Przasnysz
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Przasnysz
Przasnysz
Church of the Assumption
Church of the Assumption
Przasnysz is located in Poland
Przasnysz
Przasnysz
Przasnysz is located in Masovian Voivodeship
Przasnysz
Przasnysz
Coordinates: 53°1?N 20°53?E / 53.017°N 20.883°E / 53.017; 20.883Coordinates: 53°1?N 20°53?E / 53.017°N 20.883°E / 53.017; 20.883
Country Poland
VoivodeshipMasovian
CountyPrzasnysz County
GminaPrzasnysz (urban gmina)
Established13th century
Town rights1427
Government
 o Mayor?ukasz Chrostowski
Area
 o Total25.16 km2 (9.71 sq mi)
Population
(2013[1])
 o Total17,326
 o Density690/km2 (1,800/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 o Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
06-300
Area code(s)+48 29
Car platesWPZ
Websitehttp://www.przasnysz.um.gov.pl

Przasnysz (['p?asn]; Yiddish: ?‎, Russian: ?) is a town in Poland. Located in the Masovian Voivodship, about 110 km north of Warsaw and about 115 km south of Olsztyn, it is the capital of Przasnysz County. It has 18,093 inhabitants (2004). It was one of the most important towns in Mazovia during the Middle Ages. Przasnysz was granted town privileges in 1427.

History

Gothic Saints Anne and James church and Passionist Monastery

The oldest traces of settlement in the area of Przasnysz come from the turn of the Bronze and Iron Age (around 700 BC). In the 13th century in Przasnysz, on the W?gierka River, there was a market settlement. There was also a hunting court of the Mazovian princes, described by Henryk Sienkiewicz in The Knights of the Cross. The name of the city according to folk sources comes from the miller Prza?nik, who hosted the stray hunting Duke Konrad I of Masovia and was then knighted with the surrounding lands.

Przasnysz's rapid development was due to its favorable location on the border between two economically important areas - the Kurpiowska Plain and the agricultural Ciechanowska Upland. On October 10, 1427, Przasnysz obtained town privileges under the Che?mno law from the Masovian Duke Janusz I of Warsaw. The town flourished in the 16th century, especially after the incorporation of Mazovia into the Crown in 1526. Przasnysz was a royal town and a county seat in the Ciechanów Land in the Masovian Voivodeship in the Greater Poland Province of the Polish Crown.

In 1576, Przasnysz became the seat of the non-castle starostwo (eldership). In 1648, the Przasnysz eldership was awarded to the defender of Zbara?, Prince Jeremi Wi?niowiecki.

Partitions of Poland

After the defeat of the Ko?ciuszko Uprising and the Third Partition of Poland (1795), Przasnysz became part of the Kingdom of Prussia as the seat of a large county including Ciechanów.

On January 30, 1807, Napoleon Bonaparte made a visit in Przasnysz.

In the years 1807-1815 Przasnysz was part of the Duchy of Warsaw, and then, after the Congress of Vienna, became part of so-called Congress Poland, which was part of the Russian Empire. In November 1863, Przasnysz was the site of a Russian execution of Stefan Cielecki [pl], commander of a Polish insurgent unit, which fought in northern Masovia during the January Uprising.

During World War I, in November and December 1914, heavy fighting took place near Przasnysz between the Russian and German armies. The city changed hands many times. February 24, 1915 was taken by the Germans, but on February 27 they were forced out by Russian troops from the First and Second Siberian Corps.

Interbellum

Poland regained independence after World War I in 1918, and Przasnysz was reintegrated with the reborn state. In August 1920, extremely fierce battles with the Bolshevik 15 Army took place near Przasnysz. For two weeks the city was occupied by the Soviet army. On August 21, Przasnysz was liberated by the 202 Infantry Regiment of the Volunteer Division of Colonel Adam Koc.

In the interwar period, Przasnysz was the capital of the poviat in the Warsaw Voivodeship. In the first years of independence, reconstruction from war damage continued. Many public buildings were built: power plant, junior high school and elementary school, agricultural school, city theater, stadium and sports house. The main occupation of the inhabitants of Przasnysz was still agriculture, craft and small trade. In 1938, Przasnysz had 8,000 residents, including approx. 3,000 Jews.

World War II

Monument in the place where the Germans hanged five members of the Polish resistance on December 17, 1942

In the first days of the German invasion of Poland, which started World War II in September 1939, heavy fighting occurred nearby, between the Mazowiecka Cavalry Brigade under the command of Colonel Jan Karcz and the Germans. Afterwards the town was occupied by Germany and annexed directly into the Third Reich. It was renamed Praschnitz.

