Randall Munroe
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Randall Munroe

Randall Munroe
Randall Munroe 2016.jpg
Munroe speaking at re:publica in 2016
BornRandall Patrick Munroe
Easton, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Area(s)Webcomics, popular science
Notable works
Randall Munroe with a small stick figure at the end

Randall Patrick Munroe (born 1984)[1] is an American cartoonist, author, and engineer best known as the creator of the award-winning webcomic xkcd. With a background in physics and robotics, Munroe has worked full-time on the comic since late 2006, publishing three times a week to a very large audience.[2] Several of the strips, notably a visualisation of radioactivity levels, were also republished by other outlets. In addition to publishing a book of the webcomic's strips, he has written three books: What If?, Thing Explainer, and How To.

Early life

Munroe was born in Easton, Pennsylvania, and his father has worked as an engineer and marketer.[3] He has two younger siblings, and was raised as a Quaker.[3][4] He was a fan of comic strips in newspapers from an early age,[2] starting off with Calvin and Hobbes.[5] After graduating from the Chesterfield County Mathematics and Science High School at Clover Hill, a Renaissance Program in Midlothian, Virginia, he graduated from Christopher Newport University in 2006 with a degree in physics.[6][7][8]



Munroe worked as a contract programmer and roboticist for NASA at the Langley Research Center,[9][5] before and after his graduation with a physics degree.[3] In October 2006 NASA did not renew his contract,[7][third-party source needed] and he moved to Boston to begin writing xkcd full time.[9]


"Wikipedian Protester", published on xkcd.com with title-text (tooltip): "SEMI-PROTECT THE CONSTITUTION".[10] On Wikipedia, semi-protected pages may not be edited by new or unregistered users. is a tag added by popflock.com resource editors to unsourced statements in articles requesting citations to be added.

Munroe's blog, entitled xkcd, is primarily a stick figure comic. The comic's tagline describes it as "A webcomic of romance, sarcasm, math, and language".[11]

Munroe had originally used xkcd as an instant messaging screenname because he wanted a name without a meaning so he would not eventually grow tired of it.[12] He registered the domain name, but left it idle until he started posting his drawings, perhaps in September 2005.[5][third-party source needed] The webcomic quickly became very popular, garnering up to 70 million hits a month by October 2007.[13] Munroe has said, "I think the comic that's gotten me the most feedback is actually the one about the stoplights".[13][14]

Munroe now supports himself by the sale of xkcd-related merchandise, primarily thousands of t-shirts a month.[2][12] He licenses his xkcd creations under the Creative Commons attribution-noncommercial 2.5, stating that it is not just about the free culture movement, but that it also makes good business sense.[12]

In 2010, he published a collection of the comics.[15] He has also toured the lecture circuit, giving speeches at places such as Google's Googleplex in Mountain View, California.[16]

The popularity of the strip among science fiction fans resulted in Munroe being nominated for a Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist in 2011 and again in 2012.[17] In 2014, he won the Hugo Award for Best Graphic Story for the xkcd strip "Time".[18]

Other projects

Various doses of radioactivity in sieverts, ranging from negligible to lethal

Munroe is the creator of the now defunct websites "The Funniest",[19] "The Cutest",[20] and "The Fairest",[21] each of which presents users with two options and asks them to choose one over the other.[]

In January 2008, Munroe developed an open-source chat moderation script named "Robot9000". Originally developed to moderate one of Munroe's xkcd-related IRC channels, the software's algorithm attempts to prevent repetition in IRC channels by temporarily muting users who send messages that are identical to a message that has been sent to the channel before. If users continue to send unoriginal messages, Robot9000 mutes the user for a longer period, quadrupling for each unoriginal message the user sends to the channel.[22][third-party source needed] Shortly after Munroe's blog post about the script went live, 4chan administrator Christopher Poole adapted the script to moderate the site's experimental /r9k/ board.[23] Twitch offers Robot9000 ("r9k mode") as an optional feature for broadcasters and moderators to use in their channels' chat boxes.[24]

In October 2008, The New Yorker magazine online published an interview and "Cartoon Off" between Munroe and Farley Katz, in which each cartoonist drew a series of four humorous cartoons.[25]

In early 2010, Munroe ran the xkcd Color Name Survey, in which participants were shown a series of RGB colors and asked to enter a suitable name for each specific color. Munroe wanted to identify colors which were given identical or highly similar names by a large number of survey participants, which would then serve as an approximate list of the most common colors rendered similarly across a range of computer monitors. Over 200,000 people eventually completed the survey,[26] and Munroe published the resulting list of 954 named RGB web colors[27] on the xkcd website. They have since been adopted as conventional color identifiers in various programming and markup languages, including Python and LaTeX.

What If?

