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The Hungary Portal

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Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország ['mrorsa:?] ) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres (35,920 sq mi) of the Carpathian Basin, it is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Romania to the east and southeast, Serbia to the south, Croatia and Slovenia to the southwest, and Austria to the west. Hungary has a population of 10 million, mostly ethnic Hungarians and a significant Romani minority. Hungarian, the official language, is the world's most widely spoken Uralic language, and among the few non-Indo-European languages widely spoken in Europe. Budapest is the country's capital and largest city; other major urban areas include Debrecen, Szeged, Miskolc, Pécs, and Gy?r.

The territory of present-day Hungary has for centuries been a crossroads for various peoples, including Celts, Romans, Germanic tribes, Huns, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century AD with the conquest of the Carpathian Basin by Hungarian grand prince Árpád. His great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, it was partially occupied by the Ottoman Empire (1541-1699). Hungary came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, later joining with the Austrian Empire to form Austria-Hungary, a major power into the early 20th century.

Austria-Hungary collapsed after World War I, and the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, and 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Postwar Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, leading to the establishment of the Hungarian People's Republic. Following the failed 1956 revolution, Hungary became a comparatively freer, though still repressive, member of the Eastern Bloc. The removal of Hungary's border fence with Austria accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, and subsequently the Soviet Union. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007.

Hungary is a middle power in international affairs, owing mostly to its cultural and economic influence. It has a high-income economy and ranks "very high" in the Human Development Index, with citizens enjoying universal health care and tuition-free secondary education. Hungary has a long history of significant contributions to arts, music, literature, sports, science and technology. It is the thirteenth-most popular tourist destination in Europe, drawing 15.8 million international tourists in 2017. It is a member of numerous international organisations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, IIB, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, and the Visegrád Group. (Full article...)

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Kertész in New York, 1982

André Kertész (French: [kt?s]; 2 July 1894 - 28 September 1985), born Andor Kertész, was a Hungarian-born photographer known for his groundbreaking contributions to photographic composition and the photo essay. In the early years of his career, his then-unorthodox camera angles and style prevented his work from gaining wider recognition. Kertész never felt that he had gained the worldwide recognition he deserved. Today he is considered one of the seminal figures of photojournalism.

Expected by his family to work as a stockbroker, Kertész pursued photography independently as an autodidact, and his early work was published primarily in magazines, a major market in those years. This continued until much later in his life, when Kertész stopped accepting commissions. He served briefly in World War I and moved to Paris in 1925, then the artistic capital of the world, against the wishes of his family. In Paris he worked for France's first illustrated magazine called VU. Involved with many young immigrant artists and the Dada movement, he achieved critical and commercial success. (Full article...)

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HUN Szeged Címer.svg

Szeged ( SEG-ed, Hungarian: ['sd] ; see also other alternative names) is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád-Csanád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most distinguished universities in Hungary.

The Szeged Open Air (Theatre) Festival (first held in 1931) is one of the main attractions, held every summer and celebrated as the Day of the City on 21 May. (Full article...)


  • Musicians

Béla Bartók - János Bihari - Ern? Dohnányi - Béni Egressy - Ferenc Erkel - Zoltán Kocsis - Zoltán Kodály - Franz Liszt - Eugene Ormandy - George Szell - András Schiff

  • Painters

Gyula Benczúr - Tivadar Csontváry Kosztka - Béla Czóbel - Árpád Feszty - Károly Lotz - Viktor Madarász - Mihály Munkácsy - József Rippl-Rónai - Pál Szinyei Merse - István Sz?nyi - Victor Vasarely

  • Photographers

Brassaï - Cornell Capa - Robert Capa - Lucien Hervé - André Kertész - László Moholy-Nagy - Martin Munkácsi

  • Scientists

Béla H. Bánáthy - Zoltán Bay - Georg von Békésy - Farkas Bolyai - János Bolyai - Károly Bund - József Eötvös - Loránd Eötvös - Dennis Gabor - John Charles Harsanyi - George de Hevesy - Alexander Csoma de K?rös - László Lovász - John von Neumann - George Andrew Olah - Ern? Rubik - Hans Selye - Ignaz Semmelweis - Charles Simonyi - János Szentágothai - Albert Szent-Györgyi - Leó Szilárd - Edward Teller - Eugene Wigner

  • Writers and poets

Endre Ady - János Arany - József Eötvös - György Faludy - Béla Hamvas - Mór Jókai - Attila József - Ferenc Kazinczy - Imre Kertész - János Kodolányi - Ferenc Kölcsey - Imre Madách - Sándor Márai - Ferenc Molnár - Sándor Pet?fi - Miklós Radnóti - Magda Szabó - Antal Szerb - Miklós Vámos - Mihály Vörösmarty

  • Statesmen, Politicians and Military

Gyula Andrássy - Lajos Batthyány - Gabriel Bethlen - Stephen Bocskay - Matthias Corvinus - Ferenc Deák - Miklós Horthy - Lajos Kossuth - Ferenc Nagy - Imre Nagy - Bertalan Szemere - István Széchenyi - Miklós Wesselényi - Vilmos Nagy of Nagybaczon

  • Sportspeople

József Bozsik - Krisztina Egerszegi - Zoltán Gera - Dezs? Gyarmati - Ágnes Keleti - Péter Lékó - Csaba Mér? - Tibor Nyilasi - László Papp - Judit Polgár - Zsuzsa Polgár - Ferenc Puskás

  • Film & Stage

Nimród Antal - Michael Curtiz - John Garfield - Miklós Jancsó - Sir Alexander Korda - Peter Lorre - Béla Lugosi - Emeric Pressburger - Miklós Rózsa - Andy G. Vajna - Gábor Zsazsa

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The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, also Hungarian conquest or Hungarian land-taking (Hungarian: honfoglalás: "conquest of the homeland"), was a series of historical events ending with the settlement of the Hungarians in Central Europe at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. Before the arrival of the Hungarians, three early medieval powers, the First Bulgarian Empire, East Francia and Moravia, had fought each other for control of the Carpathian Basin. They occasionally hired Hungarian horsemen as soldiers. Therefore, the Hungarians who dwelt on the Pontic steppes east of the Carpathians were familiar with their future homeland when their "land-taking" started.

The Hungarian conquest started in the context of a "late or 'small' migration of peoples". Contemporary sources attest that the Hungarians crossed the Carpathian Mountains following a joint attack in 894 or 895 by the Pechenegs and Bulgarians against them. They first took control over the lowlands east of the river Danube and attacked and occupied Pannonia (the region to the west of the river) in 900. They exploited internal conflicts in Moravia and annihilated this state sometime between 902 and 906. (Full article...)

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