Three national rankings of universities in the United Kingdom are published annually - by The Complete University Guide, The Guardian and jointly by The Times and The Sunday Times. Rankings have also been produced in the past by The Daily Telegraph and Financial Times. UK Universities also rank highly in global university rankings with 8 UK Universities ranking in the top 100 of the three major global rankings - QS World University Rankings, Times Higher Education World University Rankings and Academic Ranking of World Universities.
The primary aim of the rankings is to inform potential undergraduate applicants about UK universities based on a range of criteria, including entry standards, student satisfaction, staff/student ratio, academic services and facilities expenditure per student, research quality, proportion of Firsts and 2:1s, completion rates and student destinations. All of the league tables also rank universities on their strength in individual subjects.
Each year since 2008, Times Higher Education has compiled a "Table of Tables" to combine the results of the 3 mainstream league tables. In the 2022 table, the top 5 universities were the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge the University of St Andrews, the London School of Economics and Imperial College.
The following rankings of British universities are produced annually:
The Complete University Guide is compiled by Mayfield University Consultants and was published for the first time in 2007.
The ranking uses ten criteria, with a statistical technique called the Z-score applied to the results of each. The ten Z-scores are then weighted (as given below) and summed to give a total score for each university. These total scores are then transformed to a scale where the top score is set at 1,000, with the remainder being a proportion of the top score. The ten criteria are:
The most recent league table (2023) ranked the top 50 (out of 130) British universities as follows:
|Rank (1-10)||University||Rank (11-20)||University||Rank (21-30)||University||Rank (31-40)||University||Rank (41-50)||University|
|1||University of Oxford||11||Lancaster University||21||University of Liverpool||31||University of Reading||41||University of Sussex|
|2||University of Cambridge||12||University of Edinburgh||22||King's College London||32||University of Strathclyde||42||Swansea University|
|3||London School of Economics||13||University of Southampton||23||University of Glasgow||33||Royal Holloway, University of London||43||Northumbria University|
|4||University of St Andrews||14||University of Birmingham||24||Queen's University Belfast||34||Heriot-Watt University||44||Ulster University|
|5||Imperial College London||15||University of Bristol||25||University of Nottingham||35||Queen Mary University of London||45||Oxford Brookes University|
|6||Durham University||16||University of Leeds||26||Cardiff University||36||Newcastle University||46||SOAS University of London|
|7||Loughborough University||17||University of Manchester||27||University of East Anglia||37||University of Aberdeen||47||University of Kent|
|8||University of Bath||18||University of Surrey||28||University of Sheffield||38||University of the Arts London||48||Aston University|
|9||University College London||19=||University of York||29=||Harper Adams University||39||University of Essex||49||University of Dundee|
|10||University of Warwick||19=||University of Exeter||29=||University of Leicester||40||City, University of London||50||University of Stirling|
The Guardian ranking uses nine different criteria, each weighted between 5 and 15 per cent. Unlike other annual rankings of British universities, the criteria do not include a measure of research output. A "value-added" factor is included which compares students' degree results with their entry qualifications, described by the newspaper as being "[b]ased upon a sophisticated indexing methodology that tracks students from enrolment to graduation, qualifications upon entry are compared with the award that a student receives at the end of their studies". Tables are drawn up for subjects, with the overall ranking being based on an average across the subjects rather than on institutional level statistics. The nine criteria are:
The most recent league table (2023) ranked the top 50 (out of 121) British universities as follows:
|Rank (1-10)||University||Rank (11-20)||University||Rank (21-30)||University||Rank (31-40)||University||Rank (41-50)||University|
|1||University of St Andrews||11||University of Glasgow||21||University of York||30=||University of Manchester||40=||Aberystwyth University|
|2||University of Oxford||12||University of Edinburgh||22||Aston University||32||University of Keele||42=||Oxford Brookes University|
|3||University of Cambridge||13||University of Aberdeen||23||University of West London||33||Royal Holloway, University of London||42=||University of Essex|
|4||London School of Economics||14||Lancaster University||24=||Surrey University||34||University of Lincoln||44||University of Dundee|
|5||Imperial College London||15||University of Exeter||24=||UWE Bristol||35=||University of Leicester||45||Heriot-Watt University|
|6||Durham University||16=||University of Southampton||26||University of Swansea||35=||University of Cardiff||46=||Northumbria University|
|7||University of Bath||16=||University of Bristol||27=||University of Birmingham||37||University of Chichester||46=||Queen's University, Belfast|
|8||University of Warwick||16=||University of Strathclyde||27=||University of East Anglia||38=||Ulster University||48||University of Derby|
|9||University College London||19||University of the Arts London||29||King's College London||38=||Bolton University||49||University for the Creative Arts|
|10||Loughborough University||20||University of Leeds||30=||University of Sheffield||40=||University of Liverpool||50||University of Sunderland|
The Times/The Sunday Times university league table, known as the Good University Guide, is published in both electronic and print format and ranks institutions using the following eight criteria:
Other criteria considered are:
The following universities rank in the top 10 in at least two of the most recent national rankings (the three discussed above: the Complete, Guardian and Times/Sunday Times). The table is ordered according to the Times Higher Education Table of Tables (2022), based on average rank in the tables for that year. The last column gives the number of league tables (not including the Table of Tables) which include that university in their top ten.
|University||THE Table of Tables (2022)||Complete (2023)||Guardian (2023)||Times/Sunday Times (2023)||#a|
|University of Oxford||1||1||2||1|
|University of Cambridge||2||2||3||3|
|University of St Andrews||3||4||1||2|
|London School of Economics||4||3||4||4|
|Imperial College London||5||5||5||5|
|University of Warwick||7||8||8||9|
|University College London||8||9||9||7|
|University of Bath||9=||7||7||8|
a Number of times the university is ranked within the top 10 of one of the three national rankings.
b The university is ranked within the top 3 of all three national rankings.
c The university is ranked within the top 5 of all three national rankings.
