Pressure cooking is the process of cooking food under high pressure steam, employing water or a water-based cooking liquid, in a sealed vessel known as a pressure cooker. High pressure limits boiling, and permits cooking temperatures well above 100 °C (212 °F) to be reached.
The pressure cooker was invented in the seventeenth century by the physicist Denis Papin, and works by expelling air from the vessel, and trapping the steam produced from the boiling liquid inside. This raises the internal pressures and permits high cooking temperatures. This, together with high thermal heat transfer from the steam, cooks food far more quickly, often cooking in between half and a quarter the time for conventional boiling. After cooking, the steam pressure is lowered back to ambient atmospheric pressure, so that the vessel can be opened safely.
According to New York Times Magazine, 37% of U.S. households owned at least one pressure cooker in 1950. By 2011, that rate dropped to only 20%. Part of the decline has been attributed to fear of explosion, although this is extremely rare with modern pressure cookers, along with competition from other fast cooking devices, such as the microwave oven. However, third generation pressure cookers have multiple safety features and digital temperature control, do not vent steam during cooking, are more efficient and quieter, and these conveniences have helped make pressure cooking more popular again.
In 1679, French physicist Denis Papin, better known for his studies on steam, invented the steam digester in an attempt to reduce the cooking time of food. His airtight cooker used steam pressure to raise the water's boiling point, thus cooking food more quickly. In 1681 Papin presented his invention to the Royal Society of London as a scientific study; he was later elected as a member.
In 1918, Spain granted a patent for the pressure cooker to José Alix Martínez from Zaragoza. Martínez named it the olla exprés, literally "express cooking pot", under patent number 71143 in the Boletín Oficial de la Propiedad Industrial. In 1924, the first pressure cooking pot recipe book was published, written by José Alix and titled "360 fórmulas de cocina Para guisar con la 'olla expres'", or 360 recipes for cooking with a pressure cooker.
In 1935, the Automa pressure cooker was introduced. Mountaineers attempting to climb Mount Everest took it along with them to cook in higher altitudes.
In 1938, Alfred Vischer presented his invention, the Flex-Seal Speed Cooker, in New York City. Vischer's pressure cooker was the first designed for home use, and its success led to competition among American and European manufacturers. At the 1939 New York World's Fair, the National Pressure Cooker Company, later renamed National Presto Industries, introduced its own pressure cooker.
Also known as "old type" pressure cookers, these operate with a weight-modified or "jiggler" valve, which releases pressure during operation. Some people consider them loud because the valve rattles as excess steam is released. Older pressure cookers typically offered only one pressure level, but from the 1960s onwards some allow the operator to change the weight of the valve, thus changing the pressure.
Today, most pressure cookers are variations on the first-generation cookers, with the addition of new safety features such as a mechanism that prevents the cooker from being opened until it is entirely depressurized.
These operate with a spring-loaded valve that is often hidden from view in a proprietary mechanism. This generation is characterized by two or more pressure settings. Some of these pressure cookers do not release any steam during operation (non-venting) and instead use a rising indicator with markings to show the pressure level. These only release steam when the pan is opened, or as a safety precaution if the heat source is not reduced enough when the pan reaches the required cooking pressure. Others use a dial that the operator can advance by a few clicks (which alters the spring tension) to change the pressure setting or release pressure; these release steam during operation (venting).
After the stove-top pressure cookers, in 1991 came the electric pressure cookers, called the "third generation" pressure cookers.
These include an electric heat source that is automatically regulated to maintain the operating pressure. They also include a spring-loaded valve (as described above).
