Pulitzer Prize
Get Pulitzer Prize essential facts below. View Videos or join the Pulitzer Prize discussion. Add Pulitzer Prize to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Pulitzer Prize

Pulitzer Prize
Current: 2022 Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prizes (medal).png
Obverse and reverse sides of the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service gold medal, designed by Daniel Chester French in 1917
Awarded forExcellence in newspaper journalism, literary achievements, musical composition
CountryUnited States
Presented byColumbia University
First awarded1917
Websitepulitzer.org Edit this at Wikidata

The Pulitzer Prize ([1]) is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine, online journalism, literature, and musical composition within the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of Joseph Pulitzer, who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, and is administered by Columbia University.[2] Prizes are awarded annually in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each winner receives a certificate and a US$15,000 cash award (raised from $10,000 in 2017).[3] The winner in the public service category is awarded a gold medal.[4][5]

Entry and prize consideration

The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, but only those that have specifically been entered. (There is a $75 entry fee, for each desired entry category.) Entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical. Works can also be entered only in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties.[6]

Each year, more than 100 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 22 separate juries for the 23 award categories; one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. Most juries consist of five members, except for those for Public Service, Investigative Reporting, Explanatory Reporting, Feature Writing, Commentary and Audio Reporting categories, which have seven members; however, all book juries have five members.[2] For each award category, a jury makes three nominations. The board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations, or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75 percent majority vote. The board can also vote to issue no award. The board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work; however, the jurors in letters, music, and drama receive honoraria for the year.[2]

Difference between entrants and nominated finalists

Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant. The jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists and authors who were only submitted, but not nominated as finalists, still claim to be Pulitzer nominees in promotional material.

The Pulitzer board has cautioned entrants against claiming to be nominees. The Pulitzer Prize website's Frequently Asked Questions section describes their policy as follows: "Nominated Finalists are selected by the Nominating Juries for each category as finalists in the competition. The Pulitzer Prize Board generally selects the Pulitzer Prize Winners from the three nominated finalists in each category. The names of nominated finalists have been announced only since 1980. Work that has been submitted for Prize consideration but not chosen as either a nominated finalist or a winner is termed an entry or submission. No information on entrants is provided. Since 1980, when we began to announce nominated finalists, we have used the term 'nominee' for entrants who became finalists. We discourage someone saying he or she was 'nominated' for a Pulitzer simply because an entry was sent to us."[7]

Bill Dedman of NBC News, the recipient of the 1989 investigative reporting prize, pointed out in 2012 that financial journalist Betty Liu was described as "Pulitzer Prize-Nominated" in her Bloomberg Television advertising and the jacket of her book, while National Review writer Jonah Goldberg made similar claims of "Pulitzer nomination" to promote his books. Dedman wrote, "To call that submission a Pulitzer 'nomination' is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters That's My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars don't work that way--the studios don't pick the nominees. It's just a way of slipping 'Academy Awards' into a bio. The Pulitzers also don't work that way, but fewer people know that."[8]

Nominally, the Pulitzer Prize for Public Service is awarded only to news organizations, not individuals. In rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners.[9][10] Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs; infrequently, staff Prize citations also distinguish the work of prominent contributors.[11]

History

The Pulitzer Prize certificate of Mihajlo Pupin, which used a recycled Columbia diploma

Newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Pulitzer Prize. It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships.[12] He specified "four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships."[2] After his death on October 29, 1911, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4, 1917 (they are now announced in April). The Chicago Tribune under the control of Colonel Robert R. McCormick felt that the Pulitzer Prize was nothing more than a 'mutual admiration society' and not to be taken seriously; the paper refused to compete for the prize during McCormick's tenure up until 1961.[13][14] Until 1975, the prizes were overseen by the trustees of Columbia University.

