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Prophets in Islam (Arabic: ?, romanized: al-?Anbiy f? al-?Isl?m) are individuals to serve as examples of ideal human behavior and to spread God's message on Earth. Some prophets are categorized as messengers (Arabic: ?, romanized: rusul, sing. ?, ras?l), those who transmit divine revelation, most of them through the interaction of an angel. Muslims believe that many prophets existed, including many not mentioned in the Quran. The Quran states: "There is a Messenger for every community". Belief in the Islamic prophets is one of the six articles of the Islamic faith.
Muslims believe that the first prophet was also the first human being, Adam, created by God. Many of the revelations delivered by the 48 prophets in Judaism and many prophets of Christianity are mentioned as such in the Quran but usually in slightly different forms. For example, the Jewish Elisha is called Alyasa', Job is Ayyub, Jesus is 'Isa, etc. The Torah given to Moses (Musa) is called Tawrat, the Psalms given to David (Dawud) is the Zabur, the Gospel given to Jesus is Injil.
The final prophet in Islam is Muhammad ibn ?Abdull?h, whom Muslims believe to be the "Seal of the Prophets" (Khatam an-Nabiyyin), to whom the Quran was revealed in a series of revelations (and written down by his companions). Muslims believe the Quran is the sole divine and literal word of God, thus immutable and protected from distortion and corruption, destined to remain in its true form until the Last Day.
In Islam, every prophet preached the same core beliefs, the Oneness of God, worshipping of that one God, avoidance of idolatry and sin, and the belief in the Day of Resurrection or the Day of Judgement and life after death. Prophets and messengers are believed to have been sent by God to different communities during different periods in history.
According to Al-Qadi al-Nu'man Qadi al-Nu'man, a famous Muslim jurist of the Fatimid period, the prophets of God are referred to as his 'words' because they convey God's message to mankind, by his permission. The "Word of God" does not refer to the words that are used by human beings to communicate, as that would result in drawing parallels between God and his creation, which is forbidden in Islam (kufr), as God is exalted above these things.
In Islam there is a tradition of prophetic lineage, particularly with regard to the prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) who had many prophets in his lineage - Jesus ('Isa), Zakariyyah (Zechariah), Muhammad, David (Dawud), etc. - through his sons Ismael and Isaac.
In Arabic and Hebrew, the term nab? (Arabic plural form: , anbiy?') means "prophet". Forms of this noun occur 75 times in the Quran. The term nubuwwah (Arabic: ? "prophethood") occurs five times in the Quran. The terms ras?l (Arabic plural: , rusul) and mursal (Arabic: ?, mursal, pl: , mursal?n) denote "messenger with law given by/received from God" and occur more than 300 times. The term for a prophetic "message" (Arabic: , ris?lah, pl: , ris?l?t) appears in the Quran in ten instances.
The Syriac form of ras?l All?h (literally: "messenger of God"), s?h?eli?eh d-all?h?, occurs frequently in the apocryphal Acts of St. Thomas. The corresponding verb for s?h?eli?eh--s?h?ala?, occurs in connection with the prophets in the Hebrew Bible.
The following table shows these words in different languages:
|Arabic||Arabic Pronunciation||English||Greek||Greek pronunciation||Strong Number||Hebrew||Hebrew pronunciation||Strong Number|
|or ?||Ras?l, Mursal||Messenger, Prophet, Apostle||?,
shalah /?ala?/ (verb)
In the Hebrew Bible, the word nabi ("spokesperson, prophet") occurs commonly. The biblical word for "messenger", mal'akh, refers today to Angels in Judaism, but originally was used for human messenger both of God and of men, thus it is only somewhat equivalent of ras?l. According to Judaism, Haggai, Zaqariah, and Malachi were the last prophets, all of whom lived at the end of the 70-year Babylonian exile. With them, the authentic period of Nevuah ("prophecy") died, and nowadays only the "Bath Kol" ( , lit. daughter of a voice, "voice of God") exists (Sanhedrin 11a).
In the New Testament, however, the word "messenger" becomes more frequent, sometimes in association with the concept of a prophet. "Messenger" may refer to Jesus, to his Apostles and to John the Baptist. But the last book of the Old Testament, the Book of Malachi, speaks of a messenger that Christian commentators interpret as a reference to the future prophet John the Baptist (Yahya).