An electric pressure cooker integrates a timer. Depending on cooking control capability, there are three generations of electric pressure cookers:
Some pressure cookers are multifunctional (multicookers): pressure cooker, saute/browning, slow cooker, rice cooker, egg cooker, yogurt maker, steamer, sous vide, canner, and stockpot warmer that can also be used to keep cooked food warm. Since 2018, with the release of the Ninja Foodi pressure cooker, which was the first pressure cooker that could also air fry, several other pressure cooker manufacturers, including Instant Pot, have come out with their own pressure cookers that can air fry, which are now known as pressure air fryers. Pressure air fryers have two separate lids, one for pressure cooking, and one for air frying. Air frying lids for electric pressure cookers typically come in one of two configurations:
|Gauge Pressure||Temperature||Appr. Cooking time|
(compared to boiling)[note 1]
|0 bar (0 psi)||100 °C (212 °F)||100%|
|0.1 bar (1.5 psi)||103 °C (217 °F)||80%|
|0.2 bar (2.9 psi)||105 °C (221 °F)||70%|
|0.3 bar (4.4 psi)||107 °C (225 °F)||61%|
|0.4 bar (5.8 psi)||110 °C (230 °F)||50%|
|0.5 bar (7.3 psi)||112 °C (234 °F)||43%|
|0.6 bar (8.7 psi)||114 °C (237 °F)||38%|
|0.7 bar (10 psi)||116 °C (241 °F)||33%|
|0.8 bar (12 psi)||117 °C (243 °F)||31%|
|0.9 bar (13 psi)||119 °C (246 °F)||27%|
|1.0 bar (15 psi)||121 °C (250 °F)||25%|
In an ordinary, non-pressurized cooking vessel, the boiling point of water is 100 °C (212 °F) at standard pressure. Once the temperature in the vessel reaches the boiling point of water, excess heat causes the water to vaporize into steam. In a sealed pressure cooker, however, the boiling point of water increases with increasing pressure. As the temperature increases, so does the pressure, resulting in superheated water. When the pressure reaches 1 bar or 100 kPa (15 psi) above the existing atmospheric pressure, the water will have reached a temperature of approximately 120 °C (248 °F).
Pressure cookers employ a regulator to limit the pressure, thereby maintaining a precise temperature. Once the desired pressure and temperature are reached, the heat can be lowered somewhat to minimize excess release of steam, saving energy.
Some recipes require browning to develop flavors during roasting or frying. Browning occurs via the Maillard reaction, under temperatures higher than the roughly 120 °C (248 °F) achieved in pressure cooking. One may brown foods by searing them either in the open pressure cooker or another pan beforehand.
A pressure cooker can be used to compensate for lower atmospheric pressure at high elevations. The boiling point of water drops by approximately 1°C per every 294 metres of altitude, causing the boiling point of water to be significantly below the 100 °C (212 °F) at standard pressure. For example, on the summit of Everest (8,848m), the boiling point of water would be 70°C. Without the use of a pressure cooker, boiled foods may be undercooked, as described in Charles Darwin's The Voyage of the Beagle (chapter XV, March 20, 1835):
Having crossed the Peuquenes [Piuquenes], we descended into a mountainous country, intermediate between the two main ranges, and then took up our quarters for the night. We were now in the republic of Mendoza. The elevation was probably not under 11,000 feet (3,400 m) [...]. At the place where we slept water necessarily boiled, from the diminished pressure of the atmosphere, at a lower temperature than it does in a less lofty country; the case being the converse of that of a Papin's digester. Hence the potatoes, after remaining for some hours in the boiling water, were nearly as hard as ever. The pot was left on the fire all night, and next morning it was boiled again, but yet the potatoes were not cooked.
When pressure cooking at high altitudes, cooking times need to be increased by approximately 5% for every 300 m (980 ft) above 610 m (2,000 ft) elevation. Since the regulators work off the pressure differential between interior and ambient pressure, the absolute pressure in the interior of a pressure cooker will always be lower at higher altitudes.
Weight is a concern with backpackers, so mountaineering pressure cookers are designed to operate at a lower differential pressure than stove-top units. This enables them to use thinner, and therefore lighter materials. Generally, the goal is to raise the cooking temperature enough to make cooking possible and to conserve fuel by reducing heat lost through boiling. Lightweight pressure cookers as small as 1.5 litres (0.40 US gal) weighing 1.28 kilograms (2.8 lb) are available for mountain climbers. Sherpas often use pressure cookers in base camp.
Some food toxins can be reduced by pressure cooking. A Korean study of aflatoxins in rice (associated with Aspergillus fungus) showed that pressure cooking was capable of reducing aflatoxin concentrations to 32% of the amount in the uncooked rice, compared to 77% from ordinary cooking.
Some foods are not recommended for pressure cooking. Foods such as noodles, pasta, cranberries, cereals and oatmeal can expand too much, froth and sputter, potentially blocking the steam vent and creating an unsafe condition.
