Republican Left of Catalonia
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Republican Left of Catalonia

Republican Left of Catalonia

Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya
AbbreviationERC
PresidentOriol Junqueras
Marta Rovira
National CoordinatorPere Aragonès
Founded19 March 1931
HeadquartersC/Calàbria, 166
08015 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
Youth wingRepublican Youth of Catalonia
Membership (2019)9,500[1]
Ideology
Federalism (minority)[12][13][14]
Second Republic:
Catch all party[15]
Political position
Regional affiliationRepublican Left of Catalonia-Catalonia Yes
Republican Left of Catalonia-Sovereigntists
European affiliationEuropean Free Alliance
European Parliament groupGreens-European Free Alliance
Colours  Orange
Congress of Deputies (Catalan seats)
Spanish Senate (Catalan seats)
European Parliament
Parliament of Catalonia
Parliament of the Balearic Islands
Mayors in Catalonia[20]
Town councillors in Catalonia
Town councillors in the Balearic Islands
Website
www.esquerra.cat

The Republican Left of Catalonia (Catalan: Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, ERC; IPA: [?s'k?r? r?pub:li'kan? ð? k?t?'lu]) is a pro-Catalan independence, social-democratic political party in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, with a presence also in Valencia, the Balearic Islands and the French department of Pyrénées-Orientales (Northern Catalonia).[21] It is also the main sponsor of the independence movement from France and Spain in the territories known as Catalan Countries, focusing on the achievement of the Catalan Republic. Its current president is Oriol Junqueras and its secretary-general is Marta Rovira.[22] The party is a member of the European Free Alliance.

ERC, a party of Catalan politicians including Francesc Macià, Lluís Companys and Josep Tarradellas, played an important role in Catalan and Spanish politics during the Second Republic, the Civil War, the anti-Francoist resistance and the transition to democracy. Recovering a key position during the 2000's, it became a coalition partner in various Catalan governments, obtaining in 2021 the presidency of Catalonia for the first time since 1980 after the appointment of Pere Aragonès as President of the Generalitat. It currently has approximately 10,000 members.

History

Republic and first Catalan self-government (1931-1936)

After the fall of Primo de Rivera (1930), the Catalan left made great efforts to create a united front under the leadership of left-wing independentist leader Francesc Macià. The Republican Left of Catalonia was founded on the Conference of the Catalan Left held in Sants, Barcelona, in 19 March 1931 as the union of the independentist Estat Català (Catalan State), led by Francesc Macià, the Catalan Republican Party, led by Lluís Companys and the L'Opinió Group of Joan Lluhí i Vallescà. The party had done extremely well in the municipal elections of 12 April 1931.[23] Two days later, on 14 April, few hours before the proclamation of the Spanish Republic in Madrid, Macià proclaimed in Barcelona the Catalan Republic within the Iberian Federation. This was not exactly what had been agreed in the Pact of San Sebastián, so three days later they negotiated with the Madrid government that Macià would become president of the Generalitat of Catalonia, an autonomous Catalan government within the recently founded Spanish Republic.[24]

In September 1932, the Spanish Republican Cortes approved the Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia which, among other provisions, granted a Catalan Parliament with full legislative powers, and it was elected on 20 November 1932. The Republican Left of Catalonia, in coalition with the Socialist Union of Catalonia and other minor left-wing parties, won a large majority of seats (67 of 85), while the previously hegemonic Regionalist League, representing a more conservative view of Catalan nationalism, came in second place but far behind ERC (17 from 85).[25] From this strong position, the ERC sought to improve the living conditions of the popular classes and the petite bourgeoisie, approving laws in areas such as in culture, health, education and civil law, and the Crop Contracts Law, which protected tenant farmers and granted access to the land they were cultivating, but it was contested by the Regionalist League and provoking a legal dispute with the Spanish government. In October 1933, Joan Lluhí and other members of the l'Opinió Group, as well Josep Tarradellas, left ERC because there were in disagree with Macià over the distribution of powers between the Executive Council and the President of the Generalitat, and founded the Nationalist Republican Left Party.[26]

