|Voiced retroflex lateral flap|
The voiced retroflex lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The expected symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet, ⟨?⟩ = ⟨⟩ (PUA , accepted for Unicode 14) is not explicitly approved. The sound may also be transcribed as a short ⟨⟩, or with the old dot diacritic, ⟨⟩.
Features of the voiced retroflex lateral flap:
|Kannada||?/Ki||[ke:i]||'to ask'||Can be an approximant instead.|
|Malayalam||?/vi||[ve:i]||'marriage'||Can be an approximant instead.|
|Marathi||?/K||[kei:]||'bananas'||See Marathi phonology|
|Tarama & Irabu||--||[pa]||'to pull'|
|Norwegian||Trøndersk||glas||['?:s]||'glass'||Apical postalveolar; also described as central . See Norwegian phonology|
|O'odham||[example needed]||--||--||Apical postalveolar.|
|Pashto||?/llund||[und]||'blind'||Contrasts plain and nasalized flaps. Tend to be lateral at the beginning of a prosodic unit, and a central flap [?] or approximant [?] elsewhere.|
|Tamil||?/Ku?i||['kui]||'bathe'||Allophone of /?/. See Tamil phonology|
|Tarahumara||Western Rarámuri||[example needed]||--||--||Often transcribed //.|
|Totoli||--||/ua?/||'snake'||Allophone of /?/ after back vowels.|
|Tukang Besi||[example needed]||--||--||Possible allophone of /l/ after back vowels, as well as an allophone of /r/.|
A retroflex lateral flap has been reported from various languages of Sulawesi such as the Sangiric languages, Buol and Totoli, as well as Nambikwara in Brazil (plain and laryngealized), Gaagudju in Australia, Purépecha and Western Rarámuri in Mexico, Moro in Sudan, O'odham and Mohawk in the United States, Chaga in Tanzania, and Kanuri in Nigeria.
Various Dravidian and Indic languages of India are reported to have a retroflex lateral flap, either phonemically or phonetically, including Gujarati, Konkani, Marathi, Odia, and Rajasthani. Masica describes the sound as widespread in the Indic languages of India:
A retroflex flapped lateral /?/, contrasting with ordinary /l/, is a prominent feature of Odia, Marathi-Konkani, Gujarati, most varieties of Rajasthani and Bhili, Punjabi, some dialects of "Lahnda", ... most dialects of West Pahari, and Kumauni (not in the Southeastern dialect described by Apte and Pattanayak), as well as Hariyanvi and the Saharanpur subdialect of Northwestern Kauravi ("Vernacular Hindustani") investigated by Gumperz. It is absent from most other NIA languages, including most Hindi dialects, Nepali, Garhwali, Bengali, Assamese, Kashmiri and other Dardic languages (except for the Dras dialect of Shina and possibly Khowar), the westernmost West Pahari dialects bordering Dardic (Bhalesi, Khashali, Rudhari, Padari) as well as the easternmost (Jaunsari, Sirmauri), and from Sindhi, Kacchi, and Siraiki. It was once present in Sinhalese, but in the modern language has merged with /l/.
There is no explicitly approved IPA symbol for the retroflex lateral flap. However, the expected symbol may be created by combining the symbol for the alveolar lateral flap with the tail of the retroflex consonants,
This was only accepted by Unicode in 2020, and so for now normal typography requires the use of a combining diacritic, ⟨ ⟩. SIL International includes this symbol to the Private Use Areas of their Gentium Plus, Charis, and Doulos fonts, as U+F269 (⟨ ⟩).