of the Protestant Reformation. It is proportionally the most Protestant of the sixteen modern states. In 2018, members of the Evangelical Church in Germany make up 44.6% of the population, while members of the Catholic Church comprise 6.1%. 49.3% of the population is not religious or adherent of other religions.
Schleswig-Holstein combines Danish, Frisian and German aspects of culture. The castles and manors in the countryside are the best example for this tradition; some dishes like Rødgrød (German: Rote Grütze, literal English "red grits" or "red groats") are also shared, as well as surnames such as Hansen.
The most important festivals are the Kiel Week, Schleswig-Holstein Musik Festival, an annual classic music festival all over the state, and the Lübeck Nordic Film Days, an annual film festival for movies from Scandinavian countries, held in Lübeck.
The annual Wacken Open Air festival is considered to be the largest heavy metal rock festival in the world.
The state's most important museum of cultural history is in Gottorf Castle in Schleswig.
The Wagnerian tenor Klaus Florian Vogt is from Schleswig - Holstein.
The coat of arms shows the symbols of the two duchies united in Schleswig-Holstein, i.e., the two lions for Schleswig and the leaf of a nettle for Holstein. Supposedly, Otto von Bismarck decreed that the two lions were to face the nettle because of the discomfort to their bottoms which would have resulted if the lions faced away from it.
The motto of Schleswig-Holstein is "Up ewich ungedeelt" (Middle Low German: "Forever undivided", modern High German: "Auf ewig ungeteilt"). It goes back to the Vertrag von Ripen or Handfeste von Ripen (Danish: Ribe Håndfæstning) or Treaty of Ribe in 1460. Ripen (Ribe) is a historical small town in Northern Schleswig, nowadays Denmark.
The anthem from 1844 is called "Wanke nicht, mein Vaterland" ("Don't falter, my fatherland"), but it is usually referred to with its first line "Schleswig-Holstein meerumschlungen" (i.e., "Schleswig-Holstein embraced by the seas") or "Schleswig-Holstein-Lied" (Schleswig-Holstein song).
The old city of Lübeck is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Distinctive point of the cuisine is combination of sweetness with a taste contrast like sour or salty. These combinations are also described as "broken sweetness" is especially present in dishes which are sweet-sour.
Typical dishes are:
Historically, Low German (in Holstein and Southern Schleswig), Danish (in Schleswig), and North Frisian (in Western Schleswig) were widely spoken in Schleswig-Holstein. During the language change in the 19th century some Danish and North Frisian dialects in Southern Schleswig were replaced by Standard German. 
Low German is still used in many parts of the state. Missingsch, a Low German dialect with heavy High German (Standard German) influence, is commonly spoken informally throughout the state, while a mixed language Petuh (mixture of High German and Danish) is used in and around Flensburg. Danish is used by the Danish minority in Southern Schleswig, and North Frisian is spoken by the North Frisians of the North Sea Coast and the Northern Frisian Islands in Southern Schleswig. The North Frisian dialect called Heligolandic (Halunder) is spoken on the island of Heligoland.
As is the case throughout Germany, High German, introduced in the 16th century, has come to steadily replace local dialects for official purposes, and is today the predominant language of media, law and legislature. It is spoken by virtually all inhabitants in formal situations. Since the end of World War II and widespread adoption of TV, radio and other mass media, it has gradually come to supplant local dialects in urban areas as well.
The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the state was 62.7 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 1.9% of German economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 30,400 euros or 101% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 95% of the EU average. The GDP per capita was the lowest of all states in West Germany. In 2017, Schleswig-Holstein had an export surplus for the first time since 1989: export 22.6 billion euros/ import 20.8 billion euros.
Schleswig-Holstein is a leader in the country's growing renewable energy industry. In 2014, Schleswig-Holstein became the first German state to cover 100% of its electric power demand with renewable energy sources (chiefly wind 70%, solar 3.8%, and biomass 8.3%).
The largest German oil field Mittelplate is located in the North Sea off the Dithmarsch coast and connected with refinery in Hemmingstedt and chemical plants in Brunsbüttel via pipeline. It produce ca. 1.4 million tonnes of oil annually.
There are three nuclear power plants (17.7%): Krümmel, Brunsbüttel and Brockdorf. The last one is still in operation, which is using advanced MOX fuel with plutonium. There is also a nuclear research center knwon Helmholtz-Zentrum Geeshacht (rebranded as Hereon) with 2 research reactors, located right next to the Krümmel plant.
During the 1990s, ten more cases of leukemia among children than was expected were identified in Elbmarsch, near the Krümmel plant. Anti-nuclear activists believed it was due to the nuclear plant, which led to several investigations. The reported discovery of small spherical beads of nuclear material in the area led to further concern, as well as the presence of minute amounts of plutonium in the Elbe. The origins of the nuclear material were disputed, with one report determining them to not be that of the Krümmel plant. Another report claimed that they may have come from an undisclosed fire in 1986, however this theory has been questioned as it would have required a substantial government coverup. The Chernobyl disaster has also been suggested as a source, though is considered unlikely. The probable source of the material, especially in the Elbe, is nuclear reprocessing plants in France. A 2010 report exonerated the nuclear power plants on the Elbe as the cause of contamination. Further doubt was cast on the nature of the supposed beads of nuclear material, with a Federal commission chastising the original commission that claimed to have discovered the beads. The exact cause of the increased leukemia cases remains unknown, and could be due to other environmental factors, or even by chance.