Pressure cookers are available in different capacities for cooking larger or smaller amounts, with 6 litres' capacity being common. The maximum capacity of food is less than the advertised capacity because pressure cookers can only be filled up to 2/3 full, depending on ingredients and liquid (see Safety features section).
Pressure cookers are typically made of aluminum (aluminium) or stainless steel. Aluminum pressure cookers may be stamped, polished, or anodized, but all are unsuitable for the dishwasher. They are cheaper, but the aluminum is reactive to acidic foods, whose flavors are changed in the reactions, and less durable than stainless steel pressure cookers.
Higher-quality stainless steel pressure cookers are made with heavy, three-layer, or copper-clad bottoms (heat spreader) for uniform heating because stainless steel has lower thermal conductivity. Most modern stainless steel cookers are dishwasher safe, although some manufacturers may recommend washing by hand. Some pressure cookers have a non-stick interior.
A gasket or sealing ring, made from either rubber or silicone, forms a gas-tight seal that does not allow air or steam to escape between the lid and pan. Normally, the only way steam can escape is through a regulator on the lid while the cooker is pressurized. If the regulator becomes blocked, a safety valve provides a backup escape route for steam.
To seal the gasket there are several main methods used. Each determines the design of the pressure cooker:
Because of the forces that pressure cookers must withstand, they are usually heavier than conventional pots of similar size.
Early pressure cookers equipped with only a primary safety valve risked explosion from food blocking the release valve. On modern pressure cookers, food residues blocking the steam vent or the liquid boiling dry will trigger additional safety devices. Modern pressure cookers sold from reputable manufacturers have sufficient safety features to prevent the pressure cooker itself from exploding. When excess pressure is released by a safety mechanism, debris of food being cooked may also be ejected with the steam, which is loud and forceful. This can be avoided if the pressure cooker is regularly cleaned and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and never overfilled with food and/or liquid.
Modern pressure cookers typically have two or three redundant safety valves and additional safety features, such as an interlock lid that prevents the user from opening the lid when the internal pressure exceeds atmospheric pressure, preventing accidents from a sudden release of hot liquid, steam and food. If safety mechanisms are not correctly in place, the cooker will not pressurize the contents. Pressure cookers should be operated only after reading the instruction manual, to ensure correct usage. Pressure cooker failure is dangerous: a large quantity of scalding steam and water will be forcefully ejected and if the lid separates it may be propelled with considerable force. Some cookers with an internally fitted lid may be particularly dangerous upon failure as the lid fits tighter with increasing pressure, preventing the lid from deforming and venting around the edges. Due to these dangers pressure cookers are generally over-engineered in a safety regard and some countries even have regulations to prevent the sale of non-compliant cookers.
For first generation pressure cookers with a weighted valve or "jiggler", the primary safety valve or regulator is usually a weighted stopper, commonly called "the rocker" or "vent weight". This weighted stopper is lifted by the steam pressure, allowing excess pressure to be released. There is a backup pressure release mechanism that releases pressure quickly if the primary pressure release mechanism fails (e.g., food jams the steam discharge path). One such method is a hole in the lid that is blocked by a low melting point alloy plug and another is a rubber grommet with a metal insert at the center. At a sufficiently high pressure, the grommet will distort and the insert will blow out of its mounting hole to release pressure. If the pressure continues to increase, the grommet itself will blow out to release pressure. These safety devices usually require replacement when activated by excess pressure. Newer pressure cookers may have a self-resettable spring device, fixed onto the lid, that releases excess pressure.
On second generation pressure cookers, a common safety feature is the gasket, which expands to release excess pressure downward between the lid and the pot. This release of excess pressure is forceful and sufficient to extinguish the flame of a gas stove.
The recommended maximum fill levels of food/liquid avoids blockage of the steam valve or developing excess pressure: two-thirds full with solid food, half full for liquids and foods that foam and froth (e.g., rice, pasta; adding a tablespoon of cooking oil minimizes foaming), and no more than one-third full for pulses (e.g., lentils).
This section's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. (June 2017)
Pressure cooking always requires liquid. Pressure cooking cannot be used for cooking methods that produce little steam such as roasting, pan frying, or deep frying. Sauces which contain starch thickeners can tend to burn onto the interior base of the pressure cooker and may prevent the cooker from reaching operating pressure. Sauces may require reduction and thickening after pressure cooking.
The inner pot of a pressure cooker is generally not filled more than halfway when cooking beans.
