Rhizobium
Get Rhizobium essential facts below. View Videos or join the Rhizobium discussion. Add Rhizobium to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Rhizobium

Rhizobium
Rhizobium tropici strain BR816 on TY agar.JPG
Rhizobium tropici on an agar plate.
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Genus:
Rhizobium

Frank 1889 (Approved Lists 1980)[1][2]
Type species
Rhizobium leguminosarum
(Frank 1879) Frank 1889 (Approved Lists 1980)
Species

See text.

Rhizobium is a genus of Gram-negative soil bacteria that fix nitrogen. Rhizobium species form an endosymbiotic nitrogen-fixing association with roots of legumes and Trema andersonii.

The bacteria colonize plant cells within root nodules, where they convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia using the enzyme nitrogenase and then provide organic nitrogenous compounds such as glutamine or ureides to the plant. The plant, in turn, provides the bacteria with organic compounds made by photosynthesis.[3] This mutually beneficial relationship is true of all of the rhizobia, of which the genus Rhizobium is a typical example. Rhizobium is also capable to solubilize phosphorus.[4]

History

Martinus Beijerinck was the first to isolate and cultivate a microorganism from the nodules of legumes in 1888. He named it Bacillus radicicola, which is now placed in Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology under the genus Rhizobium.

Research

Rhizobium forms a symbiotic relationship with certain plants such as legumes, fixing nitrogen from the air into ammonia, which acts as a natural fertilizer for the plants. Current research is being conducted by Agricultural Research Service microbiologists to discover a way to use Rhizobium's biological nitrogen fixation. This research involves the genetic mapping of various rhizobial species with their respective symbiotic plant species, like alfalfa or soybean. The goal of this research is to increase the plants' productivity without using fertilizers.[5]

In molecular biology, Rhizobium has also been identified as a contaminant of DNA extraction kit reagents and ultrapure water systems, which may lead to its erroneous appearance in microbiota or metagenomic datasets.[6] The presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as contaminants may be due to the use of nitrogen gas in ultra-pure water production to inhibit microbial growth in storage tanks.[7]

Species

Accepted Species

The genus Rhizobium comprises the following species:[8]

Provisional Species

The following species have been described, but not validated according to the Bacteriological Code:[8]

  • "Rhizobium album" Hang et al. 2019
  • "Rhizobium albus" Li et al. 2017
  • "Rhizobium deserti" Liu et al. 2020
  • "Rhizobium flavescens" Su et al. 2021
  • "Rhizobium glycinendophyticum" Wang et al. 2020
  • "Rhizobium halotolerans" Diange and Lee 2013[13]
  • "Rhizobium hedysari" Xu et al. 2017
  • "Rhizobium helanshanense" Qin et al. 2012
  • "Rhizobium indicum" Rahi et al. 2020
  • "Rhizobium kunmingense" Shen et al. 2010
  • "Candidatus Rhizobium massiliense" Greub et al. 2004.
  • "Rhizobium oryzihabitans" Zhao et al. 2020
  • "Rhizobium panacihumi" Kang et al. 2019
  • "Rhizobium phenanthrenilyticum" Wen et al. 2011
  • "Rhizobium pongamiae" Kesari et al. 2013[14]
  • "Rhizobium qilianshanense" Xu et al. 2013[15]
  • "Rhizobium rhizolycopersici" Thin et al. 2021
  • "Rhizobium rhizosphaerae" Zhao et al. 2017
  • "Rhizobium terrae" Ruan et al. 2020

Phylogeny

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN).[8] The phylogeny is based on whole-genome analysis.[16]