On 6 October 1934, Lluís Companys, who had been elected by the Parliament of Catalonia as the new President of the Generalitat after the death of Francesc Macià in December 1933, following the entry of right-wing ministers of the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA) into the Government of the Spanish Republic, unlawfully declared a Catalan State within a Spanish Federal Republic. CEDA was considered close to fascism and, therefore, it was feared that this was the first step towards suppressings the autonomy and taking complete power in Spain. The proclamation was quickly suppressed by the Spanish army, and the Catalan government was arrested.[27] The party leaders (including Companys itself) and the Catalan government were sentenced by the Supreme Court of the Republic and jailed, while the Statute of Autonomy was suspended until February 1936.

In 1936, at the dawn of the Spanish Civil War, ERC became part of the Popular Front to contest that year's election. Esquerra became the leading force of the Popular Front, (called Front d'Esquerres, "Left Front" in Catalan) in Catalonia, which it won 41 from 54 Catalan seats, 21 of them belonging to ERC.[28] The new left-wing Spanish government pardoned Companys and the members of the Catalan government, restoring the self-government. In June Estat Català split from ERC.

Civil War, Francoism and clandestinity (1936-1976)

During the Spanish Civil War ERC, as the leading force of the Generalitat, tried to maintain the unity of the Front in the face of growing tensions between the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM) and the pro-soviet Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia (PSUC), while struggled to recover the control of the situation, controlled by the anarchist trade union CNT and their militias, and organized the war efforts in Catalonia. President Companys appointed Josep Tarradellas Conseller Primer (Prime Minister) in order to form a coalition government with the Republican forces, including anarchists and communists. However, the party unsuccessfully tried to avoid the full control of Catalonia by the Republican government, enacted after the May Days event.

The party was declared illegal (along with all other participants in the Popular Front) by Francisco Franco after he came to power in 1939. The former president of the Catalan Generalitat, Lluís Companys, was arrested by Nazi German agents[29] in collaboration with Vichy France, returned to Spain and executed on 15 October 1940 in Montjuïc Castle, Barcelona.[30]

Since 1939, despite the weak situation of the party, almost disbanded after the Francoist occupation of Catalonia, ERC went underground and tried to organize anti-fascist resistance around Manuel Juliachs and Jaume Serra. In 1945, the ERC Congress, held in Toulouse since many ERC members lived in exile in France, appointed former Minister Josep Tarradellas as Secretary General, a position he left in 1954 when he was elected President of the Generalitat of Catalonia in exile, replacing Josep Irla. The office of General Secretary of ERC then passed to Joan Sauret. At the end of World War II, in view of a possible overthrow of Francoist Dictatorship with the intervention of the Allied forces, the direction of ERC in exile sent to Catalonia Pere Puig and Joan Rodríguez-Papasseit. During those years ERC was present at the Council of Catalan Democracy and the Council of Democratic Forces. In 1952 Heribert Barrera returned to the interior and assumes the direction of the party de facto. On 11 September 1964, the National Day of Catalonia, ERC and other groups organized the first anti-Franco demonstration since the end of the war. ERC participated successively in any initiative that confronts the Dictatorship.

Transition to democracy and the years of decline (1976-1987)

Public act of Left of Catalonia-Democratic Electoral Front (1977)

After the death of General Franco (1975), ERC celebrated in July 1976 the 8th National Congress, in which Barrera was confirmed as leader. In the election to Constituent Cortes of 1977, ERC went into coalition, as it was not yet legalized because of its status as a Republican party. ERC had requested registration in the register of political parties on 14 March of that year, but the Ministry of Interior - a month after the elections - responded: "The name proposed by the entity, referring to a political system incompatible with the one that is legally valid in Spain, can represent an assumption of inadmissibility ".[31] The party tried a coalition with Left Front or with Democratic Convergence, although finally it allied with the Party of Labour of Spain. The name of the electoral coalition was Left of Catalonia-Democratic Electoral Front (Esquerra de Catalunya-Front Electoral Democràtic). The coalition won a seat (Barrera). Some of the electoral promises were the Statute of Autonomy or a referendum about the Monarchy.