Food is placed inside the pressure cooker with a small amount of water or other liquid such as stock. Food is either cooked in the liquid or above the liquid to be steamed; the latter method prevents the transfer of flavors from the liquid. The lid is closed, the pressure setting is chosen and the pressure cooker is placed on a stove on the highest heat (less than high for induction cooking to allow air to be vented). Once the cooker reaches full pressure, the heat is lowered to maintain pressure; timing the recipe begins at this point. Recipes for foods using raising agents such as steamed puddings call for gentle pre-steaming, without pressure, in order to activate the raising agents prior to cooking and achieve a light, fluffy texture.
It takes several minutes for the pressure cooker to reach the selected pressure level. It can take around 10 minutes or longer depending on: the quantity of food, the temperature of the food (cold or frozen food delays pressurization), the amount of liquid, the power of the heat source and the size of the pressure cooker.
The typical pop-up indicator only shows that the cooker has pressure inside, and does not reliably signal that the cooker has reached the selected pressure. A pop-up indicator shows the state of the interlock which prevents the lid from being opened while there is any internal pressure. Manufacturers may use their own terminology for it, such as calling it a "locking indicator."
As the internal temperature rises, the pressure rises until it reaches the design gauge pressure. Timing the recipe begins when the selected pressure/pressure is reached. With first generation designs, the pressure regulator weight begins levitating above its nozzle, allowing excess steam to escape. In second generation pressure cookers, either a relief valve subsequently opens, releasing steam to prevent the pressure from rising any further or a rod rises with markers to indicate the pressure level, without constantly venting steam. At this stage, the heat source is reduced to the lowest possible heat that still maintains pressure, as extra heat wastes energy and increases liquid loss. In third generation pressure cookers, the device will detect the vessel has reached the required cooking temperature/pressure and will maintain it for the programmed time, generally without further loss of steam.
Before the pressure cooker lid is sealed airtight, the internal air has to be mostly replaced by steam. Steam has a much higher specific heat than air, and the presence of steam rather than air inside the pressure cooker is how it is able to transfer sufficient heat into the parts of the food that are not submerged in liquid, such as a pot roast. If the lid is sealed before enough air has been removed, not enough heat can be transferred to the food, and food may be undercooked; the presence of air would make the food cook more like it is in an oven than a pressure cooker. To remove the air, steam is vented for several minutes to replace the volume of air inside the cooker. This is why a pressure cooker takes about 10 minutes to reach pressure. For pressure cookers with a weight, the weight is placed over the steam vent pipe while steam is being emitted to ensure the air inside has escaped. The newer generation pressure cookers, which have no weights, automatically expel air from inside for several minutes before a coloured pop-up indicator pin rises to seal the lid airtight; pressure then builds in the now airtight cooker. If the pressure cooker is already hot or a stovetop pressure cooker is placed on a very strong heat source, such as induction on too high a setting, the lid can seal airtight too quickly before the air inside has been removed. In these situations, a slightly lower heat setting can be used to allow the water to boil slower in order to vent the air.
Small containers such as plastic pudding containers can be used in a pressure cooker, if the containers (and any covering used) can withstand temperatures of 130 °C (266 °F) and are not placed directly on the interior base. The containers can be used for cooking foods that are prone to burning on the base of the pressure cooker. A lid for the container may be used if the lid allows some steam to come into contact with the food and the lid is securely fitted; an example is foil or greaseproof paper, pleated in the center and tied securely with string. Containers that are cracked or have otherwise sustained damage are not suitable. Cooking time is longer when using covered containers because the food is not in direct contact with the steam. Since non-metal containers are poorer heat conductors, the type of container material stated in the recipe cannot be substituted without affecting the outcome. For example, if the recipe time is calculated using a stainless steel container and a plastic container is used instead, the recipe will be undercooked, unless the cooking time is increased. Containers with thicker sides, e.g., oven-proof glass or ceramic containers, which are slower to conduct heat, will add about 10 minutes to the cooking time. Liquid can be added inside the container when pressure cooking foods such as rice, which need to absorb liquid in order to cook properly.