It has been commented by The Sunday Times that a number of universities which regularly feature in the top ten of British university league tables, such as St Andrews, Durham and LSE (in the case of LSE 3rd to 13th nationally whilst only 327th in the U.S. News & World Report Rankings / 35th in the QS Rankings / 23rd in the THE Rankings), "inhabit surprisingly low ranks in the worldwide tables", whilst other universities such as Manchester, Edinburgh and KCL "that failed to do well in the domestic rankings have shone much brighter on the international stage". The considerable disparity in rankings has been attributed to the different methodology and purpose of global university rankings such as the Academic Ranking of World Universities, QS World University Rankings and Times Higher Education World University Rankings. International university rankings primarily use criteria such as academic and employer surveys, the number of citations per faculty, the proportion of international staff and students and faculty and alumni prize winners. When size is taken into account, LSE ranks second in the world out of all small to medium-sized specialist institutions (after ENS Paris) and St Andrews ranks second in the world out of all small to medium-sized fully comprehensive universities (after Brown University) using metrics from the QS Intelligence Unit in 2015. The national rankings, on the other hand, give most weighting to the undergraduate student experience, taking account of teaching quality and learning resources, together with the quality of a university's intake, employment prospects, research quality and drop-out rates.
The disparity between national and international league tables has caused some institutions to offer public explanations for the difference. LSE for example states on its website that 'we remain concerned that all of the global rankings - by some way the most important for us, given our highly international orientation - suffer from inbuilt biases in favour of large multi-faculty universities with full STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) offerings, and against small, specialist, mainly non-STEM universities such as LSE.'
Research by the UK's Higher Education Policy Institute (HEPI) in 2016 found that global rankings fundamentally measure research performance, with research-related measures accounting for over 85 percent of the weighting for both the Times Higher Education and QS rankings and 100 percent of the weighting for the ARWU ranking. HEPI also found that ARWU made no correction for the size of an institution. There were also concerns about the data quality and the reliability of reputation surveys. National rankings, while said to be "of varying validity", have more robust data and are "more highly regarded than international rankings".
The following universities rank in the top 100 in at least two global rankings:
|University||ARWU (2022)||QS (2023)||THE (2023)||#a|
|University of Cambridge||4||2||3=|
|University of Oxford||7||4||1|
|University College London||18||8||22|
|Imperial College London||23||6=||10|
|University of Edinburgh||35||15||29|
|University of Manchester||38||28||54=|
|King's College London||48||37||35|
|University of Bristol||61=||81||76|
|London School of Economics||101-150||56||37|
|University of Glasgow||101-150||81||82=|
a Number of times the university is ranked within the top 100 of one of the three global rankings.
b The university is ranked within the top 25 of all three global rankings.
c The university is ranked within the top 50 of all three global rankings.
There has been criticism of attempts to combine different rankings on for example research quality, quality of teaching, drop out rates and student satisfaction. Sir Alan Wilson, former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Leeds argues that the final average has little significance and is like trying to "combine apples and oranges". He also criticised the varying weights given to different factors, the need for universities to "chase" the rankings, the often fluctuating nature of a university's ranking, and the catch-22 that the government's desire to increase access can have negative effects on league table rankings. Further worries have been expressed regarding marketing strategies and propaganda used to chase tables undermining Universities values.
The rankings are also criticised for not giving a full picture of higher education in the United Kingdom. There are institutions which focus on research and enjoy a prestigious reputation but are not shown in the table for various reasons. For example, the Institute of Education, University of London (now part of UCL), was not usually listed in the undergraduate rankings despite the fact that it offered an undergraduate BEd and was generally recognised as one of the best institutions offering teacher training and Education studies (for example, being given joint first place, alongside Oxford University, in the 2008 Research Assessment 'Education' subject rankings, according to both Times Higher Education and The Guardian).
League tables, which usually focus on the full-time undergraduate student experience, commonly omit reference to Birkbeck, University of London, and the Open University, both of which specialise in teaching part-time students. These universities, however, often make a strong showing in specialist league tables looking at research, teaching quality, and student satisfaction. In the 2008 Research Assessment Exercise, according to the Times Higher Education, Birkbeck was placed equal 33rd, and the Open University 43rd, out of 132 institutions. The 2009 student satisfaction survey placed the Open University 3rd and Birkbeck 13th out of 153 universities and higher education institutions (1st and 6th, respectively, among multi-faculty universities). In 2018, Birkbeck announced that it will withdraw from UK university rankings because their methodologies unfairly penalise it, since "despite having highly-rated teaching and research, other factors caused by its unique teaching model and unrelated to its performance push it significantly down the ratings".
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