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Mexico (Spanish: México ['mexiko] ; Nahuan languages: M?xihco), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos; EUM [es'taðos u'niðoz mexi'kanos] , lit. 'Mexican United States'), is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States; to the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; to the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and to the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Mexico covers 1,972,550 square kilometers (761,610 sq mi), making it the world's 13th-largest country by area; with approximately 126,014,024 inhabitants, it is the 10th-most-populous country and has the most Spanish-speakers. Mexico is organized as a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, its capital and largest metropolis. Other major urban areas include Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Toluca, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and León.
Pre-Columbian Mexico traces its origins to 8,000 BC and is identified as one of the six cradles of civilization; it was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations, most notably the Maya and the Aztecs. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the region from its base in Mexico City, establishing the colony of New Spain. The Catholic Church played an important role in spreading Christianity and the Spanish language, while also preserving some indigenous elements. Native populations were subjugated and heavily exploited to mine rich deposits of precious metals, which contributed to Spain's status as a major world power for the next three centuries, and to a massive influx of wealth and a price revolution in Western Europe. Over time, a distinct Mexican identity formed, based on a fusion of European and indigenous customs; this contributed to the successful Mexican War of Independence against Spain in 1821. (Full article...)
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Pinguicula moranensis is a perennial rosette-forming insectivorous herb native to Mexico and Guatemala. A species of butterwort, it forms summer rosettes of flat, succulent leaves up to 10 centimeters (4 in) long, which are covered in mucilaginous (sticky) glands that attract, trap, and digest arthropod prey. Nutrients derived from the prey are used to supplement the nutrient-poor substrate that the plant grows in. In the winter the plant forms a non-carnivorous rosette of small, fleshy leaves that conserves energy while food and moisture supplies are low. Single pink, purple, or violet flowers appear twice a year on upright stalks up to 25 centimeters long.
The species was first collected by Humboldt
on the outskirts of Mina de Morán in the Sierra de Pachuca
of the modern-day Mexican state of Hidalgo
on their Latin American expedition
of 1799-1804. Based on these collections, Humboldt, Bonpland and Carl Sigismund Kunth
described this species in Nova Genera et Species Plantarum
in 1817. The extremely variable species has been redefined at least twice since, while several new species have been segregated from it based on various geographical or morphological
distinctions, although the legitimacy of some of these is still debated. P. moranensis
remains the most common and most widely distributed member of the Section Orcheosanthus
. It has long been cultivated for its carnivorous nature and attractive flowers, and is one of the most common butterworts
in cultivation. (Full article...
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Guadalajara ( GWAH-d?-l?-HAR-?, Spanish: [?waðala'xa?a] ) is a metropolis in western Mexico and the capital of the state of Jalisco. According to the 2020 census, the city has a population of 1,385,629, while the Guadalajara metropolitan area has a population of 5,268,642, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in the country. Guadalajara has the second highest population density in Mexico, with over 10,361 people per square kilometer. Guadalajara is an international center of business, finance, arts, and culture, as well as the economic center of the Bajío region, one of the most productive and developed regions in Latin America.
Guadalajara is the eleventh largest metropolitan area in Latin America
and a major Latin American tech hub
and financial center
. It is one of the most productive and globally competitive cities in the world. The city is an important center for science
, and tourism
in Mexico. It is home to numerous landmarks, including Guadalajara Cathedral
, the Teatro Degollado
, the Templo Expiatorio
, the Hospicio Cabañas
, and the San Juan de Dios Market
--the largest indoor market
in Latin America. (Full article...
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This is a Good article, an article that meets a core set of high editorial standards.
Mexico City Cathedral, with the Metropolitan Tabernacle to the right.
The Metropolitan Cathedral of the Assumption of the Most Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven (Spanish: Catedral Metropolitana de la Asunción de la Santísima Virgen María a los cielos) is the cathedral church of the Catholic Archdiocese of Mexico. It is situated atop the former Aztec sacred precinct near the Templo Mayor on the northern side of the Plaza de la Constitución (Zócalo) in Downtown Mexico City. The cathedral was built in sections from 1573 to 1813 around the original church that was constructed soon after the Spanish conquest of Tenochtitlan, eventually replacing it entirely. Spanish architect Claudio de Arciniega planned the construction, drawing inspiration from Gothic cathedrals in Spain.
Due to the long time it took to build it, just under 250 years, virtually all the main architects, painters, sculptors, gilding masters and other plastic artists of the viceroyalty
worked at some point in the construction of the enclosure. The long construction time also led to the integration of a number of architectural styles in its design, including the Gothic
styles, as they came into vogue over the centuries. It furthermore allowed the cathedral to include different ornaments, paintings, sculptures and furniture in its interior. The project was a point of social cohesion, because it involved so many generations and social classes, including ecclesiastical authorities, government authorities, and different religious orders. (Full article...
Selected biography -
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (Spanish pronunciation: ['dje?o ri'?e?a]; December 8, 1886 - November 24, 1957), was a prominent Mexican painter. His large frescoes helped establish the mural movement in Mexican and international art.
Between 1922 and 1953, Rivera painted murals
in, among other places, Mexico City
, and Cuernavaca
, Mexico; and San Francisco
, and New York City
, United States. In 1931, a retrospective exhibition of his works was held at the Museum of Modern Art
in New York; this was before he completed his 27-mural series known as Detroit Industry Murals.
