The most influential royal cities enjoyed voting rights during the free election period in Poland (1572-1791). These cities were Gda?sk, Warsaw, Kraków, Pozna?, Lwów, Wilno, Toru?, Lublin, Kamieniec and Elbl?g. Other important royal cities included Gniezno (ecclesiastical capital of Poland and former capital of early medieval Poland), P?ock (former capital of medieval Poland), Grodno (general sejm location alongside Warsaw), Bydgoszcz and Piotrków (Crown Tribunal locations alongside Lublin).
On April 18, 1791, the Great Sejm adopted the Free Royal Cities Act (full title: "Miasta nasze królewskie wolne w pa?stwach Rzeczypospolitej" - "Our Free Royal Cities in the States of the Commonwealth"), included as Article III into the Constitution of May 3, 1791.
The law granted a number of privileges for the residents of royal cities. Many of these privileges and rights have already been enjoyed by major royal cities, and the law effectively equalized all royal cities in this respect. It also includes some rights earlier enjoyed only by szlachta.
Examples of Polish royal castles and residences found in former royal cities of Poland:
Examples of Polish royal cities historic centers include: