Retina Display
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Retina Display
Retina display on iPhone 4
Part of a Retina display on an iPhone 4. The pixels are not visible at normal viewing distance, creating an impression of sharp print-like text.
Retina display on iPhone 3GS
Part of a non-Retina display on an iPhone 3GS. The pixels are visible at normal viewing distance.

Retina Display is a brand name used by Apple for its series of IPS LCD and OLED displays that have a higher pixel density than traditional Apple displays.[1] Apple applied to register the term "Retina" as a trademark with regard to computers and mobile devices with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, Canadian Intellectual Property Office.[2][3] The applications were approved in 2012 and 2014 respectively. The Canadian application cited a 2010 application in Jamaica.

When an Apple product has a Retina display, each user interface widget is doubled in width and height to compensate for the smaller pixels. Apple calls this mode HiDPI mode. In simpler words, it is one logical pixel = four physical pixels. The advantage of this equation is that the CPU "sees" a small portion of the data and calculates the relative positions of each element, and the GPU renders these elements with high quality assets to make the output much sharper and clearer. The goal of Retina displays is to make the text and images being displayed extremely crisp, so that pixels are not visible to the naked eye or at viewing distance.[4] This allows displays to rival the smooth curves and sharpness of printed text and immediacy of photographic prints.[5][6][7]

Retina displays have been gradually released over a number of years, and the term is now used for nearly all of Apple products containing a screen, including the Apple Watch, iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, iPad Mini, iPad Air, iPad Pro, MacBook, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, iMac, and Pro Display XDR .[8] Apple uses slightly different versions of the term for these models, including Liquid Retina display for the iPhone X, iPad Air 4th Generation, iPad Pro 3rd Generation and later versions,[9] and Retina 4.5K display for the iMac.[10]

Apple's Retina displays are not an absolute standard for display sharpness, but vary depending on the size of the display on the device, and at what distance the user would typically be viewing the screen. Where on smaller devices with smaller displays users would view the screen at a closer distance to their eyes, the displays have more PPI (Pixels Per Inch), while on larger devices with larger displays where the user views the screen further away, the screen uses a lower PPI value. Later device versions have had additional improvements, whether an increase in the screen size (the iPhone 12 Pro Max), contrast ratio (the 12.9" iPad Pro 5th Generation, and iMac with Retina 4.5K display), and/or, more recently, PPI count (OLED iPhones); as a result, Apple uses the names "Retina HD display", "Retina 4K/5K display", "Retina 4.5K display", "Super Retina HD display", "Super Retina XDR display", and "Liquid Retina display" for each successive version.


When introducing the iPhone 4, Steve Jobs said the number of pixels needed for a Retina display is about 300 PPI for a device held 10 to 12 inches from the eye.[1] One way of expressing this as a unit is pixels-per-degree (PPD) which takes into account both the screen resolution and the distance from which the device is viewed. Based on Jobs' predicted number of 300, the threshold for a Retina display starts at the PPD value of 57 PPD. 57 PPD means that a tall skinny triangle with a height equal to the viewing distance and a top angle of one degree will have a base on the device's screen that covers 57 pixels. Any display's viewing quality (from phone displays to huge projectors) can be described with this size-independent universal parameter. Note that the PPD parameter is not an intrinsic parameter of the display itself, unlike absolute pixel resolution (e.g. 1920×1080 pixels) or relative pixel density (e.g. 401 PPI), but is dependent on the distance between the display and the eye of the person (or lens of the device) viewing the display; moving the eye closer to the display reduces the PPD, and moving away from it increases the PPD in proportion to the distance. It can be calculated by the formula

where is the distance to the screen, is the resolution of the screen in pixels per unit length, and is the aperture of a cone having the apex on focus, height , and the base in the eye lens —the optical correspondent to a cone inside the eye having the same base and the apex in the other focus, the fovea. That aperture, which can be measured by visual field tests, varies widely among different human subjects.

In practice, thus far Apple has converted a device's display to Retina by doubling the number of pixels in each direction, quadrupling the total resolution. This increase creates a sharper interface at the same physical dimensions. The sole exception to this has been the iPhone 6 Plus, which renders its display at triple the number of pixels in each direction, before down-sampling to a 1080p resolution.


The displays are manufactured worldwide by different suppliers. Currently, the iPad's display comes from Samsung,[11] while the MacBook Pro and iPod Touch displays are made by LG Display[12] and Japan Display Inc.[13] There was a shift of display technology from twisted nematic (TN) liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) to in-plane switching (IPS) LCDs starting with the iPhone 4 models in June 2010.

Apple markets the following devices as having a Retina display, Retina HD display, Liquid Retina display, Super Retina HD display, Super Retina XDR display or Retina 4K/5K/6K display:

Model[14][15][16][17][18] Marketing name Screen size Resolution Aspect
Pixel density Pixel size
Angular pixel density
(px/°; at typ. distance)
typ. viewing
Total pixels
ppi px/cm
Apple Watch 38mm Retina display 1.32 in (34 mm) 272×340 4:5 326 128 77.9 56.9 10 in
(25 cm)
Apple Watch 42mm 1.54 in (39 mm) 312×390 00,121,680
Apple Watch 40mm 1.57 in (40 mm) 324×394 13:16 00,127,656
Apple Watch 44mm 1.73 in (44 mm) 368×448 00,164,864
iPhone 4, and 4S and iPod Touch 4 3.5 in (89 mm) 960×640 2:3 00,614,400
iPhone 5, 5C, 5S and SE 1, iPod Touch 5, 6 and 7 4 in (100 mm) 1136×640 9:16 00,727,040
iPhone 6, 6S, 7, 8 and SE 2 Retina HD display 4.7 in (120 mm) 1334×750 01,000,500
iPhone XR and 11 Liquid Retina display 6.1 in (150 mm) 1792×828 6:13 (9:19.5) 01,483,776
iPhone 6 Plus, 6S Plus, 7 Plus and 8 Plus Retina HD display 5.5 in (140 mm) 1920×1080 9:16 401 158 63.3 70.0 02,073,600
iPhone 12 mini Super Retina HD/XDR display 5.4 in (140 mm) 2340×1080 6:13 (9:19.5) 476/337 187/133 53.4 83.1 02,527,200
iPhone X, XS, and 11 Pro 5.8 in (150 mm) 2436×1125 458/324[19] 180/127 55.4 79.9 02,740,500
iPhone 12 and 12 Pro 6.1 in (150 mm) 2532×1170 460/326 181/128 55.2 80.3 02,962,440
iPhone XS Max and 11 Pro Max 6.5 in (170 mm) 2688×1242 458/324 180/127 55.4 79.9 03,338,496
iPhone 12 Pro Max 6.7 in (170 mm) 2778×1284 03,566,952
iPad Mini 2, 3, 4 and 5 Retina display 7.9 in (200 mm) 2048×1536 3:4 326 128 77.9 85.4 15 in
(38 cm)
iPad 3, 4, 5 and 6, Air 1 and 2, Pro 1 9.7 in (250 mm) 264 104 96 69.1
iPad 7 and 8 10.2 in (260 mm) 2160×1620 03,499,200
iPad Pro 10.5" and Air 3 10.5 in (270 mm) 2224×1668 03,709,632
iPad Air 4 Liquid Retina display 10.9 in (280 mm) 2360×1640 7:10 68.9 03,870,400
iPad Pro 11" 11 in (280 mm) 2388×1668 03,983,184
iPad Pro 12.9" (3 and 4) 12.9 in (330 mm) 2732×2048 3:4 69.3 05,595,136
iPad Pro 12.9" (5) Liquid Retina XDR Display
iPad Pro 12.9" (1 and 2) Retina display
MacBook (Retina) 12" 12 in (300 mm) 2304×1440 16:10 226 89 110 79.0 20 in
(51 cm)
MacBook Pro 13" and Air 13" since 3 13.3 in (340 mm) 2560×1600 227 79.2 04,096,000
MacBook Pro 15" since 3 15.4 in (390 mm) 2880×1800 221 87 120 77.0 05,184,000
MacBook Pro 16" 16 in (410 mm) 3072×1920 226 89 79.0 5,898,240
iMac Retina 4K 21.5" Retina 4K display 21.5 in (550 mm) 4096×2304 16:9 219 86 76.3 09,437,184
iMac Retina 4.5K 24" Retina 4.5K display 23.5 in (600 mm) 4480×2520 218 76.0 011,289,600
iMac Retina 5K 27" and iMac Pro Retina 5K display 27 in (690 mm) 5120×2880 14,745,600
Pro Display XDR Retina 6K display 32 in (810 mm) 6016×3384 20,358,144

Higher resolution Retina screens are standard on the 3rd-generation MacBook Pro and new MacBook, released in 2013 and 2015, respectively.[20] The 4th-generation MacBook Pro, released in 2016, retains the same Retina display of the previous generation.


Reviews of Apple devices with Retina displays have generally been positive on technical grounds, with comments describing it as a considerable improvement on earlier screens and praising Apple for driving third-party application support for high-resolution displays more effectively than on Windows.[21][22][23] While high-dpi displays such as IBM's T220 and T221 had been sold in the past, they had seen little take-up due to their cost of around $8400.[24]

Reviewing the iPhone 4 in 2010, Joshua Topolsky commented:

"to our eyes, there has never been a more detailed, clear, or viewable screen on any mobile device. Not only are the colors and blacks deep and rich, but you simply cannot see pixels on the screen...webpages that would be line after line of pixelated content when zoomed out on a 3GS are completely readable on the iPhone 4, though the text is beyond microscopic."[25]

Former Microsoft employee Bill Hill, an expert on font rendering, offered similar comments:

That much resolution is stunning. To see it on a mainstream device like the iPad--rather than a $13,000 exotic monitor--is truly amazing, and something I've been waiting more than a decade to see. It will set a bar for future resolution that every other manufacturer of devices and PCs will have to jump.[26][27]

Writer John Gruber suggested that the arrival of Retina displays on computers would trigger a need to redesign interfaces and designs for the new displays:

The sort of rich, data-dense information design espoused by Edward Tufte can now not only be made on the computer screen but also enjoyed on one. Regarding font choices, you not only need not choose a font optimized for rendering on screen, but should not. Fonts optimized for screen rendering look cheap on the retina MacBook Pro--sometimes downright cheesy--in the same way they do when printed in a glossy magazine.[28]


Raymond Soneira, president of DisplayMate Technologies, has challenged Apple's claim. He says that the physiology of the human retina is such that there must be at least 477 pixels per inch in a pixelated display for the pixels to become imperceptible to the human eye at a distance of 12 inches (305 mm).[29] Astronomer and science blogger Phil Plait notes, however, that, "if you have [better than 20/20] eyesight, then at one foot away the iPhone 4S's pixels are resolved. The picture will look pixelated. If you have average eyesight [20/20 vision], the picture will look just fine... So in my opinion, what Jobs said was fine. Soneira, while technically correct, was being picky."[30] The retinal neuroscientist Bryan Jones offers a similar analysis of more detail and comes to a similar conclusion: "I'd find Apple's claims stand up to what the human eye can perceive."[31]

Apple fan website CultOfMac stated that the resolution the human eye can discern at 12 inches is 900 PPI, concluding "Apple's Retina Displays are only about 33% of the way there."[32] On the topic of 20/20 vision, they said "most research suggests that normal vision is actually much better than 20/20. In fact, people with normal vision usually won't see their eyesight degrade to 20/20 until they are 60 or 70 years of age"[32] (confirmed by vision testing experts Precision Vision).[33] CultOfMac also noted that people do not always view displays at a constant distance, and will sometimes move closer, at which point the display could no longer be classed as Retina.[32]


