Get Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon essential facts below. View Videos or join the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon discussion. Add Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon
Hydrocarbon composed of multiple aromatic rings
Three representations of hexabenzocoronene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. Top: standard line-angle schematic, where carbon atoms are represented by the vertices of the hexagons and hydrogen atoms are inferred. Middle: ball-and-stick model showing all carbon and hydrogen atoms. Bottom: atomic force microscopy image.
PAHs are uncharged, non-polar molecules, with distinctive properties due in part to the delocalizedelectrons in their aromatic rings. Many of them are found in coal and in oil deposits, and are also produced by the thermal decomposition of organic matter--for example, in engines and incinerators or when biomass burns in forest fires.
In some PAHs, like naphthalene, anthracene, and coronene, all carbon and hydrogen atoms lie on the same plane. This geometry is a consequence of the fact that the ?-bonds that result from the merger of sp2hybrid orbitals of adjacent carbons lie on the same plane as the carbon atom. Those compounds are achiral, since the plane of the molecule is a symmetry plane.
However, some other PAHs are not planar. In some cases, the non-planarity may be forced by the topology of the molecule and the stiffness (in length and angle) of the carbon-carbon bonds. For example, unlike coronene, corannulene adopts a bowl shape in order to reduce the bond stress. The two possible configurations, concave and convex, are separated by a relatively lowenergy barrier (about 11 kcal/mol)
In theory, there are 51 structural isomers of coronene that have six fused benzene rings in a cyclic sequence, with two edge carbons shared between successive rings. All of them must be non-planar and have considerable higher bonding energy (computed to be at least 130 kcal/mol) than coronene; and, as of 2002, none of them had been synthesized.
Other PAHs that might seem to be planar, considering only the carbon skeleton, may be distorted by repulsion or steric hindrance between the hydrogen atoms in their periphery. Benzo[c]phenantrene, with four rings fused in a "C" shape, has a slight helical distortion due to repulsion between the closest pair of hydrogen atoms in the two extremal rings. This effect also causes distortion of picene.
Adding another benzene ring to form dibenzo[c,g]phenantrene creates steric hindrance between the two extreme hydrogen atoms. Adding two more rings on the same sense yields heptahelicene in which the two extreme rings overlap. These non-planar forms are chiral, and their enantiomers can be isolated.
The benzenoid hydrocarbons have been defined as condensed polycyclic unsaturated fully-conjugated hydrocarbons whose molecules are essentially planar with all rings six-membered. Full conjugation means that all carbon atoms and carbon-carbon bonds must have the sp2 structure of benzene. This class is largely a subset of the alternant PAHs, but is considered to include unstable or hypothetical compounds like triangulene or heptacene.
As of 2012, over 300 benzenoid hydrocarbons had been isolated and characterized.
Benzene-substructure resonance analysis for Clar's rule
For example, phenanthrene has two Clar structures: one with just one aromatic sextet (the middle ring), and the other with two (the first and third rings). The latter case is therefore the more characteristic electronic nature of the two. Therefore, in this molecule the outer rings have greater aromatic character whereas the central ring is less aromatic and therefore more reactive. In contrast, in anthracene the resonance structures have one sextet each, which can be at any of the three rings, and the aromaticity spreads out more evenly across the whole molecule. This difference in number of sextets is reflected in the differing ultraviolet-visible spectra of these two isomers, as higher Clar pi-sextets are associated with larger HOMO-LUMO gaps; the highest-wavelength absorbance of phenanthrene is at 293 nm, while anthracene is at 374 nm. Three Clar structures with two sextets each are present in the four-ring chrysene structure: one having sextets in the first and third rings, one in the second and fourth rings, and one in the first and fourth rings. Superposition of these structures reveals that the aromaticity in the outer rings is greater (each has a sextet in two of the three Clar structures) compared to the inner rings (each has a sextet in only one of the three).
Polycyclic aromatic compounds characteristically yield radicalanions upon treatment with alkali metals. The large PAH form dianions as well. The redox potential correlates with the size of the PAH.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily found in natural sources such as bitumen.
PAHs can also be produced geologically when organic sediments are chemically transformed into fossil fuels such as oil and coal. The rare minerals idrialite, curtisite, and carpathite consist almost entirely of PAHs that originated from such sediments, that were extracted, processed, separated, and deposited by very hot fluids.
PAHs may result from the incomplete combustion of organic matter in natural wildfires . Substantially higher outdoor air, soil, and water concentrations of PAHs have been measured in Asia, Africa, and Latin America than in Europe, Australia, the U.S., and Canada.