The Quran is a revelation from the last prophet in the Abrahamic succession, Muhammad, and its contents detail what Muslims refer to as the straight path. According to Islamic belief, every prophet preached submission and obedience to God (Islam). There is an emphasis on charity, prayer, pilgrimage, fasting, with the most emphasis given to the strict belief and worship of a singular God. The Quran itself calls Islam the "religion of Abraham" (Ibrahim) and refers to Jacob (Yaqub) and the Twelve Tribes of Israel as being Muslims.
The Quran says:
In matters of faith, He has laid down for you [people] the same commandment that He gave Noah, which We have revealed to you [Muhammad] and which We enjoined on Abraham and Moses and Jesus: 'Uphold the faith and do not divide into factions within it'-...
Prophets in Islam are exemplars to ordinary humans. They exhibit model characteristics of righteousness and moral conduct. Prophetic typologies shared by all prophets include prophetic lineage, advocating monotheism, transmitting God's messages, and warning of the eschatological consequences of rejecting God. Prophetic revelation often comes in the form of signs and divine proofs. Each prophet is connected to one another, and ultimately support the final prophetic message of Muhammad. The qualities prophets possess are meant to lead people towards the straight path. In one hadith, it was stated: "Among men the prophets suffer most."
Classical Islamic teaching, especially Shi'ism, teach that unlike other human beings, prophets have the quality of ?i?mah, i.e. are protected by God from making mistakes or committing grave sins. This does not mean, they do not err, rather that they always seek to correct their mistakes. It is argued that sin are necessary for prophets, so they can show the people how to repent. Jasser Auda mentioned instances of the Quran correcting Muhammad on certain matters, in Quran 8:67; Q9:43; and 80:1-3).
Some doubt whether there is Quranic basis for ?i?mah, (Jasser Auda mentioned instances of the Quran correcting Muhammad on certain matters, in Quran 8:67; 9:43; and 80:1-3). but since in Islam (and Abrahamic faiths in general) divine revelation (the Quran and Sunnah) is transmitted by human beings--normally subject to error, weakness, frailty--the doctrine of ?i?mah prevents this problem, and became "mainstream Sunni doctrine" by the ninth century CE. Scholars are not in agreement on whether prophets are subject to error in judgments outside their divine mission.
The Quran speaks of the prophets as being the greatest human beings of all time. Quran 4:69 lists various virtuous groups of human beings, among whom prophets (including messengers) occupy the highest rank. Verse 4:69 reads:
All who obey God and the messenger are in the company of those on whom is the Grace of God--of the prophets (who teach), the sincere (lovers of Truth), the witnesses (who testify), and the Righteous (who do good): Ah! what a beautiful fellowship!
Stories of the prophets in the Quran (e.g., Job, Moses, Joseph (Yusuf) etc.) demonstrate that it is "God's practice" (sunnat Allah) to make faith triumph finally over the forces of evil and adversity. "We have made the evil ones friends to those without faith." "Assuredly God will defend those who believe." The prophets are divinely inspired by God but "share no divine attributes", and possess "no knowledge or power" other than that granted to them by God.
Prophets are considered to be chosen by God for the specific task of teaching the faith of Islam.
Some were called to prophesy late in life, in Muhammad's case at the age of 40. Others, such as John the Baptist, were called to prophesy while still at a young age. Jesus prophesied while still in his cradle.
There are authors who mention the possibility of female prophets in Islam.[example needed] However, the Quran, says, in 12:109, to Muhammad , regarding prophets, "We have only sent men prior to you." It also mentions that Muhammad, a man, is the last of the prophets in 33:40.
Several prominent exponents of the Fatimid Ismaili Imams explained that throughout history there have been six enunciators (natiqs) who brought the exoteric (zahir) revelation to humans, namely: Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. They speak of a seventh enunciator (natiq), the Resurrector (Qa'im), who will unveil the esoteric (batin) meaning of all the previous revelations. He is believed to be the pinnacle and purpose of creation. The enunciators (sing. natiq) who are the Prophets and the Imams in their respective times, are the highest hierarch (hadd). The enunciators (natiqs) signal the beginning of a new age (dawr) in humankind, whereas the Imams unveil and present the esoteric (batin) meaning of the revelation to the people. These individuals are both known as the 'Lord of the Age' (sahib al-'asr) or the 'Lord of the Time' (sahib al-zaman). Through them, one can know God, and their invitation to humans to recognize God is called the invitation (da'wa).
