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Roman Civil Wars
This is a list of civil wars and organized civil disorder in ancient Rome (753 BC - AD 476).
3rd century BC
2nd century BC
1st century BC
- 91-87 BC: Social War, between Rome and many of its fellow Italian allies - Roman victory.
- 88 BC: Sulla's march on Rome, causing his enemy, Gaius Marius, to be outlawed
- 87 BC: Bellum Octavianum, civil war between the consuls Cornelius Cinna and Octavius - Cinnan victory.
- 83-81 BC: Sulla's civil war, fought between Sulla and Cinna's supporters - Sullan victory.
- 80-72 BC: Sertorian War between Rome and the provinces of Hispania under the leadership of Quintus Sertorius, a former supporter of Marius and Cinna - Sullan victory.
- 77 BC: Lepidus' rebellion against the Sullan regime - Sullan victory.
- 73-71 BC: Third Servile War in Italy - revolt suppressed.
- 63-62 BC: Catiline Conspiracy between the Senate and the dissatisfied followers of Catiline - Senatorial victory.
- 49-45 BC: Caesar's Civil War between Julius Caesar and the Optimates initially led by Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) - Caesarian victory.
- 46 BC: Revolt of the Bellovaci in North-Eastern Gaul - revolt suppressed
- 44 BC: Revolt of the Allobroges in Gaul - revolt suppressed
- 44-43 BC: Post-Caesarian Civil War between the Senate's army (led first by Cicero and then by Octavian) and the army of Antony, Lepidus, and their colleagues - Truce results in union of forces.
- 44-42 BC: Liberators' civil war between the Second Triumvirate and the Liberators (Brutus and Cassius, Caesar's assassins) - Triumvirate victory.
- 44-36 BC: Sicilian revolt between the Second Triumvirate (particularly Octavian and Agrippa) and Sextus Pompey, the son of Pompey - Triumvirate victory.
- 41-40 BC: Perusine War between the forces of Octavian against Lucius Antonius and Fulvia (the younger brother and wife of Mark Antony) - Octavian victory.
- 38 BC: Revolt of Aquitanian tribes - revolt suppressed by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
- 32-30 BC: War of Actium between Octavian and his friend and general Agrippa against Antony and Cleopatra - Octavian victory.
- 30-29 BC: Revolt of the Morini and Treveri in Northern Gaul with Germanic support - revolt suppressed
- 30 BC: Revolt in the Nile delta and the Thebaid - revolt suppressed by Gaius Cornelius Gallus
- 28-27 BC: Revolt in Gallia Aquitania - revolt suppressed by Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus
- 13 BC: Revolt of Vologases, priest of Dionysus, in Thrace - revolt suppressed
- 11-9 BC: Revolt of southern mountain tribes in Thrace - revolt suppressed by Calpurnius Piso
- 4 BC: Revolt of Jews in Judea - revolt suppressed by Publius Quinctilius Varus
- 3-6: Revolt of the Gaetuli in Mauretania - revolt suppressed by Cossus Cornelius Lentulus Gaetulicus
- 6: Revolt of Judas of Galilee against Roman taxation - revolt suppressed
- 6-9: Bellum Batonianum, a great rebellion in Illyricum against Rome - revolt suppressed by Tiberius
- 9: Revolt by German leader Arminius destroys three Roman legions in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, permanently ending Roman efforts to conquer Germanic territories east of the Rhine.
- 14: Mutiny of the legions in Germania and Illyricum suppressed by Germanicus and Drusus Julius Caesar
- 17-24: Tacfarinas' revolt in north Africa - revolt suppressed by Publius Cornelius Dolabella
- 21: Revolt of the Treveri, Aedui, Andes (Andecavi) and Turoni under Julius Florus and Julius Sacrovir in Gaul - revolt suppressed by Gaius Silius and Gaius Calpurnius Aviola
- 21: Revolt of the Coelaletae, Odrysae and Dii in Thrace - revolt suppressed by P. Vellaeus
- 26: Revolt in Thrace - revolt suppressed by Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus
- 28: Revolt of the Frisii in the Battle of Baduhenna Wood - rebel victory
- 36: Revolt of the Cietae in Cappadocia - revolt suppressed by Marcus Trebellius
- 38: Alexandrian riots
- 40: Alexandrian riots
- 40-44: Revolt of Aedemon and Sabalus in Mauretania - revolt suppressed by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus and Gnaeus Hosidius Geta
- 42: Failed usurpation of Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus in Dalmatia
- 46: The Kingdom of Thrace riots against the Romans after the death of King Rhoemetalces III - revolt suppressed
- 46-48: Jacob and Simon uprising in the Galilee - revolt suppressed
- 60-61: Boudica's uprising in Britain - revolt suppressed by Gaius Suetonius Paulinus
- 66-73: First Jewish-Roman War - revolt suppressed
- 68: Revolt in Gallia Lugdunensis under Gaius Julius Vindex - revolt suppressed by Lucius Verginius Rufus' army
- 68-69: The Year of the Four Emperors between various Romans following the death of Nero (AD 68). After Nero's suicide, the generals Galba, Otho, and Vitellius take the throne within months of each other. General Vespasian, who until that point was fighting the revolt in Judaea, is victorious. He founds the Flavian dynasty.
- 69: Revolt of Anicetus in Colchis - revolt suppressed by Virdius Geminus
- 69-70: Revolt of the Batavi, Treveri and Lingones in Gaul - revolt suppressed
- 79-80: Failed usurpation of Terentius Maximus, a Pseudo-Nero, in Asia
- 89: Revolt of Lucius Antonius Saturninus with two legions in Germania Superior - revolt suppressed
- 406-413: Civil war as the usurpers Marcus, Gratian, Constantine III, Constans II (son of Constantine III), Maximus of Hispania, Priscus Attalus, Jovinus, Sebastianus and Heraclianus tried to usurp the throne of Emperor Honorius. All were defeated.
- 409-417: Bagaudae uprising in the Loire valley and Brittany
- 419-421: Revolt of Maximus in Hispania - revolt suppressed
- 423-425: Civil war, when the usurper Joannes was defeated by the army of Emperor Valentinian III.
- 427-429: Civil war, when the Comes Africae Bonifacius fought inconclusively against the Magister militum Felix. The civil war was terminated by negotiations brokered by Galla Placidia.
- 432: Civil war, when the Magister militum Flavius Aetius was defeated by the rival Magister militum Bonifacius, who died of wounds sustained in battle soon afterwards, giving Aetius full control over the Western Empire.
- 435-437: Bagaudae uprising under Tibatto in Gaul suppressed by Flavius Aetius.
- 455: Valentinian III assassinated and overthrown by Petronius Maximus.
- 455: Petronius Maximus stoned to death by mob and replaced by Avitus.
- 461: Majorian assassinated and overthrown by Ricimer.
- 468: Failed usurpation by Arvandus.
- 470: Failed usurpation by Romanus.
- 472: Anthemius overthrown by Ricimer.
- 474: Glycerius overthrown by Julius Nepos.
- 475: Julius Nepos overthrown by Orestes.
- 476: Orestes overthrown by Odoacer. Romulus Augustulus deposed, ending the Western Roman Empire.
- Kohn, George Childs, 'Dictionary of Wars, Revised Edition' (Checkmark Books, New York, 1999)