The first smartphone following the iPhone 4 to ship with a display of a comparable pixel density was the Nokia E6, running Symbian Anna, with a resolution of 640 × 480 at a screen size of 62.5mm. This was an isolated case for the platform however, as all other Symbian-based devices had larger displays with lower resolutions. Some older Symbian smartphones, including the Nokia N80 and N90, featured a 2.1 inch display at 259 ppi, which was one of the sharpest at the time. The first Android smartphones with the same display - Meizu M9 was launched a few months later in beginning of 2011. In October of the same year Galaxy Nexus was announced, which had a display with a better resolution. By 2013 the 300+ ppimark was found on midrange phones such as the Moto G.[34] From 2013 to 2014, many flagship devices such as the Samsung Galaxy S4 and HTC One (M8) had 1080p (FHD) screens around 5-inches for a 400+ PPI which surpassed the Retina density on the iPhone 5. The second major redesign of the iPhone, the iPhone 6, has a 1334 × 750 resolution on a 4.7-inch screen, while rivals such as the Samsung Galaxy S6 have a QHD display of 2560 × 1440 resolution, close to four times the number of pixels found in the iPhone 6, giving the S6 a 577 PPI that is almost twice that of the iPhone 6's 326 PPI.[35]

The larger iPhone 6 Plus features a "Retina HD display", which is a 5.5-inch 1080p screen with 401 PPI, which barely meets or lags behind Android phablet rivals such as the OnePlus One and Samsung Galaxy Note 4. Aside from resolution, all generations of iPhone Retina displays receive high ratings for other aspects such as brightness and color accuracy, compared to those of contemporary smartphones, while some Android devices such as the LG G3 have sacrificed screen quality and battery life for high resolution. Ars Technica suggested the "superfluousness of so many flagship phone features--the move from 720p to 1080p to 1440p and beyond...things are all nice to have, but you'd be hard-pressed to argue that any of them are essential".[34] Furthermore, developers can better optimize content for iOS due to Apple's few screen sizes in contrast to Android's wide display format variations.[35]

Many Windows-based Ultrabook models have offered 1080p (FHD) screens standard since 2012 and often QHD or QHD+ as optional upgrade displays.[] Retina screens are standard on the 3rd-generation MacBook Pro and MacBook, released in 2012 and 2015, respectively.[36][failed verification] Apple implemented a Retina display in the third generation of its entry-level laptop line, the MacBook Air, in 2018.

