^ While Manila is designated as the nation's capital, the seat of government is the National Capital Region, commonly known as "Metro Manila", of which the city of Manila is a part. Many national government institutions aside from Malacañang Palace and some agencies/institutions are located within the NCR.
Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar "Felipinas" after Philip II of Spain, then the Prince of Asturias. Eventually the name "Las Islas Filipinas" would be used to cover the archipelago's Spanish possessions. Before Spanish rule was established, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands, San Lázaro, were also used by the Spanish to refer to islands in the region.
During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish-American War (1898) and the Philippine-American War (1899-1902) until the Commonwealth period (1935-1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as The Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. The United States began the process of changing the reference to the country from The Philippine Islands to The Philippines, specifically when it was mentioned in the Philippine Autonomy Act or the Jones Law. The full official title, Republic of the Philippines, was included in the 1935 constitution as the name of the future independent state, it is also mentioned in all succeeding constitutional revisions.
There is evidence of early hominins living in what is now the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago. A small number of bones from Callao Cave potentially represent an otherwise unknown species, Homo luzonensis, that lived around 50,000 to 67,000 years ago. The oldest modern human remains found on the islands are from the Tabon Caves of Palawan, U/Th-dated to 47,000 ± 11-10,000 years ago. The Tabon Man is presumably a Negrito, who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along southern Asia to the now sunken landmasses of Sundaland and Sahul.
The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at around 2200 BC, settling the Batanes Islands and northern Luzon from Taiwan. From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and Southeast Asia. This population assimilated with the existing Negritos resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups which display various ratios of genetic admixture between Austronesian and Negrito groups.Jade artifacts have been found dated to 2000 BC, with the lingling-o jade items crafted in Luzon made using raw materials originating from Taiwan. By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities.
The earliest known surviving written record found in the Philippines is the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes. Some polities had exchanges with other states across Asia. Trade with China is believed to have begun during the Tang dynasty, but grew more extensive during the Song dynasty. By the 2nd millennium CE, some Philippine polities were known to have sent trade delegations which participated in the tributary system of China. Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit empire. By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from there.
Polities founded in the Philippines from the 10th-16th centuries include Maynila,Tondo, Namayan, Pangasinan, Cebu, Butuan, Maguindanao, Lanao, Sulu, and Ma-i. The early polities were typically made up of three-tier social structure: a nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen. Among the nobility were leaders called "Datus," responsible for ruling autonomous groups called "barangay" or "dulohan". When these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement or a geographically looser alliance group, the more esteemed among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu",rajah, or sultan which headed the community state. There is little evidence of large-scale violence in the archipelago prior to the 2nd millennium AD.[better source needed] However, warfare developed and escalated during the 14th to 16th centuries and throughout these periods population density is thought to have been low. In 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the area, claimed the islands for Spain, and was then killed by natives at the Battle of Mactan.
Colonial rule (1565-1946)
Spanish artillery along the walls of Intramuros to protect the city from local revolts and foreign invaders.
During its rule, Spain quelled various indigenous revolts, as well as defending against external military challenges. Spanish forces included soldiers from elsewhere in New Spain, many of whom deserted and intermingled with the wider population. Immigration blurred the racial caste system:98 Spain maintained in towns and cities.War against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury.
Administration of the Philippine islands were considered a drain on the economy of Spain, and there were debates about abandoning it or trading it for some other territory. However, this was opposed for a number of reasons, including economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the islands and the surrounding region. The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown, which averaged 250,000 pesos and was usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas.
In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to Ferdinand Marcos. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but, together with his wife Imelda, was accused of corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds. Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared martial law on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations.
The country has valuable, mineral deposits as a result of the its complex geologic structure and high level of seismic activity. The Philippine are thought to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa, along with a large amount of copper deposits, and the world's largest deposits of palladium. Other minerals include chromite, nickel, and zinc. Despite this, a lack of law enforcement, poor management, opposition due to the presence of indigenous communities, and past instances of environmental damage and disaster, have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.
The Philippines is a megadiverse country. Eight major types of forests are distributed throughout the Philippines; dipterocarp, beach forest, pine forest, molave forest, lower montane forest, upper montane or mossy forest, mangroves, and ultrabasic forest. Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 170 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere. The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise. Parts of its marine waters contain the highest diversity of shorefish species in the world.
Philippine maritime waters encompass as much as 2,200,000 square kilometers (849,425 sq mi) producing unique and diverse marine life, an important part of the Coral Triangle, a territory shared with other countries. The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. New records and species discoveries continue. The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of fish, crustaceans, oysters, and seaweeds. One species of oyster, Pinctada maxima, produces pearls that are naturally golden in color. Pearls have been declared a "National Gem".