Recipients

Categories

Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts, letters and fiction. Reports and photographs by United States-based newspapers, magazines and news organizations (including news websites) that "[publish] regularly"[15] are eligible for the journalism prize. Beginning in 2007, "an assortment of online elements will be permitted in all journalism categories except for the competition's two photography categories, which will continue to restrict entries to still images."[16] In December 2008, it was announced that for the first time content published in online-only news sources would be considered.[17]

Although certain winners with magazine affiliations (most notably Moneta Sleet Jr.) were allowed to enter the competition due to eligible partnerships or concurrent publication of their work in newspapers, the Pulitzer Prize Advisory Board and the Pulitzer Prize Board historically resisted the admission of magazines into the competition, resulting in the formation of the National Magazine Awards at the Columbia Journalism School in 1966.

In 2015, magazines were allowed to enter for the first time in two categories (Investigative Reporting and Feature Writing). By 2016, this provision had expanded to three additional categories (International Reporting, Criticism and Editorial Cartooning).[18] That year, Kathryn Schulz (Feature Writing) and Emily Nussbaum (Criticism) of The New Yorker became the first magazine affiliates to receive the prize under the expanded eligibility criterion.[19]

In October 2016, magazine eligibility was extended to all journalism categories.[20] Hitherto confined to the local reporting of breaking news, the Breaking News Reporting category was expanded to encompass all domestic breaking news events in 2017.[21]

Definitions of Pulitzer Prize categories as presented in the December 2017 Plan of Award:[22]

  • Public Service - for a distinguished example of meritorious public service by a newspaper, magazine or news site through the use of its journalistic resources, including the use of stories, editorials, cartoons, photographs, graphics, videos, databases, multimedia or interactive presentations or other visual material. Often thought of as the grand prize, and mentioned first in listings of the journalism prizes, the Public Service award is only given to the winning news organization. Alone among the Pulitzer Prizes, it is awarded in the form of a gold medal.
  • Breaking News Reporting - for a distinguished example of local, state or national reporting of breaking news that, as quickly as possible, captures events accurately as they occur, and, as time passes, illuminates, provides context and expands upon the initial coverage.
  • Investigative Reporting - for a distinguished example of investigative reporting, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Explanatory Reporting - for a distinguished example of explanatory reporting that illuminates a significant and complex subject, demonstrating mastery of the subject, lucid writing and clear presentation, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Local Reporting - for a distinguished example of reporting on significant issues of local concern, demonstrating originality and community expertise, using any available journalistic tool.[16]
  • National Reporting - for a distinguished example of reporting on national affairs, using any available journalistic tool.
  • International Reporting - for a distinguished example of reporting on international affairs, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Feature Writing - for distinguished feature writing giving prime consideration to quality of writing, originality and concision, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Commentary - for distinguished commentary, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Criticism - for distinguished criticism, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Editorial Writing - for distinguished editorial writing, the test of excellence being clearness of style, moral purpose, sound reasoning, and power to influence public opinion in what the writer conceives to be the right direction, using any available journalistic tool.
  • Editorial Cartooning - for a distinguished cartoon or portfolio of cartoons, characterized by originality, editorial effectiveness, quality of drawing and pictorial effect, published as a still drawing, animation or both.
  • Breaking News Photography, previously called Spot News Photography - for a distinguished example of breaking news photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs.
  • Feature Photography - for a distinguished example of feature photography in black and white or color, which may consist of a photograph or photographs.

There are six categories in letters and drama:

  • Fiction - for distinguished fiction by an American author, preferably dealing with American life.
  • Drama - for a distinguished play by an American playwright, preferably original in its source and dealing with American life.
  • History - for a distinguished and appropriately documented book on the history of the United States.
  • Biography or Autobiography - for a distinguished biography, autobiography or memoir by an American author.
  • Poetry - for a distinguished volume of original verse by an American poet.
  • General Nonfiction - for a distinguished and appropriately documented book of non-fiction by an American author that is not eligible for consideration in any other category.

In 2020, the Audio Reporting category was added. The first prize in this category was awarded to "The Out Crowd", an episode of the public radio program This American Life. In the second year, the Pulitzer was awarded for the NPR podcast No Compromise.[]

There is one prize given for music:

There have been dozens of Special Citations and Awards: more than ten each in Arts, Journalism, and Letters, and five for Pulitzer Prize service, most recently to Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. in 1987.