On September 10, 1939, the Einsatzgruppe V entered the town to commit various crimes against the populace. It immediately carried out mass searches of Polish offices, courts and organizations, arrested dozens of Poles, and expelled 70 Jews.[2] The German police established a prison for Poles in the town,[3] and a special court.[4] In October and November 1939, the Germans executed 11 Poles at the local cemetery.[5] Families of the victims were expelled to the so-called General Government.[6] Local teachers and school principals were among Polish teachers and principals murdered in the Mauthausen concentration camp.[7] 18 Poles from the town and county were murdered by the Russians in the Katyn massacre in 1940,[8] including pre-war starosta Zygmunt M?ot-Przepa?kowski and the chief of the local police Zygmunt Pampuch. On December 3-4, 1940, the German gendarmerie expelled around 500 Poles, including old, ill and disabled people, who were then held for several days in a camp in Dzia?dowo and afterwards deported in freight trains to the Kraków District of the General Government.[9] A penal "education" forced labour camp was operated in the town[10] from 1941 to 1943.[11] There was a high death rate in the camp due to hunger, diseases, tortures and executions.[10]

Despite such circumstances, Poles still managed to organize an underground resistance movement. On December 17, 1942, the Germans hanged five local leaders of Home Army at the main square.[12]

Shortly after the Soviet Army seized the city on January 18, 1945, the NKVD began mass arrests and deportations of Polish patriots. The town then was restored to Poland, although with a Soviet-installed communist regime, which remained in power until the Fall of Communism in the 1980s.

Recent times

In the years 1945-1951, numerous armed units of the anti-communist underground operated near Przasnysz.

Wojciech Oczko Hospital in Przasnysz

In the 1960s, the rapid development of the city began, slowed as a result of the administrative reform of 1975. In 1966, a branch of Zak?ad Aparatury Gospodarcza im. Georgi Dimitrov, where lightning arrestors were produced. For the needs of this plant, a school complex was established to house a vocational school and technical college.

Since January 1, 1999, Przasnysz is the seat of the county in the Masovian Voivodeship.

Sports

The local football club is MKS Przasnysz. It competes in the lower leagues.

Notable people

Coat of arms

The coat of arms of Przasnysz depicts a defensive wall made of red brick on a silver (white) shield, with three such towers of equal height. Each tower is covered with a conical red roof. Each tower has an entrance gate and one soaring hole above it, both black. Heraldic shield border black.

The heraldic image dates from the 16th century.

References

  1. ^ Demographic Yearbook of Poland 2014 Archived 2016-02-20 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Wardzy?ska, Maria (2009). By? rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpiecze?stwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. pp. 111-112, 123.
  3. ^ Wardzy?ska, Maria (2009). By? rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpiecze?stwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 112.
  4. ^ Grabowski, Waldemar (2009). "Polacy na ziemiach II RP wczonych do III Rzeszy". Biuletyn Instytutu Pami?ci Narodowej (in Polish). No. 8-9 (103-104). IPN. p. 62. ISSN 1641-9561.
  5. ^ Wardzy?ska, Maria (2009). By? rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpiecze?stwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 223.
  6. ^ Wardzy?ska, Maria (2017). Wysiedlenia ludno?ci polskiej z okupowanych ziem polskich wczonych do III Rzeszy w latach 1939-1945 (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. p. 385. ISBN 978-83-8098-174-4.
  7. ^ Wardzy?ska, Maria (2009). By? rok 1939. Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpiecze?stwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion (in Polish). Warszawa: IPN. pp. 231-232.
  8. ^ "Katy?... ocali? od zapomnienia - fotoreporta?". Powiat Przasnyski (in Polish). Retrieved 2021.
  9. ^ Wardzy?ska (2017), p. 393
  10. ^ a b Wardzy?ska, Maria (2009). "Obozy niemieckie na okupowanych terenach polskich". Biuletyn Instytutu Pami?ci Narodowej (in Polish). No. 4 (99). IPN. p. 30. ISSN 1641-9561.
  11. ^ "Arbeitserziehungslager Praschnitz". Bundesarchiv.de (in German). Retrieved 2021.
  12. ^ "77. rocznica egzekucji przywódców przasnyskiego obwodu ZWZ-AK". Powiat Przasnyski (in Polish). Retrieved 2021.

External links

Statut Miasta Przasnysz


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Przasnysz
 



 



 
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