Munroe has a blog entitled What If?, where he has answered questions sent in by fans of his comics. These questions are usually absurd and related to math or physics, and he explains them using both his knowledge and various academic sources.[28] In 2014, he published a collection of some of the responses, as well as a few new ones and some rejected questions, in a book entitled What If?: Serious Scientific Answers to Absurd Hypothetical Questions.[15] Starting in November 2019, Munroe began writing a monthly column in the New York Times titled Good Question, answering user submitted questions in the same style as What If.[29]

Radioactivity visualisation

In response to concerns about the radioactivity released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, and to remedy what he described as "confusing" reporting on radiation levels in the media, Munroe created a radiation chart of comparative radiation exposure levels.[30] The chart was rapidly adopted by print and online journalists in several countries,[] including being linked to by online writers for The Guardian,[31] and The New York Times.[32] As a result of requests for permission to reprint the chart and to translate it into Japanese, Munroe placed it in the public domain, but requested that his non-expert status should be clearly stated in any reprinting.[33]

Munroe published an xkcd-style comic on scientific publishing and open access in Science in October 2013.[34]

Thing Explainer

Munroe's book Thing Explainer, announced in May 2015 and published late that year, explains concepts using only the 1,000 most common English words.[15][35][36] The book's publisher, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, saw these illustrations as potentially useful for textbooks, and announced in March 2016 that the next editions of their high-school-level chemistry, biology, and physics textbooks will include selected drawings and accompanying text from Thing Explainer.[37][38]

In February 2019, Munroe announced his upcoming book How To, which was released in September of that year.[39][4]


In September 2013, Munroe announced that a group of xkcd readers had submitted his name as a candidate for the renaming of asteroid (4942) 1987 DU6 to 4942 Munroe. The name was accepted by the International Astronomical Union.[40][41]

Personal life

As of May 2008, Munroe lived in Somerville, Massachusetts.[2]

In October 2010, Munroe's fiancée was diagnosed with stage 3 breast cancer; there had been no prior family history.[42][43] The emotional effect of her illness was referenced in the comic panel "Emotion", published 18 months later in April 2012.[44] In September 2011, he announced that they had married.[45] In November 2012, he published a comic entitled "Two Years', and in December 2017, Munroe followed this with a comic entitled "Seven Years".[46] He revisited the subject in November 2020 in a comic entitled "Ten Years".[47]

His hobbies and interests include kite photography, in which cameras are attached to kites and photographs are then taken of the ground or buildings.[48]


Publications by Munroe

  • xkcd: volume 0. Breadpig. 2009. ISBN 9780615314464.
  • What If?: Serious Scientific Answers to Absurd Hypothetical Questions. London: John Murray. 2014. ISBN 9781848549579.
  • Thing Explainer. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2015. ISBN 9780544668256.
  • How To: Absurd Scientific Advice for Common Real-World Problems. John Murray. 2019. ISBN 9780525537090.