In addition to the prizes, Pulitzer Travelling Fellowships are awarded to four outstanding students of the Graduate School of Journalism as selected by the faculty.

Changes to categories

Over the years, awards have been discontinued either because the field of the award has been expanded to encompass other areas; the award has been renamed because the common terminology changed; or the award has become obsolete, such as the prizes for telegraphic reporting.

An example of a writing field that has been expanded was the former Pulitzer Prize for the Novel (awarded 1918-1947), which has been changed to the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction, which also includes short stories, novellas, novelettes, and poetry, as well as novels.


Chronology of Pulitzer Prize categories
10s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 20s Current Categories
7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 Journalism
7 9 1 0 2 5 1 3 8 2 Editorial Writing
7 9 8 7 Reporting -
7 0 5 0 Public Service
8 Newspaper History Award -
2 3 6 0 5 3 0 Editorial Cartooning
2 Illustrated Reporting and Commentary
9 7 Correspondence -
2 7 Telegraphic Reporting - International
8 7 International Reporting
2 3 7 Telegraphic Reporting - National
8 1 National Reporting
2 7 Photography -
8 Feature Photography
8 9 Spot News Photography
0 Breaking News Photography
5 0 Specialized Reporting
1 6 Beat Reporting -
8 2 7 Local Reporting
3 3 Local Reporting - Edition time
4 4 Local General or Spot News Reporting
5 0 General News Reporting
1 7 Spot News Reporting
8 1 Breaking News Reporting
3 3 Local Reporting - No Edition time
4 4 Local Investigative Specialized Reporting
5 Investigative Reporting
0 Commentary
0 2 Criticism
9 4 4 Feature Writing
5 7 Explanatory Journalism
8 Explanatory Reporting
0 Audio Reporting
10s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Letters, drama, music
7 2 Biography or Autobiography
7 9 4 4 History
7 9 2 4 7 1 3 4 6 8 2 4 6 7 6 Drama
7 0 1 6 7 Novel
8 4 7 4 1 4 7 2 Fiction
2 6 Poetry
3 3 4 5 1 Music
2 General Nonfiction
10s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s 2020s Others
Special Awards & Citations
7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 Current Categories
   awarded, category still exists (one small number marks the year since this category exists)
   awarded, category renamed (two small numbers marking the first and the last year this category existed under that name)
   awarded, category no longer exists (two small numbers marking the first and the last year this category existed)
   not awarded, although there were nominees and a category in this year
  • The small single numbers mark the last digit of the year and are linked to the corresponding Pulitzer Prize article of that year.

Board

Pulitzer Hall on the Columbia campus

The 19-member Pulitzer Prize Board[23] convenes semi-annually, traditionally in the Joseph Pulitzer World Room at Columbia University's Pulitzer Hall. It comprises major editors, columnists and media executives in addition to six members drawn from academia and the arts, including the president of Columbia University, the dean of the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism and the administrator of the prizes, who serves as the Board's secretary. The administrator and the dean (who served on the Board from its inception until 1954 and beginning again in 1976) participate in the deliberations as ex officio members, but cannot vote. Aside from the president and dean (who serve as permanent members for the duration of their respective appointments) and the administrator (who is re-elected annually), the Board elects its own members for a three-year term; members may serve a maximum of three terms. Members of the Board and the juries are selected with close attention "given to professional excellence and affiliation, as well as diversity in terms of gender, ethnic background, geographical distribution and size of news organization."