High levels of such pyrogenetic PAHs have been detected in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, more than 100 times the level in adjacent layers. The spike was attributed to massive fires that consumed about 20% of the terrestrial above-ground biomass in a very short time.
PAHs are prevalent in the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies in both the nearby and distant Universe and make up a dominant emission mechanism in the mid-infrared wavelength range, containing as much as 10% of the total integrated infrared luminosity of galaxies. PAHs generally trace regions of cold molecular gas, which are optimum environments for the formation of stars.
NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope includes instruments for obtaining both images and spectra of light emitted by PAHs associated with star formation. These images can trace the surface of star-forming clouds in our own galaxy or identify star forming galaxies in the distant universe.
Certain PAHs such as perylene can also be generated in anaerobic sediments from existing organic material, although it remains undetermined whether abiotic or microbial processes drive their production.
The dominant sources of PAHs in the environment are thus from human activity: wood-burning and combustion of other biofuels such as dung or crop residues contribute more than half of annual global PAH emissions, particularly due to biofuel use in India and China. As of 2004, industrial processes and the extraction and use of fossil fuels made up slightly more than one quarter of global PAH emissions, dominating outputs in industrial countries such as the United States.
Lower-temperature combustion, such as tobacco smoking or wood-burning, tends to generate low molecular weight PAHs, whereas high-temperature industrial processes typically generate PAHs with higher molecular weights.
PAHs are typically found as complex mixtures.
Two-ringed PAHs, and to a lesser extent three-ringed PAHs, dissolve in water, making them more available for biological uptake and degradation. Further, two- to four-ringed PAHs volatilize sufficiently to appear in the atmosphere predominantly in gaseous form, although the physical state of four-ring PAHs can depend on temperature. In contrast, compounds with five or more rings have low solubility in water and low volatility; they are therefore predominantly in solid state, bound to particulateair pollution, soils, or sediments. In solid state, these compounds are less accessible for biological uptake or degradation, increasing their persistence in the environment.
Human exposure varies across the globe and depends on factors such as smoking rates, fuel types in cooking, and pollution controls on power plants, industrial processes, and vehicles. Developed countries with stricter air and water pollution controls, cleaner sources of cooking (i.e., gas and electricity vs. coal or biofuels), and prohibitions of public smoking tend to have lower levels of PAH exposure, while developing and undeveloped countries tend to have higher levels.
Surgical smoke plume have been proven to contain PAHs in several independent research studies.
A wood-burning open-air cooking stove. Smoke from solid fuels like wood is a large source of PAHs globally.
Burning solid fuels such as coal and biofuels in the home for cooking and heating is a dominant global source of PAH emissions that in developing countries leads to high levels of exposure to indoor particulate air pollution containing PAHs, particularly for women and children who spend more time in the home or cooking.
In industrial countries, people who smoke tobacco products, or who are exposed to second-hand smoke, are among the most highly exposed groups; tobacco smoke contributes to 90% of indoor PAH levels in the homes of smokers. For the general population in developed countries, the diet is otherwise the dominant source of PAH exposure, particularly from smoking or grilling meat or consuming PAHs deposited on plant foods, especially broad-leafed vegetables, during growth. PAHs are typically at low concentrations in drinking water.
Smog in Cairo. Particulate air pollution, including smog, is a substantial cause of human exposure to PAHs.
Emissions from vehicles such as cars and trucks can be a substantial outdoor source of PAHs in particulate air pollution. Geographically, major roadways are thus sources of PAHs, which may distribute in the atmosphere or deposit nearby.Catalytic converters are estimated to reduce PAH emissions from gasoline-fired vehicles by 25-fold.
Two- and three-ringed PAHs can disperse widely while dissolved in water or as gases in the atmosphere, while PAHs with higher molecular weights can disperse locally or regionally adhered to particulate matter that is suspended in air or water until the particles land or settle out of the water column. PAHs have a strong affinity for organic carbon, and thus highly organic sediments in rivers, lakes, and the ocean can be a substantial sink for PAHs.
PAHs transform slowly to a wide range of degradation products. Biological degradation by microbes is a dominant form of PAH transformation in the environment.Soil-consuming invertebrates such as earthworms speed PAH degradation, either through direct metabolism or by improving the conditions for microbial transformations. Abiotic degradation in the atmosphere and the top layers of surface waters can produce nitrogenated, halogenated, hydroxylated, and oxygenated PAHs; some of these compounds can be more toxic, water-soluble, and mobile than their parent PAHs.