The nuclear plants have further been questioned as a source of the cases due to comparison to the Savannah River Site in the United States. Despite release of radiation at the Savannah River Site, there is no increase in cases of leukemia around it. Alternative hypotheses for the cause of the cases have included electromagnetic fields, parental radiation exposure prior to conception, other carcinogens, and benzene exposure; however, none have been supported by the existing evidence. Intriguingly, a larger case-control study in Lower Saxony found a correlation between the "untrained immune system" (as judged as contact with other children, vaccinations, etc.) and leukemia risk, suggested that an immature immune system that has not been challenged is at greater risk for developing malignancy, possibly secondary to an undetermined environment factor.
Located between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, Schleswig-Holstein is also a popular tourist destination in Germany. Its islands, beaches and cities attract millions of tourists every year. It has the second highest tourism intensity per local among the German states, after Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, but in absolute value it is rank 6th and only 1/3 of top destination Bavaria. According to a ruling by the Federal Administrative Court, everyone has the right to free access to the beach. Nevertheless, most of the seaside resorts kept cashing in (2-EUR3 /day/person).
63% of land Schleswig-Holstein (990 403 ha) using in agriculture (national average 47%).
There are some special cultivation regions:
The dairy and cattle farming in connection with fodder cultivation is mainly concentrated on the marshland and the bordering Geest areas. In 2020, around 1 million cattle including 360,000 dairy cows were counted in Schleswig-Holstein, rank 4th of German states. Livestock is continuously declining.
Schleswig-Holstein is home of the most productive dairy cattle: Holsteins, which produce an average of 8,125 l (2,146 US gal) per year of milk. It is now the main dairy cow around the world.
Pig breeding is mainly found in the Schleswig-Holstein Uplands. In principle, Schleswig-Holstein is one of the regions with relatively few pigs (a total of around 1.6 million; in comparison Lower Saxony: over 8 million). Poultry and sheep are also of little importance in animal husbandry.
Total production from fishing in North and Baltic Seas was 40 780 tonnes in 2019, ca. 1/3 German production.
Inland fishing and aquaculture is not significant with 221 and 250 tonnes in 2019 respectively.
The largest company headquarters in Schleswig-Holstein with annual sales over 1 billion euros are:
The unemployment rate stood at 6.1% in April 2021.
|Unemployment rate in %||8.5||8.4||8.7||9.7||9.8||11.6||10.0||8.4||7.6||7.8||7.5||7.2||6.9||6.9||6.8||6.5||6.3||6.0||5.5||5.1|
Schleswig-Holstein belong to less developed state in Germany. Some branches are declining since many years and new high technology was not set up.
The most important transport way in Schleswig-Holstein is Kiel Canal, which connect Brunsbüttel on North Sea with Kiel on Baltic Sea. Total cargo of ships reach peaks in 2007 and 2012, after that it continuous decline with 73.8 million tonnes in 2020.
The state has a total of 46 public ports and landing stages, four of which fulfill international transit functions: Kiel, Lübeck / Travemünde and Puttgarden on the Baltic Sea, Brunsbüttel on the North Sea. Kiel and Lübeck are also important for freight traffic to Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Lübeck-Travemünde and Kiel are also important ferry and cruise ports. Puttgarden is the German port of the Vogelfluglinie to Denmark. Brunsbüttel is an important port for bulk goods and also serves as the basis for the offshore wind energy industry.
|Port||HANDLING OF GOODS, MT||FERRY AND RO/RO TRANSPORT, MT||NUMBER OF PASSENGERS|
|Puttgarden||5.4||14.4||5 482 277|
|Kiel||4.8||5.9||1 588 467|
There is no any international or large regional airports, only small air fields. Area is serviced by Hamburg Airport
Compulsory education starts for children who are six years old on 30 June. All children attend a "Grundschule", which is Germany's equivalent to primary school, for the first 4 years and then move on to a secondary school. In Schleswig-Holstein there are "Gemeinschaftsschulen", which is a new type of comprehensive school. The regional schools, which go by the German name "Regionalschule" have been done away with as of 1 January 2014. The option of a Gymnasium is still available.
In a comparison of the federal states, Schleswig-Holstein has the highest student-to-teacher ratio in Germany at around 16.5:1 (national average: 15.2:1). In addition, Schleswig-Holstein is 14th from 16 federal state in terms of expenditure per pupil at public schools with around 5750 euros (national average: 6500 euros).
There are three universities in Kiel (classical, budget 167.1 MEUR), Lübeck (medicine, budget 80.8 MEUR) and Flensburg (pedagogical, 37.4 MEUR). It is really poor financing in comparison to universities with the same size in South Germany, for example University of Tübingen has budget (2019) 642.2 MEUR. Also, there are four public Universities of Applied Sciences in Flensburg, Heide, Kiel, and Lübeck. There is the Conservatory in Lübeck and the Muthesius Academy of Fine Arts in Kiel. There are also three private institutions of higher learning.
Schleswig-Holstein has its own parliament and government which are located in the state capital Kiel. The Minister-President of Schleswig-Holstein is elected by the Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein.
|Minister of Education, Science and Cultural Affairs||Karin Prien||CDU|||
|Minister of Energy, Agriculture, the Environment, Nature and Digitalization||Robert Habeck||Greens|||
|Minister of Finances||Monika Heinold||Greens|||
|Minister of Interior, Rural Areas an Integration||Hans-Joachim Grote||CDU|||
|Minister of Justice, European Affairs, Consumer Protection and Equality||Sabine Sütterlin-Waack||CDU|||
|Minister of Social Affairs, Health, Youth, Family and Senior Citizens||Heiner Garg||FDP|||
|Minister of Economic Affairs, Transport, Employment, Technology and Tourism||Bernd Klaus Buchholz||FDP|||
The most recent Schleswig-Holstein state elections were held on 7 May 2017. The governing parties consisting of the Social Democrats, the Green Party, and the South Schleswig Voters' Association lost their majority.
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