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The counts also held important castles outside the territories under their administration, including their seat at Görgény (now Gurghiu in Romania). They were the supreme commanders of the Székely troops; their military campaigns against Bulgaria and the Golden Horde were mentioned in royal charters and medieval chronicles. The counts presided over the general assemblies of both the individual Székely seats and the entire Székely community. They also heard appeals of the decisions of the supreme court of Székely Land. (Full article...)
Two destroyer leaders were ordered to bombard the port in the early morning, covered by a cruiser and a destroyer. They caused some damage, but they were engaged by Axis coastal artillery and several Romanian ships. The two destroyer leaders were slightly damaged and withdrew under fire, steaming into a Romanian minefield; one of the destroyer leaders was sunk and the cruiser was damaged by the mines as they departed the area. (Full article...)
"Change" is a song recorded by Romanian group Hotel FM, released as a CD single in 2011 by Romanian Television (TVR). It was written by Alexandra Ivan and Gabriel B?ru, while production was solely handled by the latter. An uptempopop ballad containing drums, piano and violins in its instrumentation, the lyrics talk about making a positive change in the world and one's life. A reviewer compared "Change" to the music of English group Take That and singer Sean Maguire.
The track represented Romania in the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest in Düsseldorf, Germany after winning the pre-selection show Selec?ia Na?ional?. Hotel FM eventually came 17th in the contest's Grand Final, gathering a total of 77 points. During their performance, the group was joined by two female background dancers, while the LED screen showed pulsating circles and ovals. Music critics gave mixed reviews of "Change", praising its instrumentation, but criticising the song as "unspectacular" and "cheesy". The track was promoted by endeavours in several European countries, as well as by the release of an accompanying music video produced by TVR and Schneider Production. Uploaded onto YouTube on 18 March 2011, the visual features shots of various Romanian tourist attractions. (Full article...)
Left humerus of the holotype specimen in ventral (A) and distal (B) view
Unusually among giant azhdarchids, Hatzegopteryx had a very wide skull bearing large muscular attachments; bones with a spongy internal texture instead of hollow; and a short, robust, and heavily muscled neck measuring 1.5 metres (5 ft) long, which was about half the length of other azhdarchids with comparable wingspans, and was capable of withstanding strong bending forces. Hatzegopteryx inhabited Ha?eg Island, an island situated in the Cretaceous subtropics within the prehistoric Tethys Sea. In the absence of large theropods, Hatzegopteryx was likely the apex predator of Ha?eg Island, tackling proportionally larger prey (including dwarf titanosaurs and iguanodontians) than other azhdarchids. (Full article...)
In 1068, the invaders broke into Transylvania through the passes of the Carpathian Mountains. Archaeological finds suggest that they destroyed at least three fortresses made of earth and timber, including the ones at Doboka (now D?bâca in Romania) and Sajósárvár (present-day ?irioara). They also made a plundering raid in the Nyírség region, to the west of Transylvania. After taking much booty, they planned to leave Hungary, but the Hungarians ambushed and annihilated them at a hill near Doboka. According to a popular legend, a "Cuman" warrior tried to escape from the battlefield, taking a Hungarian girl, but Duke Ladislaus defeated and killed him in single combat. (Full article...)
"Dincolo de nori" (Romanian pronunciation: ['di?kolo de 'nor?]; English: "Beyond the Clouds") is a song recorded by Romanian singer Dan Bittman at the Magic Sound Production in Craiova and was released as a CD single in 1994 by Metro Records Romania. "Dincolo de nori" was written by Antonio Furtuna and Bittman and produced solely by Furtuna, featuring a bass guitar, harmonica and keyboards in its instrumentation.
Charles came to the Kingdom of Hungary upon the invitation of an influential Croatian lord, Paul ?ubi?, in August 1300. Andrew III died on 14 January 1301, and within four months Charles was crowned king, but with a provisional crown instead of the Holy Crown of Hungary. Most Hungarian noblemen refused to yield to him and elected Wenceslaus of Bohemia king. Charles withdrew to the southern regions of the kingdom. Pope Boniface VIII acknowledged Charles as the lawful king in 1303, but Charles was unable to strengthen his position against his opponent. Wenceslaus abdicated in favor of Otto of Bavaria in 1305. Because it had no central government, the Kingdom of Hungary had disintegrated into a dozen provinces, each headed by a powerful nobleman, or oligarch. One of those oligarchs, Ladislaus III Kán, captured and imprisoned Otto of Bavaria in 1307. Charles was elected king in Pest on 27 November 1308, but his rule remained nominal in most parts of his kingdom even after he was crowned with the Holy Crown on 27 August 1310. (Full article...)