In October 1977, President Josep Tarradellas (a founder of the party in 1931) returned to Catalonia and the Generalitat was restored. A new text of the Statute was drafted, which ERC opposed because it did not guarantee a minimum self-government. However, in the referendum for its approval, in 1979, ERC was in favour, as it was the only way to regain autonomy. In the first election to the restored Parliament of Catalonia, in 1980, ERC obtained 14 seats -of a total of 135-, which brought Barrera to the Presidency of the Parliament of Catalonia. At the crossroads of forming a tripartite with the PSUC and the socialists or favouring Convergència i Unió (CiU), Barrera--refractory to alliances with parties from a Marxist tradition--determined ERC would vote Jordi Pujol (CiU) as president of the Generalitat without compensation and without joining the government, as a gesture of "national unity".[32] In 1984, however, ERC only obtained 5 deputies, and began a brief period of decline, overshadowed by the hegemony of the center-right Catalan nationalist coalition CiU. This trend persisted during the next years. In 1986, it lost its presence in the Spanish Cortes.

Recovering (1986-1996)

In 1987, the National Call manifesto was published, signed by personalities like Àngel Colom and Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira, who wanted ERC to bring together the new generation of independentists that aroses as a result of the disenchantment with the Spanish Transition. The entrance of these young people dynamizes the party, and in the Catalan election of 1988 obtained 6 seats. In 1989 a new direction led by Àngel Colom assumed the independence of Catalonia as a political aim. As a result of this new orientation, in 1990, the National Front of Catalonia, a historic organization founded in exile in 1940, joined ERC. In 1991, the organization Terra Lliure reconsidered its strategy, and abandoned the armed struggle, where some of its members joined ERC and many of those who formed Catalunya Lliure were incorporated too. These facts turned ERC, de facto, into the reference of the left-wing Catalan independentism.

The results obtained in the 1992 election to the Parliament of Catalonia placed ERC as the third political force of Catalonia, with the support of more than 210,000 voters and the obtaining of 11 seats, after a campaign in which, for the first time a party that appeared as a pro-independence party was widely popular. The 18th National Congress of ERC, held in June 1992, approved the reform of its statutes in the face of electoral growth, militancy and territorial presence. ERC advocates in its first statutory article the territorial unity and independence of the Catalan Countries, building its own state within the European framework and together with an ideological position of the left that takes the defense of democracy and environment, human rights and rights of the peoples, and based its ideology and political action on social progress and solidarity.

In the 1993 Spanish general election ERC recovered its presence in the Congress of Deputies. The same year, Jordi Carbonell and Avel·lí Artís i Gener "Tísner", Left Nationalists members, joined ERC.[33] The local elections of 28 May 1995 represented an important quantitative and qualitative leap of the institutional presence of the party. ERC recovered the presence in many local councils of Catalonia, reaching more than 550 elected councillors and 32 mayors, and thus becomes the third municipal political force. In the 1995 Catalan election, ERC obtained the best result in number of votes since the Republic era, more than 305,000 voters and 13 seats.

In 1996, after a serious internal crisis, Àngel Colom, along with Pilar Rahola left the party and founded the Independence Party.[34] This party, however, had a short life. In the local elections of 1999 they obtained poor results and Pilar Rahola, who presented himself as head of the list in Barcelona, did not obtain a seat. After that the party was dissolved.

New era with Carod Rovira and return to the Government

ERC leaders leading the demonstration of 18-02-2006 in Barcelona with the slogan Som una Nació ("We are a Nation")

In November 1996, the 21st National Congress of ERC was held. The militants chose a new direction for the party, with Josep Lluís Carod-Rovira as new president and Joan Puigcercós as new general secretary. The new direction announced some changes on the strategy: it does not renounce the independence of Catalonia, but it stops using that idea as the only reference. The new direction wanted to place the party as the new reference of the Catalan left.

On 16 November 2003, in the election to the Parliament of Catalonia, ERC obtained 23 seats, becoming the "key party" that would define the composition of the government, since to obtain the majority the other parties were obliged to agree with ERC. After several weeks in which it seemed that he would close an agreement with CiU (center-right and nationalist party), it finally opted for a "progressive pact" (called the Pact of the Tinell or popularly the "Tripartit") with the Socialists' Party of Catalonia and the ecosocialist coalition ICV-EUiA.

ERC became part of the tripartite government of the Generalitat, chaired by the socialist Pasqual Maragall, assuming six government departments, among which the "Conseller en Cap" (Prime Minister), belonging to Carod-Rovira. The other five ministries assumed by ERC were Education (Josep Bargalló), Welfare and Family (Anna Simó), Commerce, Tourism and Consumption (Pere Esteve), Government and Public Administration (Joan Carretero) and Universities, Research and Information Society (Carles Solà). In addition, another ERC leader, Ernest Benach, was elected President of the Parliament.

Despite having been one of the main forces behind the movement for amendment, the party eventually opposed the 2006 changes to the Catalan Statute of Autonomy to increase Catalonia's autonomy. It did so on the grounds that it did not do enough to increase Catalan self-government. This caused a government crisis with its partners (specially with the PSC) which led to an early election in 2006.[]

Political principles and representation

Its basic political principles are defined in the Statement of Ideology approved at the 19th National Congress in 1993. This is organised into the three areas that give the organisation its name: Esquerra (commitment to the Left's agenda in the political, economic and social debate), República (commitment to the Republican form of government vs. Spain's current constitutional monarchy) and Catalunya (Catalan independentism, which, as understood by ERC, comprises the Catalan Countries).[35]

The party is also federated with parties in the Balearic Islands and in Northern Catalonia in France, as well as with Republican Left of the Valencian Country in the Valencian Community. Except for their Balearic counterpart, none of the latter currently have any parliamentary representation in their respective territories, though they do have 8 municipal councillors in the Balearic Islands[36] and 6 councillors in the Valencian Community.[36] Occitan Republican Left, formed in 2008, acts as the Aranese section of the party.

The Republican Left of Catalonia is the oldest political party in Catalan politics that has supported the idea of a sovereign Catalan nation for the entirety of its existence. From the inception of ERC in 1931, they have always been in favor of statehood for Catalonia.[37]

After the last Catalan parliamentary election in 2021, the Republican Left of Catalonia has 33 seats in the Parliament of Catalonia, making it the largest group by number of seats, tied with the PSC, and second in number of votes. It also has one seat in the Balearic Parliament. Until 2010, it was one of the three coalition members of the tripartite left-wing Catalan Government, together with Socialists' Party of Catalonia (PSC) and Initiative for Catalonia Greens (ICV). The coalition was often uneasy due to tensions related to the new Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia. The snap election on 25 November 2012 saw ERC rise to a total of 21 seats in the Catalan Parliament. Out of Catalonia, it has thirteen seats (fift largest group) in the Spanish Parliament, eleven seats in the Senate (third largest group) and two seats in the European Parliament.

Presidents

Oriol Junqueras, President of ERC
  1. Francesc Macià (1931-1933)
  2. Lluís Companys (1933-1935)
  3. Carles Pi i Sunyer (1933-1935)
  4. Lluís Companys (1936-1940)
  5. Heribert Barrera (1993-1995)
  6. Jaume Campabadal (1995-1996)
  7. Jordi Carbonell (1996-2004)
  8. Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira (2004-2008)
  9. Joan Puigcercós (2008-2011)
  10. Oriol Junqueras (2011-present)