The British Geological Survey reported the amount and distribution of PAH compounds including parent and alkylated forms in urban soils at 76 locations in Greater London. The study showed that parent (16 PAH) content ranged from 4 to 67 mg/kg (dry soil weight) and an average PAH concentration of 18 mg/kg (dry soil weight) whereas the total PAH content (33 PAH) ranged from 6 to 88 mg/kg and fluoranthene and pyrene were generally the most abundant PAHs.Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most toxic of the parent PAHs, is widely considered a key marker PAH for environmental assessments; the normal background concentration of BaP in the London urban sites was 6.9 mg/kg (dry soil weight).London soils contained more stable four- to six-ringed PAHs which were indicative of combustion and pyrolytic sources, such as coal and oil burning and traffic-sourced particulates. However, the overall distribution also suggested that the PAHs in London soils had undergone weathering and been modified by a variety of pre-and post-depositional processes such as volatilization and microbial biodegradation.
Managed burning of moorland vegetation in the UK has been shown to generate PAHs which become incorporated into the peat surface. Burning of moorland vegetation such as heather initially generates high amounts of two- and three-ringed PAHs relative to four- to six-ringed PAHs in surface sediments, however, this pattern is reversed as the lower molecular weight PAHs are attenuated by biotic decay and photodegradation. Evaluation of the PAH distributions using statistical methods such as principal component analyses (PCA) enabled the study to link the source (burnt moorland) to pathway (suspended stream sediment) to the depositional sink (reservoir bed).
Rivers, estuarine and coastal sediments
Concentrations of PAHs in river and estuarine sediments vary according to a variety of factors including proximity to municipal and industrial discharge points, wind direction and distance from major urban roadways, as well as tidal regime which controls the diluting effect of generally cleaner marine sediments relative to freshwater discharge. Consequently, the concentrations of pollutants in estuaries tends to decrease at the river mouth. Understanding of sediment hosted PAHs in estuaries is important for the protection of commercial fisheries (such as mussels) and general environmental habitat conservation because PAHs can impact the health of suspension and sediment feeding organism. River-estuary surface sediments in the UK tend to have a lower PAH content than sediments buried 10-60 cm from the surface reflecting lower present day industrial activity combined with improvement in environmental legislation of PAH. Typical PAH concentrations in UK estuaries range from about 19 to 16,163 µg/kg (dry sediment weight) in the River Clyde and 626 to 3,766 µg/kg in the River Mersey. In general estuarine sediments with a higher natural total organic carbon content (TOC) tend to accumulate PAHs due to high sorption capacity of organic matter. A similar correspondence between PAHs and TOC has also been observed in the sediments of tropical mangroves located on the coast of southern China.
Cancer is a primary human health risk of exposure to PAHs. Exposure to PAHs has also been linked with cardiovascular disease and poor fetal development.
In 1922, Ernest Kennaway determined that the carcinogenic component of coal tar mixtures was an organic compound consisting of only carbon and hydrogen. This component was later linked to a characteristic fluorescent pattern that was similar but not identical to benz[a]anthracene, a PAH that was subsequently demonstrated to cause tumors. Cook, Hewett and Hieger then linked the specific spectroscopic fluorescent profile of benzo[a]pyrene to that of the carcinogenic component of coal tar, the first time that a specific compound from an environmental mixture (coal tar) was demonstrated to be carcinogenic.
The structure of a PAH influences whether and how the individual compound is carcinogenic. Some carcinogenic PAHs are genotoxic and induce mutations that initiate cancer; others are not genotoxic and instead affect cancer promotion or progression.
PAHs that affect cancer initiation are typically first chemically modified by enzymes into metabolites that react with DNA, leading to mutations. When the DNA sequence is altered in genes that regulate cell replication, cancer can result. Mutagenic PAHs, such as benzo[a]pyrene, usually have four or more aromatic rings as well as a "bay region", a structural pocket that increases reactivity of the molecule to the metabolizing enzymes. Mutagenic metabolites of PAHs include diol epoxides, quinones, and radical PAH cations. These metabolites can bind to DNA at specific sites, forming bulky complexes called DNA adducts that can be stable or unstable. Stable adducts may lead to DNA replication errors, while unstable adducts react with the DNA strand, removing a purine base (either adenine or guanine). Such mutations, if they are not repaired, can transform genes encoding for normal cell signaling proteins into cancer-causing oncogenes. Quinones can also repeatedly generate reactive oxygen species that may independently damage DNA.