Abraham is widely recognized for being the father of monotheism in the Abrahamic religions, however, in the Quran he is recognized as a messenger and a link in the chain of Muslim prophets. Muhammad, God's final messenger and the revelator of the Quran, is a descendant of Abraham. In the Quran it reads, "He [God] said: 'I am making you [Abraham] a spiritual exemplar to mankind.'" (Q. 2:124) This phrase is affirming Islam as an Abrahamic religion, and further promoting Abraham as an important figure in the history of the Quran. This confirmation of the prophetic relationship (between Abraham and Muhammad) is significant to Abraham's story in the Quran - due to the fact that the last messenger, Muhammad, completes Abraham's prophetic lineage. This relationship can be seen in the Quranic chapter 6:
"That is Our Argument which We imparted to Abraham against his people. We raise up in degrees whomever We please. Your Lord is indeed Wise, All-Knowing. And We granted him Isaac and Jacob, and guided each of them; and Noah We guided before that, and of his progeny, [We guided] David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron. Thus We reward the beneficent. And Zechariah, John, Jesus and Elias, each was one of the righteous. And Ishmael, Elijah, Jonah and Lot; each We exalted above the whole world. [We also exalted some] of their fathers, progeny and brethren. And We chose them and guided them to a straight path." (Q. 6:83-87)
These particular verses support the Quranic narrative for Abraham to be recognized as a patriarch and is supported by his prophetic lineage concluding with Muhammad.
The Quran presents the world of Abraham as interlocking dramas or conflicts. The divine drama concerns the events of creation and banishment from the garden; while the human drama concerns the life and history of humanity but, also inclusive of the ever-changing events in of individual lives and those of the prophets. This is the situation that calls the faith of the Prophets to follow and reclaim the message of the Straight path and this is characterization of the conflicts between the two dramas. The Islamic morality is founded on this virtuous living through faith in the life ordained by the divine. This is the Divine task given to believers accompanied by the divine gift that the Prophets had in revelation and perspective of ayat. This the key feature to the authority of their revelation because not only is the source of revelation is Allah but it produces texts that are seen as distinctive than other poetry but it fits within the Abrahamic tradition. Poetry especially, in the Arabian context, connects the Quran to Pre-Islamic poetry which originates from the jihn; however, the Quran's place within other religious contexts gives the revelation to Muhammed the same authority of the Hebrew texts and the New Testament.
The Quran states,
"And (remember) Abraham, when he said to his people: 'Worship Allah and fear Him; that is far better for you, if only you knew. Indeed, you only worship, apart from Allah, mere idols, and you invent falsehood. Surely, those you worship, apart from Allah, have no power to provide for you. So, seek provision from Allah, worship Him and give Him thanks. You shall be returned unto Him.'" (Q. 29:16-17)
This passage promotes Abraham's devotion to God as one of his messengers along with his monotheism. Islam is a monotheistic religion, and Abraham is one who is recognized for this transformation of the religious tradition. This prophetic aspect of monotheism is mentioned several times in the Quran. Abraham believed in one true God, Allah, and promoted an "invisible oneness" (tawd) with him. The Quran proclaims, "Say: 'My lord has guided me to a Straight Path, a right religion, the creed of Abraham, an upright man who was no polytheist.'" (Q. 6:161) One push Abraham had to devote himself to God and monotheism is from the pagans of his time. Abraham was devoted to cleansing the Arabian Peninsula of this impetuous worship. His father was a wood idol sculptor, and Abraham was critical of his trade. Due to Abraham's devotion, he is recognized as the father of monotheism.
Prophets and messengers in Islam often fall under the typologies of nadhir ("warner") and bashir ("announcer of good tidings"). Many prophets serve as vessels to inform humanity of the eschatological consequences of not accepting God's message and affirming monotheism. A verse from the Quran reads: "Verily, We have sent thee [Muhammad] with the truth, as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner: and thou shalt not be held accountable for those who are destined for the blazing fire." (Q2:119) The prophetic revelations found in the Quran offer vivid descriptions of the flames of Hell that await nonbelievers but also describe the rewards of the gardens of Paradise that await the true believers. The warnings and promises transmitted by God through the prophets to their communities serve to legitimize Muhammed's message. The final revelation that is presented to Muhammed is particularly grounded in the belief that the Day of Judgement is imminent.