Former Associated Press and Los Angeles Times editor Marjorie Miller was named administrator in April 2022.[24] She succeeded former New York Times senior editor Dana Canedy, who served in the role from 2017 to 2020. Canedy was the first woman and first person of color to hold the position.[25][26] Edward Kliment, the program's longtime deputy administrator, was appointed acting administrator in July 2020 when Canedy became senior vice president and publisher of Simon & Schuster's flagship eponymous imprint.[27] He chose not to contend for the position and returned to his previous role upon Miller's appointment.[28]

In addition to Canedy, past administrators include John Hohenberg (the youngest person to hold the position to date; 1954-1976), fellow Graduate School of Journalism professor Richard T. Baker (1976-1981), former Newsweek executive editor Robert Christopher (1981-1992), former New York Times managing editor Seymour Topping (1993-2002), former Milwaukee Journal editor Sig Gissler (2002-2014) and former Concord Monitor editor Mike Pride (the only former board member to hold the position to date; 2014-2017). Prior to the installation of Hohenberg, the program was jointly administered by members of the Journalism School's faculty (most notably longtime dean Carl W. Ackerman) and officials in Columbia's central administration under the aegis of Frank D. Fackenthal.

Following the retirement of Joseph Pulitzer Jr. (a grandson of the endower who served as permanent chair of the board for 31 years) in 1986, the chair has typically rotated to the most senior member (or members, in the case of concurrent elections) on an annual basis.[29]

Since 1975, the Board has made all prize decisions; prior to this point, the Board's recommendations were ratified by a majority vote of the trustees of Columbia University.[2] Although the administrator's office and staff are housed alongside the Graduate School of Journalism at Columbia's Pulitzer Hall and several administrators have held concurrent full-time or adjunct faculty appointments at the Journalism School, the Board and administration have been operationally separate from the School since 1950.[30]

Controversies

Criticism and studies

Some critics of the Pulitzer Prize have accused the organization of favoring those who support liberal causes or oppose conservative causes. Syndicated columnist L. Brent Bozell Jr. said that the Pulitzer Prize has a "liberal legacy", particularly in its prize for commentary.[58] He pointed to a 31-year period in which only five conservatives won prizes for commentary. 2010 Pulitzer Prize winner for commentary Kathleen Parker wrote, "It's only because I'm a conservative basher that I'm now recognized."[59] Alexander Theroux describes the Pulitzer Prize as "an eminently silly award, [that] has often been handed out as a result of pull and political log-rolling, and that to some of the biggest frauds and fools alike."[60]

A 2012 academic study by journalism professors Yong Volz of the University of Missouri and Francis Lee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong found "that only 27% of Pulitzer winners since 1991 were females, while newsrooms are about 33% female."[61] The researchers concluded female winners were more likely to have traditional academic experience, such as attendance at Ivy League schools, metropolitan upbringing, or employment with an elite publication such as The New York Times. The findings suggest a higher level of training and connectedness are required for a female applicant to be awarded the prize, compared to male counterparts.[62]