General Secretaries

Marta Rovira, General Secretary of ERC
  1. Joan Lluís Pujol i Font (March 1931 - April 1931)
  2. Josep Tarradellas (April 1931 - March 1932)
  3. Joan Tauler (March 1932 - 1938)
  4. Josep Tarradellas (1938 - 1957)
  5. Joan Sauret (1957-1976)
  6. Heribert Barrera (1976-1987)
  7. Joan Hortalà (1987-1989)
  8. Àngel Colom Colom (1989-1996)
  9. Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira (1996-2004)
  10. Joan Puigcercós (2004-2008)
  11. Joan Ridao i Martín (2008-2011)
  12. Marta Rovira i Vergés (2011-present)

Electoral performance

Parliament of Catalonia

Parliament of Catalonia
Election Votes % # Seats +/- Leading candidate Status in legislature
1932 224,800 47.1 1st
-- Francesc Macià Government
Francoist dictatorship
1980 240,871 8.90% 5th
-- Heribert Barrera Confidence and supply
1984 126,943 4.41% 5th
Red Arrow Down.svg9 Heribert Barrera Coalition (CiU-ERC)
Opposition (from Feb. 1987)
1988 111,647 4.14% 5th
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Joan Hortalà Opposition
1992 210,366 7.96% 3rd
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg5 Àngel Colom Opposition
1995 305,867 9.49% 5th
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2 Àngel Colom Opposition
1999 271,173 8.67% 4th
Red Arrow Down.svg1 Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira Opposition
2003 544,324 16.44% 3rd
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg11 Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira Coalition (PSC-ERC-ICV-EUiA)
Opposition (from May 2006)
2006 416,355 14.03% 3rd
Red Arrow Down.svg2 Josep-Lluís Carod-Rovira Coalition (PSC-ERC-ICV-EUiA)
2010 219,173 7.00% 5th
Red Arrow Down.svg11 Joan Puigcercós Opposition
2012 Within ERC-CatSí
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg9 Oriol Junqueras Confidence and supply
2015 Within JxSí
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg5 Oriol Junqueras Coalition (CDC/PDeCAT-ERC)
2017 Within ERC-CatSí
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6 Oriol Junqueras[a] Coalition (JxCat-ERC)
Coalition (Junts-ERC; from Sep. 2020)
2021 605,529 21.29% 2nd
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg3 Pere Aragonès Coalition (ERC-Junts)

Parliament of the Balearic Islands

Parliament of the Balearic Islands
Election Votes % # Seats +/- Leading candidate Status in legislature
1995 2,082 0.55% 7th
-- No seats
1999 1,106 0.30% 8th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 No seats
2003 1,667 0.39% 9th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Catalina Gelabert No seats
2007 Within Bloc
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Biel Barceló Coalition (PSIB-Bloc-UM)
Coalition (PSIB-Bloc; from Feb. 2010)
2011 5,325 1.27% 8th
Red Arrow Down.svg1 Joan Lladó No seats
2015 766 0.18% 17th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Josep Antoni Prats No seats

Cortes Generales

Nationwide

Cortes Generales
Election Congress Senate Leading candidate Status in legislature
Votes % # Seats +/- Seats +/-
1977 Within EC-FED
--
-- Heribert Barrera Opposition
1979 123,452 0.69% 13th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Heribert Barrera Opposition
1982 138,118 0.66% 9th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Francesc Vicens Opposition
1986 84,628 0.42% 12th
Red Arrow Down.svg1
Red Arrow Down.svg2 Francesc Vicens No seats
1989 84,756 0.41% 16th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Joan Hortalà No seats
1993 189,632 0.80% 9th
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Pilar Rahola Opposition
1996 167,641 0.67% 9th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Pilar Rahola Opposition
2000 194,715 0.84% 9th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Joan Puigcercós Opposition
2004 652,196 2.52% 5th
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg7
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2 Josep Lluís Carod-Rovira Opposition
2008 298,139 1.16% 7th
Red Arrow Down.svg5
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Joan Ridao Opposition
2011 Within ERC-CatSí
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Red Arrow Down.svg3 Alfred Bosch Opposition
2015 Within ERC-CatSí
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6 Gabriel Rufián Opposition
2016 Within ERC-CatSí
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4 Gabriel Rufián Opposition
2019 (Apr) Within ERC-Sobiranistes
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg5
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 Oriol Junqueras[b] Opposition
2019 (Nov) Within ERC-Sobiranistes
Red Arrow Down.svg2
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 Gabriel Rufián Opposition