The flavor of some foods, such as meat and onions, can be improved by gently cooking with a little pre-heated cooking oil, butter or other fat in the open pressure cooker over medium heat for stove-top models (unless the manufacturer advises against this) before pressure cooking, while avoiding overheating the empty pressure cooker not heating the empty cooker with the lid and gasket in place to avoid damage. Electric pressure cookers usually have a "saute" or "brown" option for frying ingredients. The pressure cooker needs to cool briefly before adding liquid; otherwise some of the liquid will evaporate instantly, possibly leaving insufficient liquid for the entire pressure cooking time; if deglazing the pan, more liquid may need to be added.
After cooking, there are three ways of releasing the pressure, either quickly or slowly, before the lid can be opened. Recipes for pressure cookers state which release method is required at the end of the cooking time for proper results. Failure to follow the recommendation may result in food that is under-cooked or over-cooked.
To avoid opening the pressure cooker too often while cooking different vegetables with varying cooking times, the vegetables that take longer to cook can be cut into smaller pieces and vegetables that cook faster can be cut into thicker pieces.
This method is sometimes called a quick release, not to be confused with the cold water release (mentioned below). It involves the quick release of vapor by gradually lifting (or removing) the valve, pushing a button, or turning a dial. It is most suitable to interrupt cooking to add food that cooks faster than what is already in the cooker. For example, since meat takes longer to cook than vegetables, it is necessary to add vegetables to stew later so that it will cook only for the last few minutes. Unlike the cold water release method, this release method does not cool down the pressure cooker. Releasing the steam with care avoids the risk of being scalded by the rapid release of hot steam. This release method is not suitable for foods that foam and froth while cooking; the hot contents might spray outwards due to the pressure released from the steam vent. Pressure cookers should be operated with caution when releasing vapour through the valve, especially while cooking foamy foods and liquids (lentils, beans, grains, milk, gravy, etc.) This release method takes about two minutes to release the pressure before the lid can be opened.
The natural release method allows the pressure to drop slowly; this is achieved by removing the pressure cooker from the heat source and allowing the pressure to lower without action. It takes approximately 10 to 15 minutes (possibly longer) for the pressure to disappear before the lid can be opened. On many pressure cookers, a coloured indicator pin will drop when the pressure has gone. This natural release method is recommended for foods that foam and froth during cooking, such as rice, legumes, or recipes with raising agents such as steamed puddings. The texture and tenderness of meat cooked in a pressure cooker can be improved by using the natural release method. The natural release method finishes cooking foods or recipes that have longer cooking times because the inside of the pressure cooker stays hot. This method is not recommended for foods that require very short cooking times, otherwise the food overcooks.
This method is the fastest way of releasing pressure with portable pressure cookers, but can be dangerous if performed incorrectly. It is therefore safer to release pressure by following the other methods. The manufacturer's instruction book may advise against the cold water release or require it to be performed differently.
The cold water release method involves using slow running cold tap water, over the edge of the pressure cooker lid, being careful to avoid the steam vent or any other valves or outlets and never immersing the pressure cooker under water, otherwise steam can be ejected from under the lid, which could cause scalding injury to the user; also the pressure cooker lid can be permanently damaged by an internal vacuum if water gets sucked into the pressure cooker, since the incoming water blocks the inrush of air.
The cold water release is most suitable for foods with short cooking times. It takes about 20 seconds for the cooker to cool down enough to lower the pressure so that it can be safely opened. This method is not suitable for electric pressure cookers, as they are not immersible. This type of pressure cooker cannot be opened with a cold water quick-release method.
The cold water release method is not recommended when cooking pulses e.g. red kidney beans, as the sudden release of pressure can cause the bean to burst its skin.
Most pressure cookers have a cooking (operating) pressure setting between 0.8-1 bar (11.6-15 psi) (gauge) so the pressure cooker operates at 1.8 to 2.0 bar (absolute). The standard cooking pressure of 15 psi gauge was determined by the United States Department of Agriculture in 1917. At this pressure, water boils at 121 °C (250 °F) (described in vapour pressure of water article).
The higher temperature causes food to cook faster; cooking times can typically be reduced to one-third of the time for conventional cooking methods. The actual cooking time also depends on the pressure release method used after timing (see Pressure release methods for details) and the thickness and density of the food, since thicker (and denser) foods take longer to cook. Meat joints and some other foods like sponge puddings and Christmas puddings are typically timed according to their weight. Frozen foods need extra cooking time to allow for thawing.