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ "FAQ". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2019. 24. How is 'Pulitzer' pronounced? The correct pronunciation is 'PULL it sir.'
    The pronunciation PEW-lit-s?r, even if considered mistaken, is quite common, and included in the major British and American dictionaries.
  2. ^ a b c d e Topping, Seymour (2008). "History of The Pulitzer Prizes". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2011. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
  3. ^ "Pulitzer Board raises prize award to $15,000". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. January 3, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  4. ^ Topping, Seymour (2008). "Administration". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2013. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
  5. ^ "The Medal". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2013.
  6. ^ "Entry Form for a Pulitzer Prize in Journalism" (PDF). The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University.
  7. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Archived from the original on November 18, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  8. ^ Abad-Santos, Alexander (June 26, 2012). "Journalists, Please Stop Saying You Were 'Pulitzer Prize-Nominated'". What Matters Now. The Atlantic Wire – via news.yahoo.
  9. ^ "The 2000 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service: The Washington Post, notably for the work of Katherine Boo". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2017.
  10. ^ "The 1996 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Public Service: The News & Observer (Raleigh, NC), for the work of Melanie Sill, Pat Stith and Joby Warrick". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2017.
  11. ^ "The 2009 Pulitzer Prize Winner in Local Reporting: Detroit Free Press Staff, and notably Jim Schaefer and M.L. Elrick". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2017.
  12. ^ Morris, James McGrath (2010). Pulitzer: A Life in Politics, Print, and Power. New York, NY: HarperCollins. p. 461. ISBN 978-0-06-079870-3. Retrieved 2011.
  13. ^ Reardon, Patrick T. (June 8, 1997). "A Parade of Pulitzers". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 2013. for more than two decades [...] the Tribune refused to compete for the awards.
  14. ^ Epstein, Joseph (August 1997). "The Colonel and the Lady" (PDF). Commentary. p. 48. He viewed the Pulitzer Prize as a 'mutual admiration society,' and hence not to be taken seriously.
  15. ^ "2017 Journalism Submission Guidelines, Requirements and FAQs". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2017.
  16. ^ a b "Pulitzer Board Widens Range of Online Journalism in Entries". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. November 27, 2006. Retrieved 2010.
  17. ^ "Pulitzer Prizes Broadened to Include Online-Only Publications Primarily Devoted to Original News Reporting". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. December 8, 2008. Retrieved 2010.
  18. ^ "Expanded eligibility for three journalism categories". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. October 26, 2015. Retrieved 2017.
  19. ^ "2016 Pulitzer Prizes". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2017.
  20. ^ "Pulitzer Prizes open all journalism categories to magazines". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. October 18, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  21. ^ "Pulitzer Board Expands Eligibility in Breaking News Prize Category". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. December 4, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  22. ^ "2020 Plan of Award". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. August 2020. Retrieved 2018.
  23. ^ "Elizabeth Alexander elected to Pulitzer Prize Board". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. May 30, 2016. Retrieved 2017.
  24. ^ "Journalist Marjorie Miller is Elected Administrator of the Pulitzer Prizes" (Press release). The Pulitzer Prizes. March 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  25. ^ "Journalist, Author Dana Canedy Is Elected Administrator of the Pulitzer Prizes". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). Columbia University. July 12, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  26. ^ "The 2001 Pulitzer Prize Winner in National Reporting". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2018.
  27. ^ "Pulitzer Administrator Dana Canedy Steps Down To Accept Publisher Role at Simon & Schuster". The Pulitzer Prizes (Press release). New York: Columbia University. July 6, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  28. ^ "Journalist Marjorie Miller is Elected Administrator of the Pulitzer Prizes" (Press release). The Pulitzer Prizes. March 31, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  29. ^ Topping, Seymour. "Biography of Joseph Pulitzer". The Pulitzer Prizes. Columbia University. Retrieved 2017. Updated 2013 by Sig Gissler.