Regional breakdown

Election Catalonia
Congress Senate
Votes % # Seats +/- Seats +/-
1977 Within EC-FED
--
--
1979 123,452 4.18% 5th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
1982 138,118 4.02% 5th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
1986 84,628 2.67% 6th
Red Arrow Down.svg1
Red Arrow Down.svg2
1989 84,756 2.68% 6th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
1993 186,784 5.10% 5th
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
1996 162,545 4.18% 5th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2000 190,292 5.64% 4th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
2004 638,902 15.89% 3rd
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg7
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg2
2008 291,532 7.83% 4th
Red Arrow Down.svg5
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2011 Within ERC-CatSí
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Red Arrow Down.svg3
2015 Within ERC-CatSí
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg6
2016 Within ERC-CatSí
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg4
2019 (Apr) Within ERC-Sobiranistes
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg5
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1
2019 (Nov) Within ERC-Sobiranistes
Red Arrow Down.svg2
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
 
Election Balearic Islands
Congress Senate
Votes % # Seats +/- Seats +/-
1993 2,848 0.69% 8th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
1996 1,802 0.42% 7th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2000 1,340 0.34% 7th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2004 Within Progressistes
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2008 Within UIB
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2011 4,681 1.07% 6th
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2016 Within SI
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2019 (Apr) Within VP
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
2019 (Nov) Within Més Esquerra
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0

European Parliament

European Parliament
Election Total Catalonia Balearic Islands
Votes % # Seats +/- Votes % # Votes % #
1987 Within CEP
-- 112,107 3.70% 6th 533 0.16% 16th
1989 Within PEP
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 78,408 3.29% 6th N/A
1994 Within PEP
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 141,285 5.52% 5th 2,350 0.81% 8th
1999 Within CN-EP
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 174,374 6.06% 4th N/A
2004 Within EdP
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 249,757 11.80% 4th 7,498 2.87% 5th
2009 Within EdP-V
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 181,213 9.20% 4th 7,651 2.97% 4th
2014 Within EPDD
Arrow Blue Right 001.svg0 595,493 23.69% 1st 19,602 7.26% 5th
2019 Within AR
Green Arrow Up Darker.svg1 727,039 21.21% 3rd 20,464 4.90% 6th

See also

Notes

  1. ^ At the time of the election, Junqueras was in preventive detention in Estremera (Madrid).
  2. ^ At the time of the election, Junqueras was in preventive detention in Soto del Real (Madrid).