Enzymes in the cytochrome family (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1) metabolize PAHs to diol epoxides. PAH exposure can increase production of the cytochrome enzymes, allowing the enzymes to convert PAHs into mutagenic diol epoxides at greater rates. In this pathway, PAH molecules bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and activate it as a transcription factor that increases production of the cytochrome enzymes. The activity of these enzymes may at times conversely protect against PAH toxicity, which is not yet well understood.
Low molecular weight PAHs, with two to four aromatic hydrocarbon rings, are more potent as co-carcinogens during the promotional stage of cancer. In this stage, an initiated cell (a cell that has retained a carcinogenic mutation in a key gene related to cell replication) is removed from growth-suppressing signals from its neighboring cells and begins to clonally replicate. Low-molecular-weight PAHs that have bay or bay-like regions can dysregulate gap junction channels, interfering with intercellular communication, and also affect mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate transcription factors involved in cell proliferation. Closure of gap junction protein channels is a normal precursor to cell division. Excessive closure of these channels after exposure to PAHs results in removing a cell from the normal growth-regulating signals imposed by its local community of cells, thus allowing initiated cancerous cells to replicate. These PAHs do not need to be enzymatically metabolized first. Low molecular weight PAHs are prevalent in the environment, thus posing a significant risk to human health at the promotional phases of cancer.
In laboratory experiments, animals exposed to certain PAHs have shown increased development of plaques (atherogenesis) within arteries. Potential mechanisms for the pathogenesis and development of atherosclerotic plaques may be similar to the mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic and mutagenic properties of PAHs. A leading hypothesis is that PAHs may activate the cytochrome enzyme CYP1B1 in vascular smooth muscle cells. This enzyme then metabolically processes the PAHs to quinone metabolites that bind to DNA in reactive adducts that remove purine bases. The resulting mutations may contribute to unregulated growth of vascular smooth muscle cells or to their migration to the inside of the artery, which are steps in plaque formation. These quinone metabolites also generate reactive oxygen species that may alter the activity of genes that affect plaque formation.
Oxidative stress following PAH exposure could also result in cardiovascular disease by causing inflammation, which has been recognized as an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.Biomarkers of exposure to PAHs in humans have been associated with inflammatory biomarkers that are recognized as important predictors of cardiovascular disease, suggesting that oxidative stress resulting from exposure to PAHs may be a mechanism of cardiovascular disease in humans.
Multiple epidemiological studies of people living in Europe, the United States, and China have linked in utero exposure to PAHs, through air pollution or parental occupational exposure, with poor fetal growth, reduced immune function, and poorer neurological development, including lower IQ.
PAHs possess very characteristic UV absorbance spectra. These often possess many absorbance bands and are unique for each ring structure. Thus, for a set of isomers, each isomer has a different UV absorbance spectrum than the others. This is particularly useful in the identification of PAHs. Most PAHs are also fluorescent, emitting characteristic wavelengths of light when they are excited (when the molecules absorb light). The extended pi-electron electronic structures of PAHs lead to these spectra, as well as to certain large PAHs also exhibiting semi-conducting and other behaviors.
PAHs may be abundant in the universe. They seem to have been formed as early as a couple of billion years after the Big Bang, and are associated with new stars and exoplanets. More than 20% of the carbon in the universe may be associated with PAHs. PAHs are considered possible starting material for the earliest forms of life.
Light emitted by the Red Rectangle nebula and found spectral signatures that suggest the presence of anthracene and pyrene. This report was considered a controversial hypothesis that as nebulae of the same type as the Red Rectangle approach the ends of their lives, convection currents cause carbon and hydrogen in the nebulae's cores to get caught in stellar winds, and radiate outward. As they cool, the atoms supposedly bond to each other in various ways and eventually form particles of a million or more atoms. Adolf Witt and his team inferred that PAHs--which may have been vital in the formation of early life on Earth--can only originate in nebulae.
Two extremely bright stars illuminate a mist of PAHs in this Spitzer image.
Low-temperature chemical pathways from simple organic compounds to complex PAHs are of interest. Such chemical pathways may help explain the presence of PAHs in the low-temperature atmosphere of Saturn moon Titan, and may be significant pathways, in terms of the PAH world hypothesis, in producing precursors to biochemicals related to life as we know it.