Throughout the Quran, prophets such as Moses and Jesus often perform miracles or are associated with miraculous events. The Quran makes clear that these events always occur through God and not of the prophet's own volition. Throughout the Meccan passages there are instances where the Meccan people demand visual proofs of Muhammad's divine connection to God to which Muhammad replies "The signs are only with Allah, and I am only a plain warner." (Q29:50) This instance makes clear that prophets are only mortals who can testify to God's omnipotence and produce signs when he wills it. Furthermore, the Quran states that visual and verbal proofs are often rejected by the unbelievers as being sihr ("magic") The Quran reads: "They claim that he tries to bewitch them and make them believe that he speaks the word of God, although he is just an ordinary human being like themselves. (Q74:24-25)
There are patterns of representation of Quranic prophecy that support the revelation of Muhammad. Since Muhammad is in Abraham's prophetic lineage, they are analogous in many aspects of their prophecy. Muhammad was trying to rid the Pagans of idolatry during his lifetime, which is similar to Abraham. This caused many to reject Muhammad's message and even made him flee from Mecca due to his unsafety in the city. Carl Ernest, the author of How to Read the Qur'an: A New Guide, with Select Translations, states, "The Qur'an frequently consoles Muhammad and defends him against his opponents." This consolation can also be seen as parallel to Abraham's encouragement from God. Muhammad is also known to perform miracles as Abraham did. Sura 17 (al-isr?) briefly describes Muhammad's miraculous Night Journey where he physically ascended to the Heavens to meet with previous prophets. This spiritual journey is significant in the sense that many Islamic religious traditions and transformations were given and established during this miracle, such as the ritual of daily prayer. (Q17:78-84) Muhammad is a descendant of Abraham; therefore, this not only makes him part of the prophetic lineage, but the final prophet in the Abrahamic lineage to guide humanity to the Straight Path. In Sura 33 (al-ahz?b) it confirms Muhammad and states, "Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but is the Messenger of Allah and the seal of the Prophets. Allah is Cognizant of everything". (Q33:40)
The Quran emphasizes the importance of obedience to prophets in Surah 26 Ash-Shu'ara, in which a series of prophets preaching fear of God and obedience to themselves.
The revealed books are the records which Muslims believe were dictated by God to various Islamic prophets throughout the history of mankind, all these books promulgated the code and laws of Islam. The belief in all the revealed books is an article of faith in Islam and Muslims must believe in all the scriptures to be a Muslim. Muslims believe the Quran, the final holy scripture, was sent because all the previous holy books had been either corrupted or lost. Nonetheless, Islam speaks of respecting all the previous scriptures, even in their current forms.
The Quran mentions some Islamic scriptures by name, which came before the Quran:
Muhammad was given a divine gift of revelation through the angel Gabriel. This direct communication with the divine underlines the human experience but the message of the Quran dignifies this history of revelation with these select people in human history the foundation for Muhammed's prophetic lineage.
The Quran mentions various divinely-bestowed gifts given to various prophets. These may be interpreted as books or forms of celestial knowledge. Although all prophets are believed by Muslims to have been immensely gifted, special mention of "wisdom" or "knowledge" for a particular prophet is understood to mean that some secret knowledge was revealed to him. The Quran mentions that Abraham prayed for wisdom and later received it. It also mentions that Joseph and Moses both attained wisdom when they reached full age; David received wisdom with kingship, after slaying Goliath; Lot (Lut received wisdom whilst prophesying in Sodom and Gomorrah; John the Baptist received wisdom while still a mere youth; and Jesus received wisdom and was vouchsafed the Gospel.
During the time of the prophet Muhammad's revelation, the Arabian peninsula was made up of many pagan tribes. His birthplace, Mecca, was a central pilgrimage site and a trading center where many tribes and religions were in constant contact. Muhammad's connection with the surrounding culture was foundational to the way the Quran was revealed. Though it is seen as the direct word of God, it came through to Muhammed in his own native language of Arabic, which could be understood by all the peoples in the peninsula. This is the key feature of the Quran which makes it unique to the poetry and other religious texts of the time. It is considered immune to translation and culturally applicable to the context of the time it was revealed. Muhammad was criticized for his revelation being poetry which, according to the cultural perspective, is revelation purely originating from the jihn and the Qurash but the typology of duality and its likeness to the other prophets in the Abrahamic line affirms his revelation. This likeness is found in the complexity of its structure and its message of submission of faith to the one God, Allah. This also revels that his revelation comes from Allah alone and he is the preserver of the Straight Path as well as the inspired messages and lives of other prophets, making the Quran cohesive with the monotheistic reality in the Abrahamic traditions.