The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: a hot dry season or summer from March to May; a rainy season from June to November; and a cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon lasts from May to October, and the northeast monsoon from November to April. Temperatures usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F). The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.
The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor, and temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular destination during hot summers. Annual rainfall measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys.
The Commission on Population estimated the country's population to be 107,190,081 as of December 31, 2018, based on the latest population census of 2015 conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority. The population increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685.
A third of the population resides in Metro Manila and its immediately neighboring regions. The 2.34% average annual population growth rate between 1990 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.90% for the 2000-2010 period. Government attempts to reduce population growth have been a contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males. Poverty incidence dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.
There is substantial ethnic diversity with the Philippines, a product of the seas and mountain ranges dividing the archipelago along with significant foreign influences. According to the 2010 census, 24.4% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 11.4% Visayans/Bisaya (excluding Cebuano, Hiligaynon and Waray), 9.9% Cebuano, 8.8% Ilocano, 8.4% Hiligaynon, 6.8% Bikol, 4% Waray, and 26.2% are "others", which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan, the Pangasinense, the Ibanag, and the Ivatan. There are also indigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the tribes of Palawan.
Negritos are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands. These minority aboriginal settlers are an Australoid group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa to Australia, and were likely displaced by later waves of migration. At least some Negritos in the Philippines have Denisovan admixture in their genomes. Ethnic Filipinos generally belong to several Southeast Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. There is some uncertainty over the origin of this Austronesian speaking population, with it being likely that ancestors related to Taiwanese aborigines brought their language and mixed with existing populations in the area. European DNA is present in many Filipinos today. A craniometric study reveals that samples taken from graveyards across the Philippines show a mean ratio of European descent of circa 6%. Under Spanish rule there was also immigration from elsewhere in the empire, especially from Latin America.
Filipino and English are the official languages of the country. Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business, with third local languages often being used at the same time. The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis. Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, although Spanish loanwords are still present today in Philippine languages, while Arabic is mainly taught in Islamic schools in Mindanao.
Islam is the second largest religion. The Muslim population of the Philippines was reported as 6.01% of the total population according to census returns in 2015. Conversely, a 2012 report by the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) stated that about 10,700,000 or 11% of Filipinos are Muslims. The majority of Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands. Most practice Sunni Islam under the Shafi'i school.
In 2016, 63.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 36.9% was from the government (12.4% from the national government, 7.1% from the local government, and 17.4% from social health insurance). Total health expenditure share in GDP for the year 2016 was 4.5%. Per capita health expenditure rate in 2015 was US$323, which was one of the lowest in Southeast Asia. The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2019 was ?98.6 billion and had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Sin tax Bill).
There were 101,688 hospital beds in the country in 2016, with government hospital beds accounting for 47% and private hospital beds for 53%.
In 2009, there were an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses and 43,220 dentists. Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. Seventy percent of nursing graduates go overseas to work. As of 2007[update], the Philippines was the largest supplier of nurses for export. The Philippines suffers a triple burden of high levels of communicable diseases, high levels of non-communicable diseases, and high exposure to natural disasters.
In 2018, there were 1,258 hospitals licensed by the Department of Health, of which 433 (34%) were government-run and 825 (66%) private. A total of 20,065 barangay health stations (BHS) and 2,590 rural health units (RHUs) provide primary care services throughout the country as of 2016.Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 35% of all deaths. 9,264 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported for the year 2016, with 8,151 being asymptomatic cases. At the time the country was considered a low-HIV-prevalence country, with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive. HIV/AIDS cases increased from 12,000 in 2005 to 39,622 as of 2016, with 35,957 being asymptomatic cases.
There is improvement in patients access to medicines due to Filipinos' growing acceptance of generic drugs, with 6 out of 10 Filipinos already using generics. While the country's universal healthcare implementation is underway as spearheaded by the state-owned Philippine Health Insurance Corporation, most healthcare-related expenses are either borne out of pocket or through health maintenance organization (HMO)-provided health plans. As of April 2020, there are only about 7 million individuals covered by these plans.
The Philippines had a simple literacy rate of 98.3% as of 2015, and a functional literacy rate of 90.3% as of 2013. Education takes up a significant proportion of the national budget. In the 2020 budget, education was allocated PHP17.1 billion from the PHP4.1 trillion budget.
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, among which 607 are public and 1,573 are private. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March, while some have adopted an increasingly common semester calendar from August to December and January to May.[failed verification] Primary and secondary schooling is divided between a 6-year elementary period, a 4-year junior high school period, and a 2-year senior high school period.