See also


  1. ^ a b "NPR Live Blog of iPhone 4 Introduction". NPR. June 7, 2010. Retrieved 2014.
  2. ^ United States Patent and Trademark Office. "Latest Status Info - Serial Number 85056807". Trademark Applications and Registrations Retrieval. Retrieved 2012. Claims priority filing date with respect to prior application in Jamaica.
  3. ^ Canadian Intellectual Property Office. "Canadian Trade-Mark Data - Application Number 1483982". Canadian Trade-marks Database. Retrieved 2012. Also cites prior application in Jamaica.
  4. ^ Jobs, Steve. "Apple iPhone 4 announcement". YouTube. Apple. Retrieved 2015.
  5. ^ Nielsen, Jakob. "Serif vs. Sans-Serif Fonts for HD Screens". Nielsen Norman Group. Retrieved 2015.
  6. ^ "Apple iPad 3 press release". Apple. Retrieved 2015.
  7. ^ Gruber, John. "Pixel Perfect". Daring Fireball. Retrieved 2015.
  8. ^ "Apple - Learn about the Retina display". Retrieved 2010.
  9. ^ "iPhone X - Technical Specifications -- Apple". Apple. Retrieved 2016.
  10. ^ "iMac -- Tech Specs -- Apple". Apple. Retrieved 2016.
  11. ^ "Why Samsung makes Retina Displays - but not for its own tablets". Wired magazine. April 4, 2012. Retrieved 2013.
  12. ^ "iFixit Teardown". iFixit. Retrieved 2012.
  13. ^ "News related to IPO of Japan Display Inc". March 19, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  14. ^ "Apple - iPod Touch - Technical Specifications".
  15. ^ "Apple - iPhone - Technical Specifications".
  16. ^ "Apple - iPad - Technical Specifications".
  17. ^ "Apple - MacBook Pro - Technical Specifications".
  18. ^ "Apple - iMac - Technical Specifications".
  19. ^ Due to the peculiar diamond Sub-Pixels layout found in the iPhone X, iPhone XS and iPhone XS Max, the actual density of the Red and Blue Sub-Pixels is lower than that of the Green Sub-Pixels, being reportedly 324 Sub-Pixels per inch.
  20. ^ Lloyd, Craig (January 21, 2016). "2016 MacBook Air: What to Expect". GottaBeMobile. Retrieved 2016.
  21. ^ Castle, Alex. "How to make the Windows desktop look good on high-DPI displays". PC World. Retrieved 2015.
  22. ^ Cunningham, Andrew. "Using the Retina MacBook as a Windows PC". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2015.
  23. ^ Hutchinson, Lee. "The Retina iMac and its 5K display... as a gaming machine? [Updated]". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2015.
  24. ^ Novakovic, Nebojsa. "IBM T221 - the world's finest monitor?". The Inquirer. Archived from the original on September 14, 2009. Retrieved 2015.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  25. ^ Topolsky, Joshua. "iPhone 4 review". Engadget. Retrieved 2015.
  26. ^ Hill, Bill. "The Future of Reading (quoted)". Blog (archived). Archived from the original on March 12, 2012.
  27. ^ Atwood, Jeff. "Welcome to the Post PC Era". Coding Horror. Retrieved 2015.
  28. ^ Gruber, John. "Pixel Perfect". Daring Fireball. Retrieved 2015.
  29. ^ "Analyst challenges Apple's iPhone 4S 'Retina Display' claims". June 9, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  30. ^ "Resolving the iPhone resolution". June 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  31. ^ "Apple Retina Display". July 26, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  32. ^ a b c Brownlee, John (June 15, 2012). "Why Retina Isn't Enough". CultOfMac. Retrieved 2012. There's only one problem: Steve Jobs said that the human eye, viewing a display from 12 inches away, can't discern individual pixels if the density is over 300 pixels per inch. Except that this "magic" number is wrong. The real number is closer to 900 pixels per inch. Apple's Retina Displays are only about 33% of the way there... But while 20/20 vision might traditionally refer to "standard vision", most research suggests that normal vision is actually much better than 20/20. In fact, people with normal vision usually won't see their eyesight degrade to 20/20 until they are 60 or 70 years of age!... J. Blackwell of the Optical Society of America determined back in 1946 that the resolution of the human eye was actually closer to 0.35 arc minutes. Again, this means that for an iPhone 4S to have a true Retina Display, it would need pixels that were 65% smaller than it currently has... Such an argument is faulty. For one thing, no one sits a uniform average distance away from their devices. When you text on your iPhone, you might hold it at 12 inches, but if you're squinting at it in the middle of the night to answer a phone call, you might hold it 6 inches away. And while you might write an email on your MacBook Pro at 24 inches, you might lean in on the edge of your seat during an exciting movie or game to closer to 18.
  33. ^ "Visual Acuity". Precision Vision. "Normal" visual acuity for healthy eyes is one or two lines better than 20/20. In population samples the average acuity does not drop to the 20/20 level until age 60 or 70. Always remember that the 20/20 reference standard does not refer to the average acuity of American eyes, just as the US standard foot is defined independently of the "normal" length of American feet.
  34. ^ a b Cunningham, Andrew (2015-08-10). "Review: New £180 Moto G is a stylish upgrade worthy of the original | Ars Technica UK". Retrieved .
  35. ^ a b "Samsung Galaxy S6 vs iPhone 6".
  36. ^ "2016 MacBook Air: What to Expect". 21 January 2016.

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