The Port of Constan?a is located in Constan?a, Romania, on the western coast of the Black Sea, 179 nautical miles (332 km) from the Bosphorus Strait and 85 nmi (157 km) from the Sulina Branch, through which the Danube river flows into the sea. It covers 3,926 ha (9,700 acres), of which 1,313 ha (3,240 acres) is land and the rest, 2,613 ha (6,460 acres) is water. The two breakwaters located northwards and southwards shelter the port, creating the safest conditions for port activities. The present length of the north breakwater is 8,344 m (5.185 mi) and the south breakwater is 5,560 m (3.45 mi). The Port of Constan?a is the largest on the Black Sea and the 17th largest in Europe.
The favourable geographical position and the importance of the Port of Constan?a is emphasized by the connection with two Pan-European transport corridors: IV (high speed railway&highway) and the Pan-European Corridor VII (Danube). The two satellite ports, Midia and Mangalia, located not far from Constan?a Port, are part of the Romanian maritime port system under the coordination of the Maritime Ports Administration SA. (Full article...)
Peony during an interview in 2019
Ester Alexandra Cre?u (['ester alek'sandra 'kret?su], born 21 July 1993), known professionally as Ester Peony (formerly only Ester), is a Romanian singer and songwriter. She represented Romania in the Eurovision Song Contest 2019 with the song "On a Sunday" after winning the selection show Selec?ia Na?ional? 2019. However, she failed to qualify for the Grand Final in Tel Aviv. Peony started to compose music for Romanian artists before gaining recognition for posting covers on YouTube in 2015. Later that year, she attained commercial success in Romania with her single "Sub aripa ta" featuring Vescan. (Full article...)
"Cliché (Hush Hush)" is a song recorded by Romanian recording artist Alexandra Stan for her Japan-only reissue of the same name (2013). Written and produced by Marcel Prodan and Andrei Nemirschi, it was released for digital download on 3 October 2012 through MediaPro. Described as a dance-pop track that features eurodance elements into its sound, "Cliché (Hush Hush)" discusses different themes of love. An accompanying music video for the single was posted onto YouTube on 27 September 2012, being filmed by Iulian Moga at Palatul Snagov. It was generally praised by music critics, with Los 40 Principales citing it under their list of Stan's best clips. Particularly, a scene of the video was compared to vampire movies for teenagers, while another one to 1970s film works. The track peaked at number 91 in native Romania, as well as at numbers 11 and 28 in Japan and Italy, respectively. It was promoted by several live performances, including a tour throughout the United States and an appearance at French music event Starlooor 2012. (Full article...)
Prior to Eurovision, "Let Me Try" was promoted by a music video and coverage in press, among other endeavours by TVR. Romania reached first place in the contest's semi-final with 235 points. This resulted in its qualification for the Grand Final, where it achieved third place with 158 points. This remains the country's best result in the contest, alongside 2010's entry. During Romania's show, Anghel performed to the song in front of Sistem, who contributed to the track's instrumentation by drumming on oil barrels and using side cutters and a grinding wheel. Following Eurovision, "Let Me Try" achieved commercial success in Romania, peaking at number nine on the Romanian Top 100. In addition, Anghel's participation in the contest led to record deal proposals from various countries including the Netherlands, Hungary, Germany and England. (Full article...)
C?ile Ferate Române (Romanian pronunciation: ['k?.ile fe'rate ro'm?ne]; abbreviated as the CFR) is the state railway carrier of Romania. As of 2014, the railway network of Romania consists of 10,777 km (6,697 mi), of which 4,029 km (2,504 mi) (37.4%) are electrified. The total track length is 22,247 km (13,824 mi), of which 8,585 km (5,334 mi) (38.5%) are electrified. The CIA World Factbook lists Romania with the 23rd largest railway network in the world. The network is significantly interconnected with other European railway networks, providing pan-European passenger and freight services. CFR as an entity has been operating since 1880, even though the first railway on current Romanian territory was opened in 1854. CFR is divided into four autonomous companies:
He was the second son of Vlad Dracul, who became the ruler of Wallachia in 1436. Vlad and his younger brother, Radu, were held as hostages in the Ottoman Empire in 1442 to secure their father's loyalty. Vlad's father and eldest brother, Mircea, were murdered after John Hunyadi, regent-governor of Hungary, invaded Wallachia in 1447. Hunyadi installed Vlad's second cousin, VladislavII, as the new voivode. Hunyadi launched a military campaign against the Ottomans in the autumn of 1448, and Vladislav accompanied him. Vlad broke into Wallachia with Ottoman support in October, but Vladislav returned and Vlad sought refuge in the Ottoman Empire before the end of the year. Vlad went to Moldavia in 1449 or 1450, and later to Hungary. (Full article...)
Image 62Romanian territory during the 20th century: purple indicates the Old Kingdom before 1913, orange indicates Greater Romania areas that joined or were annexed after the Second Balkan War and WWI but were lost after WWII, and pink indicates areas that joined Romania after WWI and remained so after WWII. (from History of Romania)
Image 63Map of Europe in 1648 showing Transylvania and the two Romanian principalities: Wallachia and Moldavia (from History of Romania)