Historical and cultural ties continue to affect relations with Spain. Relations with Middle Eastern countries are shaped by the high number of Filipinos working in these countries, and by issues relating the Muslim minority in the Philippines. Concerns have been raised regarding issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting the around 2.5 million overseas Filipino workers in the region.
A newly industrialized country, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. Of the country's 2018 labor force of around 43.46 million, the agricultural sector employed 24.3%, and accounted for 8.1% of 2018 GDP. The industrial sector employed around 19% of the workforce and accounted for 34.1% of GDP, while 57% of the workers involved in the services sector were responsible for 57.8% of GDP.
The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades. Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966-2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.[obsolete source]
Remittances from overseas Filipinos contribute significantly to the Philippine economy. Remittances peaked in 2006 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% and 8.5% in 2012 and in 2014 respectively. In 2014 the total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion. Regional development is uneven, with Luzon - Metro Manila in particular - gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions. Service industries such as tourism and business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country. The Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry is composed of eight sub-sectors, namely, knowledge process outsourcing and back offices, animation, call centers, software development, game development, engineering design, and medical transcription. In 2010[update], the Philippines was reported as having eclipsed India as the main center of BPO services in the world.
The travel and tourism sector contributed 10.6% of the country's GDP in 2015 and providing 1,226,500 jobs in 2013. 8,260,913 international visitors arrived from January to December 2019, up by 15.24% for the same period in 2018. 58.62% (4,842,774) of these came from East Asia, 15.84% (1,308,444) came from North America, and 6.38% (526,832) came from other ASEAN countries. The island of Boracay, popular for its beaches, was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012. The Philippines is also a popular retirement destination for foreigners due to its climate and low cost of living.
Transportation in the Philippines is facilitated by road, air, rail and waterways. As of December 2018, there are 210,528 kilometers (130,816 mi) of roads in the Philippines, with only 65,101 kilometers (40,452 mi) of roads paved. The 919-kilometer (571 mi) Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003. The Pan-Philippine Highway connects the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao, forming the backbone of land-based transportation in the country. Roads are the dominant form of transport, carrying 98% of people and 58% of cargo. A network of expressways extends from the capital to other areas of Luzon. The 8.25-kilometre (5.13 mi) Cebu-Cordova Link Expressway in Cebu will be finished by 2021. Traffic is a significant issue facing the country, especially within Manila and on arterial roads connecting to the capital.
As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary. Boats have always been important to societies in the Philippines. Most boats are double-outrigger vessels, which can reach up to 30 metres (98 ft) in length, known as banca/bangka,parao, prahu, or balanghay. A variety of boat types are used throughout the islands, such as dugouts (baloto) and house-boats like the lepa-lepa. Terms such as bangka and baroto are also used as general names for a variety of boat types. Modern ships use plywood in place of logs and motor engines in place of sails. These ships are used both for fishing and for inter-island travel. The principal seaports of Manila, Batangas, Subic Bay, Cebu, Iloilo, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, General Santos, and Zamboanga form part of the ASEAN Transport Network. The Pasig River Ferry serves the cities of Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina in Metro Manila.
In 2015, it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation, and that "good progress" had been made between 1990 and 2015. As of 2016, 96% of Filipino households have an improved source of drinking water, and 92% of households had sanitary toilet facilities, although connections of these toilet facilities to appropriate sewerage systems remain largely insufficient especially in rural and urban poor communities.
There is significant cultural diversity across the islands, reinforced by the fragmented geography of the country. The cultures within Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago developed in a particularly distinct manner, due to very limited degree of Spanish influence and greater influence from nearby Islamic regions. Despite this, a national identityemerged in the 19th century, the development of which is represented by shared national symbols and other cultural and historical touchstones.
One of the most visible Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Hispanic nomenclature on the population. The names of many locations are also Spanish, or stem from Spanish roots and origins.
There is a substantial American influence on modern Filipino culture. The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' consumption of fast food and American film and music. American global fast-food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast-food chains like Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast-food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against foreign chains.
As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships.
Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "Hiya", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "Amor propio" or 'self-esteem'. Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.
Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery.
American rule introduced new architectural styles. This led to the construction of government buildings and Art Deco theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham was done on the portions of the city of Manila. Part of the Burnham plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled Greek or Neoclassical architecture. In Iloilo, structures from both the Spanish and American periods can still be seen, especially in Calle Real. Certain areas of the country like Batanes have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently due to the climate. Limestones were used as a building material, with houses being built to withstand typhoons.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
In general, there are two types of Philippine traditional folk dance. The first one reflects the influence under the Spanish occupation and the other, the country's profuseness of tribes that offer their own tribal dances. The music that incorporates the former are mostly bandurria-based bands that utilizes 14th string guitars. One example of such type is the Cariñosa. A Hispanic Filipino dance, unofficially considered as the "National Dance of the Philippines". Another example is the Tinikling. While native dances had become less popular over time,:77 a revival of folk dances began in the 1920s.:82 In the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances may vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing.