When pressure cooking at 1 bar/15 psi (gauge), approximate cooking times are one minute for shredded cabbage, seven minutes for boiled potatoes (if cut small, not diced) and three minutes for fresh green beans. If the pressure is released naturally after timing (see Pressure release methods for details), cooking times are even shorter. Food cooks more quickly when cut into smaller pieces.
Some recipes may require cooking at lower than 1 bar/15 psi (gauge) e.g. fresh vegetables, as these can easily overcook. Many pressure cookers have 2 or more selectable pressure settings or weights.
Some pressure cookers have a lower or higher maximum pressure than 1 bar/15 psi (gauge) or can be adjusted to different pressures for some recipes; cooking times will increase or decrease accordingly. This is typically done by having different regulator weights or different pressure settings. If the recipe is devised for a higher pressure and the pressure cooker does not reach that pressure, the cooking time can be increased slightly to compensate. Electric pressure cookers operate at lower pressures than stovetop pressure cookers.
Foods cook much faster with pressure cooking than with other methods (except for small quantities in microwave ovens). Food is cooked more quickly in a pressure cooker because at the higher pressure (1 bar/15 psi), the boiling point of water rises from 100 °C (212 °F) to 121 °C (250 °F). The hotter steam is able to transmit its thermal energy to the food at around 4 times the rate of conventional boiling.
Pressure cooking requires much less water than conventional boiling, so food can be ready sooner.
Less energy is required than that of boiling, steaming, or oven cooking. Since less water or liquid has to be heated, the food reaches its cooking temperature faster. Using more liquid than necessary wastes energy because it takes longer to heat up; the liquid quantity is stated in the recipe. Pressure cookers can use much less liquid than the amount required for boiling or steaming in an ordinary saucepan. It is not necessary to immerse food in water. The minimum quantity of water or liquid used in the recipe to keep the pressure cooker filled with steam is sufficient. With sealed pressure cookers, steam isn't continually escaping, thus evaporation losses are non existent once it has reached pressure. Overall, energy used by pressure cookers can be as much as 70% lower than used by cooking in a pan.
Because of this, vitamins and minerals are not leached (dissolved) away by water, as they would be if food were boiled in large amounts of water. Due to the shorter cooking time, vitamins are preserved relatively well during pressure cooking.
Several foods can be cooked together in the pressure cooker, either for the same amount of time or added later for different times. Manufacturers provide steamer baskets to allow more foods to be cooked together inside the pressure cooker.
Not only is this steam energy transmitted quickly to food, it is also transmitted rapidly to any micro-organisms that are present, easily killing even the deadliest types that are able to survive at the boiling point. Because of this enhanced germ killing ability, a pressure cooker can be used as an effective sterilizer for jam pots, glass baby bottles, or for water while camping. In fact, the autoclave, used in hospitals to sterilize surgical instruments, is really just a more precise and technical version of the ordinary pressure cooker.
An autoclave is a type of pressure cooker used by laboratories and hospitals to sterilize equipment. A stovetop autoclave is essentially a higher-pressure cooker with a gauge, used as an autoclave in poorer areas.
Large pressure cookers are often called pressure canners in the United States, because of their capacity to hold jars used in canning. Pressure canners are specifically designed for home canning, whereas ordinary pressure cookers are not recommended for canning due to the risk of botulism poisoning, because pressure canners hold heat and pressure for much longer than ordinary pressure cookers; these factors are a critical part of the total processing time required to destroy harmful microbes.
Pressure fryers are used for deep fat frying under pressure, because ordinary pressure cookers are not suitable for pressure frying.
A pressure air fryer (not to be confused with a pressure fryer) is a recent combination of a pressure cooker and an air fryer, with two separate lids, one for pressure cooking and one for air frying. The air frying lid has a convection fan in it that allows it to air fry foods, similar to an air fryer oven. This innovation was popularized by the Ninja Foodi Pressure Cooker, marketed as the first pressure cooker that can crisp and air fry.
A pressure oven is a recent combination of an oven and pressure cooker, usually as a countertop convection oven. They operate at low pressures, 10 kilopascals (1.5 psi), compared to other pressure cookers. Their main function is as an enhanced oven or broiler for meat and poultry, avoiding drying. As such, they often include a rotisserie. Although having insufficient pressure for most conventional pressure cooking functions, they do also have non-pressure oven modes.
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