References

  1. ^ Los partidos se atribuyen ocho veces más militantes de los que admiten pagar cuotas. Público, 28 July 2019.
  2. ^ Guibernau, Montserrat (2004), Catalan Nationalism: Francoism, transition and democracy, Routledge, p. 82
  3. ^ a b Hargreaves, John (2000), Freedom for Catalonia?: Catalan Nationalism, Spanish Identity and the Barcelona Olympic Games, Cambridge University Press, p. 84
  4. ^ The ERC is widely described as pro-independence:
    • Buffery, Helena; Marcer, Elisenda (2011), Historical Dictionary of the Catalans, Scarecrow Press, p. 198
    • Paluzie, Elisenda (2010), "The costs and benefits of staying together: the Catalan case in Spain", The Political Economy of Inter-Regional Fiscal Flows: Measurement, Determinants and Effects on Country Stability, Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 367
    • Hooghe, Liesbet; Marks, Gary; Schakel, Arjan H. (2010), The Rise of Regional Authority: A Comparative Study of 42 Democracies, Routledge, p. 194
    • Schrijver, Frans (2006), Regionalism After Regionalisation: Spain, France and the United Kingdom, Vossiuspers, Amsterdam University Press, p. 112
    • McLaren, Lauren M. (2008), Constructing Democracy in Southern Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Italy, Spain, and Turkey, Routledge, p. 184
    • Roller, Elisa (2004), "Conflict and Cooperation in EU Policy-Making: The Case of Catalonia", The EU and Territorial Politics Within Member States: Conflict Or Co-Operation?, Brill, p. 80
  5. ^ Alonso, Sonia (2012), Challenging the State: Devolution and the Battle for Partisan Credibility, Oxford University Press, p. 77
  6. ^ Ramiro, Luis; Morales, Laura (2007), "European integration and Spanish parties: Elite empowerment amidst limited adaptation", The Europeanization of National Political Parties: Power and organizational adaptation, Routledge, p. 146
  7. ^ Moreno, Luis; Colino, César (2010), "Kingdom of Spain", Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries, McGill-Queen's University Press, p. 299
  8. ^ "ERC diferencia el seu republicanisme del del PDC". El Món. Retrieved 2017.
  9. ^ "PONÈNCIA POLÍTICA 27è Congrés Nacional" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  10. ^ Guibernau, Montserrat (2004), Catalan Nationalism: Francoism, transition and democracy, Routledge, p. 82
  11. ^ Nordsieck, Wolfram (2021). "Catalonia/Spain". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 2021.
  12. ^ Tardà i Coma, Joan, «Si ofrecieran un buen Estatuto de Autonomía confederal es posible que muchos independentistas lo votaran»
  13. ^ Tardà i Coma, Joan, "La mejor manera de desactivar al adversario es más república y menos estelada"
  14. ^ Rufián Romero, Gabriel, 4-6-19 GABRIEL RUFIAN: Yo no soy nacionalista y tampoco independentista
  15. ^ Canal 2018, p. 85 "Convivían en su seno desde tendencias obreristas hasta el filofascismo declarado de Josep Dencàs, conformando una opción catch-all tan atractiva como difícil de mantener al margen de riñas y escisiones internas"
  16. ^ Catalan trial turns into pro-independence show of force. Politico. Author - Diego Torres. Published 2 February 2017. Updated 9 February 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
  17. ^ Catalan separatists projected to win snap election. Al Jazeera. Published 21 December 2017. Retrieved 16 May 2018.
  18. ^ "Spain election: Socialists win amid far-right breakthrough". BBC News. 29 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  19. ^ Stothard, Michael (11 December 2017). "Catalan separatist focuses on fairer society over independence". Financial Times. Retrieved 2019.
  20. ^ Esquerra aconsegueix 359 alcaldies amb Lleida i Tarragona al capdavant. ERC.cat, 2019
  21. ^ Jaume Renyer Alimbau, ERC: temps de transició. Per una esquerra forta, renovadora i plural (Barcelona: Cossetània, 2008).
  22. ^ "Qui som". esquerra.cat. Retrieved 2020.
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  29. ^ Anderson, Peter (2010). The Francoist Military Trials. Terror and Complicity, 1939-1945. New York and London: Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 0-203-86744-0.
  30. ^ Preston, Paul (2012). The Spanish Holocaust. Harper Press, London p.493
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  32. ^ Pi, Jaume (20 December 2012). "CiU y ERC se reencuentran 32 años después". La Vanguardia.
  33. ^ Lucas, Manel (2004). ERC: la llarga marxa, 1977-2004 : de la il·legalitat al govern. Columna. ISBN 846640421X.
  34. ^ Anuaris.cat, La divisió i la suma d'esforços
  35. ^ "Declaració ideològica. Esquerra Republicana" (PDF). esquerra.cat.
  36. ^ a b Dades electorals detallades de les Eleccions Locals 2011, arxiu històric electora, accessed 28 November 2012
  37. ^ Harris, Simon (2014). Catalonia is Not Spain: A Historical Perspective. S.I. 4 cats book. pp. 197-200.

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