Locally produced spoken dramas became established in the late 1870s. Around the same time, Spanish influence led to the introduction of zarzuela plays which integrated musical pieces, and of comedia plays which included more significant dance elements. Such performances became popular throughout the country,:69-70 and were written in a number of local languages. American influence led to the introduction of vaudeville and ballet.:69-70 During the 20th century the realism genre became more dominant, with performances written to focus on contemporary political and societal issues.
Philippine cinema began at the end of the 19th century, and made up around 20% of the domestic market during the second half of the 20th century. During the 21st century however, the industry has struggled to compete with larger budget foreign films. Critically acclaimed Philippines films include Himala (Miracle). Moving pictures were first shown in the Philippines on January 1, 1897. All films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. Antonio Ramos was the first known movie producer. Meanwhile, Jose Nepomuceno was dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Movies". His work marked the start of the local production of movies. Production companies remained small during the era of silent film, but 1933 saw the emergence of sound films and the arrival of the first significant production company. The postwar 1940s and the 1950s are regarded as a high point for Philippine cinema.
The growing dominance of Hollywood films and the cost of production has severely reduced local filmmaking. Nonetheless, some local films continue to find success.
TV, the Internet, and social media, particularly Facebook, remain the top source of news and information for majority of Filipinos as newspaper readership continues to decline. English broadsheets are popular among executives, professionals and students. Cheaper Tagalog tabloids, which feature crime, sex, gossips and gore, saw a rise in the 1990s, and tend to be popular among the masses, particularly in Manila.
Regional variations exist throughout the islands, for example rice is a standard starch in Luzon while cassava is more common in Mindanao. Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors.
Unlike many Asians, most Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Filipino cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork.
The traditional way of eating with the hands known as kamayan (using the hand for bringing food to the mouth) was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas. However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities, as well as to Filipino urbanites, kamayan fast became popular. This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the "Boodle fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly or communal kamayan feasting.
^Constantino, R (1975). The Philippines: a Past Revisited. Quezon City: Tala Pub. Services.
^"The Jones Law of 1916". Official Gazette of the Philippines. August 29, 1916. Retrieved 2021., "The provisions of this Act and the name "The Philippines" as used in this Act shall apply to and include the Philippine Islands"
^ abLegarda, Benito Jr. (2001). "Cultural Landmarks and their Interactions with Economic Factors in the Second Millennium in the Philippines". Kinaadman (Wisdom) A Journal of the Southern Philippines. 23: 40.
^Sals, Florent Joseph (2005). The history of Agoo : 1578-2005. La Union: Limbagan Printhouse. p. 80.
^ abJocano, Felipe Jr. (August 7, 2012). Wiley, Mark (ed.). A Question of Origins. Arnis: Reflections on the History and Development of Filipino Martial Arts. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN978-1-4629-0742-7.[page needed]
^Carley, Michael (November 4, 2013) . "7". Urban Development and Civil Society: The Role of Communities in Sustainable Cities. Routledge. p. 108. ISBN9781134200504. Retrieved 2020. Each boat carried a large family group, and the master of the boat retained power as leader, or datu, of the village established by his family. This form of village social organization can be found as early as the 13th century in Panay, Bohol, Cebu, Samar and Leyte in the Visayas, and in Batangas, Pampanga and Tondo in Luzon. Evidence suggests a considerable degree of independence as small city-states with their heads known as datu, rajah or sultan.
^Reyeg, Fernardo; Marsh, Ned (December 2011). "2"(PDF). The Filipino Way of War: Irregular Warfare Through The Centuries (Post Graduate). Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California. p. 21. Retrieved 2021.
^Newson, Linda (2009) . "2". Conquest and Pestilence in the Early Spanish Philippines. University of Hawaii Press. p. 18. doi:10.21313/hawaii/9780824832728.001.0001. ISBN9780824832728. Retrieved 2020. Given the significance of the size and distribution of the population to the spread of diseases and their ability to become endemic, it is worth commenting briefly on the physical and human geography of the Philippines. The hot and humid tropical climate would have generally favored the propagation of many diseases, especially water-borne infections, though there might be regional or seasonal variations in climate that might affect the incidence of some diseases. In general, however, the fact that the Philippines comprise some seven thousand islands, some of which are uninhabited even today, would have discouraged the spread of infections, as would the low population density.