In the news
- 19 September 2021 - Mexico-United States border crisis
- The United States closes the Mexico-US border near the Texas city of Del Rio after thousands of Haitian migrants arrived at the International Bridge near the city. The U.S. will also begin flying the migrants back to Haiti. (AP)
- 14 September 2021 - Mexican drug war
- A Mexican court sentences Vicente Carrillo Fuentes, a former leader of the Juárez drug cartel, to 28 years in prison on the charges of organized crime and drug trafficking. (AFP via RFI)
- 10 September 2021 - 2021 Guerrero earthquake
- A landslide occurs at Tlalnepantla, State of Mexico, on the hill known as Cerro del Chiquihuite, killing one person and leaving three more missing. It is said that the landslide was triggered by the earthquake in Guerrero three days earlier, which weakened soil conditions on the hill. (U.S. News & World Report) (ABC News)
- 7 September 2021 - 2021 Guerrero earthquake
- A 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck just outside the tourist city of Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico, killing at least one person and leaving more than 1.6 million without electricity. (Reuters) (The Guardian)
- 7 September 2021 - Abortion in Mexico
- In a unanimous vote, the Mexican Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation rules that criminalizing abortion is unconstitutional, setting a precedent for the legalization of abortion. (The New York Times)
- 6 September 2021 -
- Mexico City Mayor Claudia Sheinbaum announces that the historic Monument to Christopher Columbus in Paseo de la Reforma will be permanently replaced by a statue of a woman from the indigenous Olmec civilization. Sheinbaum says that the move is not an attempt to "erase history" but to instead deliver "social justice". The Columbus statue is reportedly being moved to a small park in the Polanco neighborhood. (BBC) (USA Today)
Selected fare or cuisine -
The following are images from various Mexico-related articles on Wikipedia.
Battle of Celaya (1915), earning him the nickname of Manco de Celaya ("the one-armed man of Celaya"). (from History of Mexico)
President Obregón. Note that he lost his right arm in the
La Constitución ha muerto). (from History of Mexico)
1903. Slogan on the protest banner reads: "The Constitution has died" (
History of Mexico)
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz by Friar Miguel de Herrera (1700-1789) (from
Kukulkan sits atop this pyramid with a total of 365 stairs on its four sides. At the spring and fall equinoxes, the sun casts a shadow in the shape of a serpent along the northern staircase. (from History of Mexico)
The Castillo, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800-900 CE. A temple to
Teotihuacan view of the Avenue of the Dead and the Pyramid of the Sun, from the Pyramid of the Moon. At its peak around 600 CE, Teotihuacan was the sixth-largest city in the world. It featured a rational grid plan and a two-mile-long main avenue. Its monumental pyramids echo the shapes of surrounding mountains. (from History of Mexico)
History of Mexico)
Goddess, mural painting from the Tetitla apartment complex at Teotihuacan, Mexico, 650-750 CE. Pigments over clay and plaster. Elaborate mural paintings adorned Teotihuacan's elite residential compound. This example may depict the city's principal deity, a goddess wearing a jade mask and a large feathered headdress. (from
Chacmool, Maya, from the Platform of the Eagles, Chichen Itza, Mexico, ca. 800-90 CE. Stone, 4' 10.5" high. National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico city. Chacmools represent fallen warriors reclining on their backs with receptacles on their chests to receive sacrificial offerings. Excavators discovered one in the burial chamber inside the Castilloyo (from History of Mexico)
Nacional Financiera (NAFIN), the state development bank. (from History of Mexico)
Moctezuma Xocoyotzin was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico, when Conquistador Hernán Cortés and his men fought to escape from the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan.
History of Mexico)
Flag and coat of arms of the Mexican Empire superimposed a map of its territorial limits. Note the crown on the eagle. (from
Lady Xoc, Maya, lintel 24 of temple 23, Yaxchilan, Mexico, ca. 725 ce. Limestone, 3'7" × 2' 6.5". British Museum, London. The Maya built vast complexes of temples, palaces, and plazas and decorated many with painted reliefs. (from History of Mexico)
Shield Jaguar and
Partido Nacional Revolucionario, with the colors of the Mexican flag (from History of Mexico)
Logo of the
History of Mexico)
1890 perhaps the streets of no other city present so diversified a picture as those of the city of Mexico. Every variety of costume, civil and religious, Indian and European, of the city and country, is intermingled in the crowd. (from
Ixmiquilpan occurred on September 25, 1866. between 350 soldiers of the Belgian Legion and Juarista forces, ending the battle with the victory of the latter. (from History of Mexico)
T'ah 'ak' Cha'an. (from History of Mexico)
Panel 3 from Cancuen, Guatemala, representing king
Tabasco (from History of Mexico)
Battle of Centla, first time a horse was use in battle in a war in the Americas. Mural in the Palacio Municipal of Paraíso,
History of Mexico)
Rebel soldiers moving by rail during the Mexican Revolution. (from
History of Mexico)
Comanchería, territory controlled by the Comaches, prior to 1850. (from
Olmec colossal are uncertain, but their individualized features and distinctive headgear, as well as later Maya practice, suggest that these heads portray rulers rather than deities. (from History of Mexico)
The identities of the
Tula portraying warriors armed with darts and spear-throwers reflect the military regime of the Toltecs, whose arrival in central Mexico coincided with the decline of the Maya. (from History of Mexico)
Colossal atlantids, pyramid B, Toltec, Tula, Mexico, ca. 900-1180 CE. Stone, each 16' high. The colossal statue-columns of
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