Rhizobium

Rhizobium tubonense

Rhizobium rhizogenes

Rhizobium lusitanum

outgroups

Allorhizobium

Ciceribacter

Agrobacterium

Pseudorhizobium

Neorhizobium

References

  1. ^ Frank B. (1889). "Über die Pilzsymbiose der Leguminosen". Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft. 7: 332-346.
  2. ^ Skerman VBD, McGowan V, Sneath PHA. (1980). "Approved lists of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/00207713-30-1-225.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  3. ^ Sawada H, Kuykendall LD, Young JM (June 2003). "Changing concepts in the systematics of bacterial nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts". The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology. 49 (3): 155-79. doi:10.2323/jgam.49.155. PMID 12949698.
  4. ^ Sridevi M, Mallaiah KV (March 2009). "Phosphate solubilization by Rhizobium strains". Indian Journal of Microbiology. 49 (1): 98-102. doi:10.1007/s12088-009-0005-1. PMC 3450048. PMID 23100757.
  5. ^ "Marvelous Microbe Collections Accelerate Discoveries To Protect People, Plants--and More!". Agricultural Research. United States Department of Agriculture. January 2010. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ Salter SJ, Cox MJ, Turek EM, Calus ST, Cookson WO, Moffatt MF, et al. (November 2014). "Reagent and laboratory contamination can critically impact sequence-based microbiome analyses". BMC Biology. 12: 87. bioRxiv 10.1101/007187. doi:10.1186/s12915-014-0087-z. PMC 4228153. PMID 25387460.
  7. ^ Kulakov LA, McAlister MB, Ogden KL, Larkin MJ, O'Hanlon JF (April 2002). "Analysis of bacteria contaminating ultrapure water in industrial systems". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 68 (4): 1548-55. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.4.1548-1555.2002. PMC 123900. PMID 11916667.
  8. ^ a b c Euzéby JP, Parte AC. "Rhizobiaceae". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN). Retrieved 2021.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ a b Silva C, Vinuesa P, Eguiarte LE, Souza V, Martínez-Romero E (November 2005). "Evolutionary genetics and biogeographic structure of Rhizobium gallicum sensu lato, a widely distributed bacterial symbiont of diverse legumes". Molecular Ecology. 14 (13): 4033-50. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02721.x. PMID 16262857. S2CID 16668742.
  10. ^ Turdahon M, Osman G, Hamdun M, Yusuf K, Abdurehim Z, Abaydulla G, et al. (July 2013). "Rhizobium tarimense sp. nov., isolated from soil in the ancient Khiyik River". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63 (Pt 7): 2424-2429. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.042176-0. PMID 23203621. S2CID 19459097.
  11. ^ Wang F, Wang ET, Wu LJ, Sui XH, Li Y, Chen WX (November 2011). "Rhizobium vallis sp. nov., isolated from nodules of three leguminous species". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 61 (Pt 11): 2582-2588. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.026484-0. PMID 21131504.
  12. ^ Flores-Félix JD, Ramírez-Bahena MH, Salazar S, Peix A, Velézquez E. (2017). "Reclassification of Arthrobacter viscosus as Rhizobium viscosum comb. nov". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 67: 1789-1792. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.001864. PMID 28598309.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  13. ^ Diange EA, Lee SS (June 2013). "Rhizobium halotolerans sp. nov., Isolated from chloroethylenes contaminated soil". Current Microbiology. 66 (6): 599-605. doi:10.1007/s00284-013-0313-x. PMID 23377488. S2CID 17809044.
  14. ^ Kesari V, Ramesh AM, Rangan L (2013). "Rhizobium pongamiae sp. nov. from root nodules of Pongamia pinnata". BioMed Research International. 2013: 165198. doi:10.1155/2013/165198. PMC 3783817. PMID 24078904.
  15. ^ Xu L, Zhang Y, Deng ZS, Zhao L, Wei XL, Wei GH (March 2013). "Rhizobium qilianshanense sp. nov., a novel species isolated from root nodule of Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge in China". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 103 (3): 559-65. doi:10.1007/s10482-012-9840-x. PMID 23142858. S2CID 18660422.
  16. ^ Hördt, Anton; López, Marina García; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P.; Schleuning, Marcel; Weinhold, Lisa-Maria; Tindall, Brian J.; Gronow, Sabine; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus (7 April 2020). "Analysis of 1,000+ Type-Strain Genomes Substantially Improves Taxonomic Classification of Alphaproteobacteria". Frontiers in Microbiology. 11: 468. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.00468. PMC 7179689. PMID 32373076.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Rhizobium
 



 



 
Music Scenes