Publications with contributions by Munroe


  1. ^ Chamberlin, Alan. "JPL Small-Body Database Browser". JPL Solar System Dynamics. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ a b c d Cohen, Noam (May 26, 2008). "This Is Funny Only if You Know Unix". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2008.
  3. ^ a b c Tupponce, Joan (November 24, 2009). "A Cartoonist's Mind". Richmond Magazine. Archived from the original on March 27, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ a b Martinelli, Marissa (September 6, 2019). "Xkcd Creator Randall Munroe on the Joys of Overthinking Everything". Slate. Archived from the original on September 10, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ a b c Munroe, Randall (December 11, 2007). Authors@Google: Randall Munroe (@Google Talks Adobe Flash video). Mountain View, California: Google. Event occurs at 24:13, 48:05, other timepoints. Retrieved 2008. ...Calvin and Hobbes was the first comic that I discovered. / ... I'm pretty sure I started [posting drawings] in September 2005
  6. ^ Munroe, Randall. "About". xkcd. Archived from the original on May 23, 2019. Retrieved 2008.[third-party source needed]
  7. ^ a b Munroe, Randall (October 6, 2006). "Many news things, some overdue". xkcd: The blag of the webcomic. WordPress. Job. Archived from the original on August 24, 2013. Retrieved 2014. My about page mentions that I work for NASA -- I'm technically a contractor working repeated contracts for them. However, they recently ran out of money to rehire me for another contract, so I'm done there for now.[third-party source needed]
  8. ^ "Voyages 2012".
  9. ^ a b Lineberry, Denise (2012). "Robots or Webcomics? That was the Question". NASA. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2015.
  10. ^ Munroe, Randall. "Wikipedian Protester". xkcd.com. Archived from the original on March 22, 2019. Retrieved 2010.
  11. ^ Munroe, Randall. "xkcd". xkcd. Archived from the original on February 3, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  12. ^ a b c Fernandez, Rebecca (October 12, 2006). "xkcd: A comic strip for the computer geek". Red Hat Magazine. Raleigh, North Carolina: Red Hat. Archived from the original on March 6, 2007. Retrieved 2008.
  13. ^ a b So, Adrienne (November 13, 2007). "Real Geek Heart Beats in Xkcd's Stick Figures". Wired. San Francisco: Condé Nast Publications. ISSN 1059-1028. Archived from the original on October 11, 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  14. ^ Randall Munroe (June 15, 2007). "Long Light". xkcd. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  15. ^ a b c Alter, Alexandra (November 23, 2015). "Randall Munroe Explains It All for Us". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2017.
  16. ^ Spertus, Ellen (December 21, 2007). "Randall Munroe's visit to Google (xkcd)". Beyond Satire. Archived from the original on October 5, 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  17. ^ Hugo Staff. "Hugo Awards 2012 nomination". Archived from the original on April 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  18. ^ Hugo Staff (April 18, 2014). "Hugo Awards 2014 nomination". Archived from the original on September 6, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  19. ^ Munroe, Randall. "The Funniest". Archived from the original on December 5, 2006.[full ]
  20. ^ Munroe, Randall. "The Cutest". Archived from the original on May 28, 2010.[full ]
  21. ^ Munroe, Randall. "The Fairest". Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved 2008.[full ]
  22. ^ Munroe, Randall (January 14, 2008). "ROBOT9000 and #xkcd-signal: Attacking Noise in Chat". blog.xkcd.com. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2018.[full ][third-party source needed]
  23. ^ Petersen, Kierran (October 2, 2015). "A short history of /r9k/ -- the 4chan message board some believe may be connected to the Oregon shooting". Public Radio International. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2018. Surprisingly enough, however, the /r9k/ board, otherwise known as ROBOT9001, was originally conceived as a way to increase the quality of messages on the wildly popular webcomic xkcd. It used a type of auto-moderation that prevented people from posting the same comment multiple times. [...] 4chan eventually moved the idea and software behind ROBOT9000 on to its site. They just added a one.
  24. ^ Twitch Staff. "Chat Commands § Basic Commands for Broadcasters & All Moderators". Twitch.tv. Archived from the original on September 28, 2018. Retrieved 2018.[full ]
  25. ^ Katz, Farley (October 15, 2008). "Cartoon-Off: XKCD". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on April 1, 2015.
  26. ^ "Color Survey Results". xkcd. May 4, 2010. Retrieved 2021.
  27. ^ "954 most common RGB colors (xkcd color survey results)". xkcd.com. Retrieved 2021.
  28. ^ "What If? Serious Scientific Answers to Absurd Hypothetical Questions". www.goodreads.com. Retrieved 2021.
  29. ^ "Good Question". New York Times. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  30. ^ "Radiation dosage chart". xkcd.com. Archived from the original on November 22, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  31. ^ Monbiot, George (March 21, 2011). "Why Fukushima made me stop worrying and love nuclear power". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. Retrieved 2011.
  32. ^ Revkin, Andrew (March 23, 2011). "The 'Dread to Risk' Ratio on Radiation and other Discontents". Dot Earth blog. The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 26, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  33. ^ Munroe, Randall (March 19, 2011). "Radiation Chart". www.xkcd.com. Archived from the original on July 5, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  34. ^ Munroe, Randall (October 4, 2013). "The Rise of Open Access". Science. 342 (6154): 58-59. Bibcode:2013Sci...342...58.. doi:10.1126/science.342.6154.58. PMID 24092724.
  35. ^ Kastrenakes, Jacob (May 13, 2015). "XKCD has a new book about explaining complicated subjects in simple ways". The Verge. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2015.
  36. ^ Alderman, Naomi (December 17, 2015). "Thing Explainer: Complicated Stuff in Simple Words by Randall Munroe - funny, precise and beautifully designed". The Guardian. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2016.
  37. ^ Chang, Kenneth (March 22, 2016). "Randall Munroe, XKCD Creator, Goes Back to High School". New York Times. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2016.
  38. ^ Jao, Charlene (March 23, 2016). "XKCD Creator Randall Munroe Making Content For High School Textbooks". The Mary Sue. Archived from the original on April 14, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  39. ^ Munroe, Randall. "how to". xkcd. Archived from the original on March 29, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  40. ^ "4942 Munroe (1987 DU6)". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology. July 29, 2013. Archived from the original on September 6, 2014. Retrieved 2013.
  41. ^ Munroe, Randall (September 30, 2013). "Asteroid 4942 Munroe". xkcd | The blag of the webcomic. Archived from the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  42. ^ Munroe, Randall. "November - 2010 - xkcd". blog.xkcd.com. Archived from the original on March 25, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  43. ^ Munroe, Randall (June 30, 2011). "Family Illness". Archived from the original on May 21, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  44. ^ Munroe, Randall. "xkcd: Emotion". xkcd.com. Archived from the original on March 8, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ Munroe, Randall (September 12, 2011). "<3". Blog. XKCD. Archived from the original on November 3, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  46. ^ Munroe, Randall (December 13, 2017). "Seven Years". Webcomic. XKCD. Archived from the original on March 4, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  47. ^ Munroe, Randall (November 16, 2020). "Ten Years". Webcomic. XKCD. Archived from the original on November 17, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ Kuchera, Ben (July 2, 2007). "The joys of kite photography". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved 2017.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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