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Slaves in the Arab world, especially from Central and Eastern Europe.
The Rus trading slaves with the Khazars: Trade in the East Slavic Camp by Sergei Ivanov (1913). Many saqaliba slaves came from Europe to the Abbasid Caliphate via the Volga trade route from Eastern Europe via the Khazars and the Caspian Sea.
Saqaliba (Arabic: , romanized: ?aq?liba, singular Arabic: , romanized: ?aqlab?)[nb 1] is a term used in medieval Arabic sources to refer to Slavs and other peoples of Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe, or in a broad sense to European slaves. The term originates from the Middle Greek slavos/sklavenos (Slav), which in Hispano-Arabic came to designate first Slavic slaves and then, similarly to the semantic development of the term in other West-European languages, foreign slaves in general. The word was often used to refer specifically to Slavic slaves, but it could also refer more broadly to Europeans traded by the Arab traders.
The following list is derived from Bosworth 1996, p. 17 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBosworth1996 (help), who calls them the Ban? Muj?hid. Muj?hid was a member of Mu?ammad ibn Abi mir's household.
Traveller Ibrahim ibn Yaqub (fl. 961-62) placed the Saq?liba, Slavs, west of Bulgaria and east of other Slavs, in a mountainous land, and described them as violent and aggressive. It is believed that these were situated in the Western Balkans.
^Golden, P.B., Bosworth, C.E., Guichard, P. and Meouak, Mohamed (1995). "al- ?aliba". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. 8 (2nd ed.). Brill. p. 872. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_COM_0978.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
^ abSeybold 1960: "the descendants (and clients) of al-Manr ibn Abi mir, in the first place his sons ... To the former clients of the house belong Muh?rak and Mu?affar ... and Mudj?hid al-miri" sfn error: no target: CITEREFSeybold1960 (help)