  30. ^ a b Boylan, James (2003). Pulitzer's School: Columbia University's School of Journalism, 1903-2003. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-50017-3. OCLC 704692556. Retrieved 2017 – via Google Books.
  31. ^ Oehlschlaeger, Fritz H. (November 1979). "Hamlin Garland and the Pulitzer Prize controversy of 1921". American Literature. 51 (3): 409-414. doi:10.2307/2925396. JSTOR 2925396.
  32. ^ a b Walls, Jeannette (2000). Dish: The Inside Story on the World of Gossip. New York: Avon Books, Inc., an Imprint of Harper Collins Publishers. pp. 29-35. ISBN 0-380-97821-0.
  33. ^ "Drew Pearson". Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, School of Information, University of Texas. Retrieved 2014.
  34. ^ Adams, Cecil (November 7, 2003). "Did John F. Kennedy really write 'Profiles in Courage?'". The Straight Dope. Retrieved 2009.
  35. ^ "Her Story, Their Words: Behind the Scenes of the Best-Sellers". June 11, 2014.
  36. ^ Farhi, Paul (June 9, 2014). "Who wrote that political memoir? No, who wrote it?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2014.
  37. ^ Stewart, David O. Impeached: The Trial of President Andrew Johnson and the Fight for Lincoln's Legacy. Simon & Schuster, 2009, pp. 185-86, 188-89, 242, 269, 278-80, 282, 285, 292, 297-99, 309.
  38. ^ Nicholas Lemann, Redemption: The Last Battle of the Civil War by Nicholas Lemann. Farrar, Straus & Giroux. New York. ISBN 978-0-374-53069-3. pp. 205-09.
  39. ^ Simon, Scott (September 2, 2009). "At 50, a D.C. Novel With Legs". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2015.
  40. ^ Simon, Phil (May 28, 2014). "Classic Politics: The Works of Allen Drury Now Back in Print". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2015.
  41. ^ Fischer, Heinz Dietrich; Fischer, Erika J. (2007). Chronicle of the Pulitzer Prizes for Fiction. Munich: K.G. Saur. p. 21.
  42. ^ McDowell, Edwin (May 11, 1984). "Publishing: Pulitzer Controversies". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011.
  43. ^ Hohenberg, John. The Pulitzer Diaries: Inside America's Greatest Prize. 1997. p. 109.
  44. ^ McDowell, Edwin. "Publishing: Pulitzer Controversies". The New York Times, May 11, 1984: C26.
  45. ^ Fein, Esther B. (March 3, 1993). "Book Notes". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 11, 2007. Retrieved 2017.
  46. ^ "Judge Rules "Roots" Original". Spokane Daily Chronicle. September 21, 1978. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved 2020 – via Associated Press.
  47. ^ "Suit against Alex Haley is dismissed". The Montreal Gazette. September 22, 1978. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved 2020 – via United Press International.
  48. ^ Complete Historical Handbook of the Pulitzer Prize System 1917-2000: Decision-Making Processes in all Award Categories Based on Unpublished Sources, by Heinz D. Fischer and Erika J. Fischer, The Pulitzer Prize Archive, Walter de Gruyer, 2003, p. 325
  49. ^ "Pulitzer Decision Angers Juror Ignoring Nominations, Panel Didn't Know History Prize," San Jose Mercury News, April 23, 1994, p. 2B
  50. ^ "Next to Normal". Music Theater International. September 16, 2015. Retrieved 2019.
  51. ^ Charles McNulty (April 13, 2010). "Critic's Notebook: On this year's drama award, the Pulitzer board blew it". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on April 15, 2010.
  52. ^ Simonson, Robert (April 16, 2010). "Playbill.com's Theatre Week In Review, April 10-April 16: The Pulitzer Paradox". Playbill. Retrieved 2017.
  53. ^ Hussain, Ashiq (May 6, 2020). "3 Indian photojournalists from Jammu and Kashmir win Pulitzer Prize". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2020.
  54. ^ "Kashmiri Pulitzer Prize winners caught in political debate". Outlook. May 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020 – via Indo-Asian News Service (IANS).
  55. ^ "Pulitzer Prize questions India's legitimacy over Kashmir". National Herald. May 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  56. ^ "Pulitzer Prize questions Indias legitimacy over Kashmir (Ld)". Outlook. May 5, 2020. Retrieved 2020 – via (IANS).
  57. ^ "Russia Slams NYT for 'Russophobia' Following Pulitzer Prize Win". The Moscow Times. May 5, 2020.
  58. ^ Brent Bozell (April 22, 2007). "Pulitzers' liberal legacy". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on January 31, 2013. Retrieved 2010.
  59. ^ Keach Hagey (October 4, 2010). "Kathleen Parker: 'Smallish-town girl' hits cable". Politico. Retrieved 2010.
  60. ^ Alexander Theroux (2017). Einstein's Beets. Fantagraphics Books. p. 328. ISBN 978-1-60699-976-9. Archived from the original on December 15, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  61. ^ Yong Z. Volz; Francis LF Lee (August 30, 2012). "Who wins the Pulitzer Prize in international reporting? Cumulative advantage and social stratification in journalism". Journalism. 14 (5): 587-605. doi:10.1177/1464884912455905. S2CID 145197126.
  62. ^ "Female Pulitzer Prize winners require higher qualifications, study finds". Phys.org. University of Missouri. October 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012.

General sources

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Pulitzer_Prize
 



 



 
Music Scenes