Prophets mentioned in the Quran are also messengers, but not all prophets are messengers.
|Chronologically Ordered Number||Name||Arabic
|Archprophet||Book||Time when a prophet lived (event or years)||Sent to||Law (Sharia)||Notes|
|Adam||? ||? ||Birth of humanity as we know it||Earth||First Prophet|
|Enoch||? ||Babylon||Tailor; inventor of the needle|
|Noah||? ||? ||? ||Great Flood||The people of Noah ||? ||Survivor of the Great Flood|
|Eber||? ||? ||d tribe ||Merchant|
|Salah||? ||? ||Thamud tribe ||Camel breeder|
|Abraham||? ||? ||? ||Scrolls of Abraham||Migration of the Jews to Iraq||The people of Iraq ||? ||Builder of the Kaaba|
|Lot||? ||? ||The people of Lot ||Historian and traveler|
|Ishmael||? ||? ||Mecca||Founder of the Arabian people|
|Isaac||? ||Palestine||Founders of the Israelite people|
|Jacob||? ||Twelve Tribes of Israel|
|Joseph||? ||? ||Egypt||Inventor|
|Job||? ||Edom||Known for his patience|
|Jethro||? ||? ||Midian||Shepherd|
|Moses||? ||? ||? ||Tawrah (Torah) Suhoof Musa (Scrolls of Moses)||~1400s BCE-1300s BCE, or ~1300s BCE-1200s BCE||Pharaoh and his establishment||? ||Person who challenged the pharaoh and lead the migration back to Israel|
|Aaron||? ||Pharaoh and his establishment||Vizier|
|Debated, Ezekiel, Buddha, Joshua, Obadiah Isaiah.||? ||Iraq||Identity still unknown|
|17||Dawud||? \ ?
|David||? ||Zabur (Psalms) ||~1000s BCE-971 BCE||Jerusalem||Military commander, second king of Israel|
|Solomon||? ||~971 BCE-931 BCE||Jerusalem||Copperworker, third and last king of the United Monarchy; built the First Temple; Son of Dawud|
|Elijah||? ||? ||The people of Ilyas ||Silk weaver|
|Jonah||? ||? ||The people of Younis||Swallowed by fish|
|Zechariah||? ||Jerusalem||Father of Yahya|
|John the Baptist||? ||Jerusalem|
|Jesus||? ||? ||? ||Injil (Gospel) ||~4 BCE-~30 CE, or ~0-~30 CE||The Children of Israel||? ||the Messiah|
|Muhammad||? ||? ||? ||Quran||571-632||All of Earth (Humanity, the Jinn, and other metaphysical beings)[Quran 21:107]||? ||Shepherd, merchant, founder of Islam; Seal of the Prophets|
|Daniel||Babylon||Usually considered by Muslims to be a prophet, but he is not mentioned in the Qur'an, nor in hadith of Sunni Islam, but he is a prophet according to Shia Muslim hadith.|
|Unknown (Some of the theories about his identity include: Alexander the Great, Cyrus the Great, Imru'l-Qays, Messiah ben Joseph, Darius the Great., Oghuz Khagan or a space-time traveler)||The people he met on his travels[Quran 18:83-101]||He appears in the Quran[Quran 18:83-101] as one who travels to east and west and erects a barrier between mankind and Gog and Magog (called Ya'juj and Ma'juj).|
|Ezekiel||Iraq||He is often identified as being the same figure as Dhul-Kifl, Although not mentioned in the Qur'an by the name, Muslim scholars, both classical and modern have included Ezekiel in lists of the prophets of Islam.|
|Jeremiah||Israel||He does not appear in the Quran or any canonical hadith, but his narrative is fleshed out in Muslim literature and exegesis, moreover some non-canonical hadith and tafsirs narrate that the Parable of the Hamlet in Ruins is about Irmiya.|
|Unknown, sometimes identified as Melchizedek, and sometimes equated with Elijah||The seas, the opressed peoples, Israel,[Quran 18:65-82] Mecca, and all lands where a prophet exists||The Quran also mentions the mysterious Khidr (but does not name him), identified at times with Melchizedek, who is the figure that Abram accompanies on one journey. Although most Muslims regard him as an enigmatic saint, some see him as a prophet as well.|
|Mary||Israel||Some scholars regard Maryam (Mary) as a messenger and a prophetess, since God sent her a message through an angel and because she was a vessel for divine miracles. Islamic belief regards her as one of the holiest of women, but the matter of her prophethood continues to be debated.|
|-||Ethiopia||The Quran mentions the sage Luqman in the chapter named after him, but does not clearly identify him as a prophet. The most widespread Islamic belief views Luqman as a saint, but not as a messenger, however, other Muslims regard Luqman as a messenger as well. The Arabic term wali is commonly translated into English as "Saint". This should not be confused with the Christian tradition of sainthood.|