^Gerald Rhodes, Richard B. Opsal, Jon T. Meek, and James P. Reilly (1983}"Analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbon mixtures with laser ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry". Analytic Chemistry, volume 55, issue 2, pages 280-286 doi:10.1021/ac00253a023
^Kevin C. Jones, Jennifer A. Stratford, Keith S. Waterhouse, Edward T. Furlong, Walter Giger, Ronald A. Hites, Christian Schaffner, and A. E. Johnston (1989): "Increases in the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon content of an agricultural soil over the last century". Environmental Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 1, pages 95-101. doi:10.1021/es00178a012
^Harvey, R. G. (1998). "Environmental Chemistry of PAHs". PAHs and Related Compounds: Chemistry. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer. pp. 1-54. ISBN9783540496977.
^Marina V. Zhigalko, Oleg V. Shishkin, Leonid Gorb, and Jerzy Leszczynski (2004): "Out-of-plane deformability of aromatic systems in naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene". Journal of Molecular Structure, volume 693, issues 1-3, pages 153-159. doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2004.02.027
^Jan Cz. Dobrowolski (2002): "On the belt and Moebius isomers of the coronene molecule". Journal of Chemical Information and Computer Science, volume 42, issue 3, pages 490-499 doi:10.1021/ci0100853
^F. H. Herbstein and G. M. J. Schmidt (1954): "The structure of overcrowded aromatic compounds. Part III. The crystal structure of 3:4-benzophenanthrene". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed), volume 1954, issue 0, pages 3302-3313. doi:10.1039/JR9540003302
^ abTakuya Echigo, Mitsuyoshi Kimata, and Teruyuki Maruoka (2007): "Crystal-chemical and carbon-isotopic characteristics of karpatite (C24H12) from the Picacho Peak Area, San Benito County, California: Evidences for the hydrothermal formation". American Mineralogist, volume 92, issues 8-9, pages 1262-1269.
^Franti?ek Mike?, Geraldine Boshart, and Emanuel Gil-Av (1976): "Resolution of optical isomers by high-performance liquid chromatography, using coated and bonded chiral charge-transfer complexing agents as stationary phases". Journal of Chromatography A, volume 122, pages 205-221. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)82245-1
^Franti?ek Mike?, Geraldine Boshart, and Emanuel Gil-Av (1976): "Helicenes. Resolution on chiral charge-transfer complexing agents using high performance liquid chromatography". Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, volume 1976, issue 3, pages 99-100. doi:10.1039/C39760000099
^ abcdIvan Gutman and Sven J. Cyvin (2012): Introduction to the Theory of Benzenoid Hydrocarbons. 152 pages. ISBN9783642871436
^Portella, G.; Poater, J.; Solà, M. (2005). "Assessment of Clar's aromatic ?-sextet rule by means of PDI, NICS and HOMA indicators of local aromaticity". Journal of Physical Organic Chemistry. 18 (8): 785-791. doi:10.1002/poc.938.
^Chen, T.-A.; Liu, R.-S. (2011). "Synthesis of Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons from Bis(biaryl)diynes: Large PAHs with Low Clar Sextets". Chemistry: A European Journal. 17 (21): 8023-8027. doi:10.1002/chem.201101057. PMID21656594.
^Feng, Xinliang; Pisula, Wojciech; Müllen, Klaus (2009). "Large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Synthesis and discotic organization". Pure and Applied Chemistry. 81 (2): 2203-2224. doi:10.1351/PAC-CON-09-07-07. S2CID98098882.
^"Addendum to Vol. 2. Health criteria and other supporting information", Guidelines for drinking-water quality (2nd ed.), Geneva: World Health Organization, 1998
^Castillo, Maximiliano; Metta-Magaña, Alejandro J.; Fortier, Skye (2016). "Isolation of gravimetrically quantifiable alkali metal arenides using 18-crown-6". New Journal of Chemistry. 40 (3): 1923-1926. doi:10.1039/C5NJ02841H.
^Ruoff, R. S.; Kadish, K. M.; Boulas, P.; Chen, E. C. M. (1995). "Relationship between the electron affinities and half-wave reduction potentials of fullerenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and metal complexes". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 99 (21): 8843-8850. doi:10.1021/j100021a060.
^Rieke, Reuben D.; Wu, Tse-Chong; Rieke, Loretta I. (1995). "Highly reactive calcium for the preparation of organocalcium reagents: 1-adamantyl calcium halides and their addition to ketones: 1-(1-adamantyl)cyclohexanol". Organic Syntheses. 72: 147. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.072.0147.