|Samuel||Israel||Not mentioned by name, only referred to as a messenger/prophet sent to the Israelites and who anoints Saul as a king.|
|Seth||Mankind||He is not mentioned in the Quran, but he is mentioned in Hadith, and is revered within Islamic tradition.|
|Saul or Gideon||Israel||Some Muslims refer to Saul as Talut, and believe that he was the commander of Israel. Other scholars, however, have identified Talut as Gideon. According to the Qur'an, Talut was chosen by Samuel to lead them into war. Talut led the Israelites to victory over the army of Goliath, who was killed by Dawud (David).|
|Ezra||Israel||He is mentioned in the Quran, but he is not specified to have been a prophet, although many Islamic scholars hold Uzair to be one of the prophets.|
|Joshua||Israel||Yusha (Joshua) is not mentioned by name in the Quran, but his name appears in other Islamic literature and in multiple Hadith. In the Quranic account of the conquest of Canaan, Joshua and Caleb are referenced, but not named, as two men, on whom God "had bestowed His grace". Yusha is regarded by most scholars as the prophetic successor to Musa (Moses).|
To believe in God's messengers (Rusul) means to be convinced that God sent men as guides to fellow human beings and jinn (khalq) to guide them to the truth.
The Ahmadiyya Community does not believe that messengers and prophets are different individuals. They interpret the Quranic words warner (nadhir), prophet, and messenger as referring to different roles that the same divinely appointed individuals perform. Ahmadiyya distinguish only between law-bearing prophets and non-law-bearing ones. They believe that although law-bearing prophethood ended with Muhammad, non-law-bearing prophethood subordinate to Muhammad continues. The Ahmadiyya Community recognizes Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835-1908) as such a "prophet" of God and the promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi of the latter days. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement rejects his status as a prophet, instead considering him to be a renewer of the faith. However, all other Muslims and their scholars argue and firmly establish that the Ahmadiyya community are not Muslim.
The Quran mentions 25 prophets by name but also tells that God sent many other prophets and messengers, to all the different nations that have existed on Earth. Many verses in the Quran discuss this:
Regarding the issue of the prophets being sinless or infallible, there is an agreement among scholars that prophets are protected from sins. The protection of all prophets from sins is an Islamic belief, which is a precondition to trusting the prophets' message and following their example. However, there is a debate among scholars on whether prophets (peace be upon them all) are subject to error in judgments in "human" matters. The word 'issmah (literally: protection) is mentioned in the Quran in the context of the Prophet being protected from people's whims and Satan's delusions while he conveys the message of God. However, the Quran did correct Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) on a few occasions in matters of human judgment (Quran 8:67; 9:43; and 80:1-3). Nevertheless, some scholars rejected the possibility of erring in any prophetic decision whatsoever (for example, Al-Amedi, Al-Ihkaam fi Usul Al-Ahkam, vol.4, p. 99, Dar Al-Kitab Al-Arabi, Beirut, AH 1404
The Prophets were infallible in conveying the message from Allah, may He be exalted, so their words could not be but true and they did not make any mistake, whether deliberate or otherwise, in conveying the message. They were also infallible and protected from committing major sins such as zina (adultery) and theft. They were also infallible and protected from committing minor sins that are indicative of baseness, such as stealing a morsel of food or giving short measure.
all prophet are messengers but not all messengers are prophets.
Recall Ishmael, Elisha, and Isaiah; all are among the best. (38:48)
Daniel is not mentioned by name in the Quran but there are accounts of his prophethood in later Muslim literature...