^Stephen A. Wise, Robert M. Campbell, W. Raymond West, Milton L. Lee, Keith D. Bartle (1986): "Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon minerals curtisite, idrialite and pendletonite using high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy". Chemical Geology, volume 54, issues 3-4, pages 339-357. doi:10.1016/0009-2541(86)90148-8
^Max Blumer (1975): "Curtisite, idrialite and pendletonite, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon minerals: Their composition and origin" Chemical Geology, volume 16, issue 4, pages 245-256. doi:10.1016/0009-2541(75)90064-9
^ abcdefghRamesh, A.; Archibong, A.; Hood, D. B.; Guo, Z.; Loganathan, B. G. (2011). "Global environmental distribution and human health effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". Global Contamination Trends of Persistent Organic Chemicals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. pp. 97-126. ISBN978-1-4398-3831-0.
^Tetsuya Arinobu, Ryoshi Ishiwatari, Kunio Kaiho, and Marcos A. Lamolda (1999): "Spike of pyrosynthetic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with an abrupt decrease in ?13C of a terrestrial biomarker at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Caravaca, Spain ". Geology, volume 27, issue 8, pages 723-726 doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1999)027<0723:SOPPAH>2.3.CO;2
^Wakeham, Stuart G.; Schaffner, Christian; Giger, Walter (March 1980). "Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Recent lake sediments--II. Compounds derived from biogenic precursors during early diagenesis". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 44 (3): 415-429. Bibcode:1980GeCoA..44..415W. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(80)90041-1.
^Walker, T. R.; MacAskill, D.; Rushton, T.; Thalheimer, A.; Weaver, P. (2013). "Monitoring effects of remediation on natural sediment recovery in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia". Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 185 (10): 8089-107. doi:10.1007/s10661-013-3157-8. PMID23512488. S2CID25505589.
^Walker, T. R.; MacAskill, D.; Weaver, P. (2013). "Environmental recovery in Sydney Harbour, Nova Scotia: Evidence of natural and anthropogenic sediment capping". Marine Pollution Bulletin. 74 (1): 446-52. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.06.013. PMID23820194.
^Walker, T. R.; MacAskill, N. D.; Thalheimer, A. H.; Zhao, L. (2017). "Contaminant mass flux and forensic assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Tools to inform remediation decision making at a contaminated site in Canada". Remediation Journal. 27 (4): 9-17. doi:10.1002/rem.21525.
^ abcChoi, H.; Harrison, R.; Komulainen, H.; Delgado Saborit, J. (2010). "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.
^Mackay, D.; Callcott, D. (1998). "Partitioning and physical chemical properties of PAHs". In Neilson, A. (ed.). PAHs and Related Compounds. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 325-345. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-49697-7_8. ISBN978-3-642-08286-3.
^ abcdChoi, H.; Harrison, R.; Komulainen, H.; Delgado Saborit, J. (2010). "Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons". WHO Guidelines for Indoor Air Quality: Selected Pollutants. Geneva: World Health Organization.
^Lundstedt, S.; White, P. A.; Lemieux, C. L.; Lynes, K. D.; Lambert, I. B.; Öberg, L.; Haglund, P.; Tysklind, M. (2007). "Sources, fate, and toxic hazards of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at PAH- contaminated sites". AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment. 36 (6): 475-485. doi:10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[475:SFATHO]2.0.CO;2. ISSN0044-7447. PMID17985702.
^Fu, P. P.; Xia, Q.; Sun, X.; Yu, H. (2012). "Phototoxicity and Environmental Transformation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)--Light-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species, Lipid Peroxidation, and DNA Damage". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C. 30 (1): 1-41. doi:10.1080/10590501.2012.653887. ISSN1059-0501. PMID22458855. S2CID205722865.
^ abHenkler, F.; Stolpmann, K.; Luch, Andreas (2012). "Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Bulky DNA Adducts and Cellular Responses". In Luch, A. (ed.). Molecular, Clinical and Environmental Toxicology. Experientia Supplementum. 101. Springer Basel. pp. 107-131. doi:10.1007/978-3-7643-8340-4_5. ISBN978-3-7643-8340-4. PMID22945568.
^ abLewtas, J. (2007). "Air pollution combustion emissions: Characterization of causative agents and mechanisms associated with cancer, reproductive, and cardiovascular effects". Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research. The Sources and Potential Hazards of Mutagens in Complex Environmental Matrices - Part II. 636 (1-3): 95-133. doi:10.1016/j.mrrev.2007.08.003. ISSN1383-5742. PMID17951105.
^ abEFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) (2008). Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Food: Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (Report). Parma, Italy: European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). pp. 1-4.