^Guillermo, Artemio (2012) . Historical Dictionary of the Philippines. The Scarecrow Press Inc. p. 374. ISBN9780810875111. Retrieved 2020. To pursue their mission of conquest, the Spaniards dealt individually with each settlement or village and with each province or island until the entire Philippine archipelago was brought under imperial control. They saw to it that the people remained divided or compartmentalized and with the minimum of contact or communication. The Spaniards adopted the policy of divide et impera (divide and conquer).
Mehl, Eva Maria (2016). "Chapter 1 - Intertwined Histories in the Pacific". Forced Migration in the Spanish Pacific World From Mexico to the Philippines, 1765-1811. Cambridge University Press. p. 246. doi:10.1017/CBO9781316480120.007. ISBN9781316480120. The military organization of Manila might have depended to some degree on non-European groups, but colonial authorities measured a successful imperial policy of defense on the amount of European and American recruits that could be accounted for in the military forces.~CSIC ser. Consultas riel 301 leg.8 (1794)
^"Filipino-Mexican-Central-and-South American Connection, Tales of Two Sisters: Manila and Mexico". June 21, 1997. Retrieved 2021. Tomás de Comyn, general manager of the Compañia Real de Filipinas, in 1810 estimated that out of a total population of 2,515,406, "the European Spaniards, and Spanish creoles and mestizos do not exceed 4,000 persons of both sexes and all ages, and the distinct castes or modifications known in America under the name of mulatto, quarteroons, etc., although found in the Philippine Islands, are generally confounded in the three classes of pure Indians, Chinese mestizos and Chinese." In other words, the Mexicans who had arrived in the previous century had so intermingled with the local population that distinctions of origin had been forgotten by the 19th century. The Mexicans who came with Legázpi and aboard succeeding vessels had blended with the local residents so well that their country of origin had been erased from memory.
^(Page 10) Pérez, Marilola (2015). Cavite Chabacano Philippine Creole Spanish: Description and Typology(PDF) (PhD). University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on January 14, 2021. The galleon activities also attracted a great number of Mexican men that arrived from the Mexican Pacific coast as ships' crewmembers (Grant 2009: 230). Mexicans were administrators, priests and soldiers (guachinangos or hombres de pueblo) (Bernal 1964: 188) many though, integrated into the peasant society, even becoming tulisanes 'bandits' who in the late 18th century "infested" Cavite and led peasant revolts (Medina 2002: 66). Meanwhile, in the Spanish garrisons, Spanish was used among administrators and priests. Nonetheless, there is not enough historical information on the social role of these men. In fact some of the few references point to a quick integration into the local society: "los hombres del pueblo, los soldados y marinos, anónimos, olvidados, absorbidos en su totalidad por la población Filipina." (Bernal 1964: 188). In addition to the Manila-Acapulco galleon, a complex commercial maritime system circulated European and Asian commodities including slaves. During the 17th century, Portuguese vessels traded with the ports of Manila and Cavite, even after the prohibition of 1644 (Seijas 2008: 21). Crucially, the commercial activities included the smuggling and trade of slaves: "from the Moluccas, and Malacca, and India... with the monsoon winds" carrying "clove spice, cinnamon, and pepper and black slaves, and Kafir [slaves]" (Antonio de Morga cf Seijas 2008: 21)." Though there is no data on the numbers of slaves in Cavite, the numbers in Manila suggest a significant fraction of the population had been brought in as slaves by the Portuguese vessels. By 1621, slaves in Manila numbered 1,970 out of a population of 6,110. This influx of slaves continued until late in the 17th century; according to contemporary cargo records in 1690, 200 slaves departed from Malacca to Manila (Seijas 2008: 21). Different ethnicities were favored for different labor; Africans were brought to work on the agricultural production, and skilled slaves from India served as caulkers and carpenters.
^Cole, Jeffrey A. (1985). The Potosí mita, 1573-1700 : compulsory Indian labor in the Andes. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press. p. 20. ISBN978-0-8047-1256-9.
^Hawkley, Ethan (2014). "Reviving the Reconquista in Southeast Asia: Moros and the Making of the Philippines, 1565-1662". Journal of World History. University of Hawai'i Press. 25 (2-3): 288. doi:10.1353/jwh.2014.0014. S2CID143692647. The early modern revival of the Reconquista in the Philippines had a profound effect on the islands, one that is still being felt today. As described above, the Spanish Reconquista served to unify Christians against a common Moro enemy, helping to bring together Castilian, Catalan, Galician, and Basque peoples into a single political unit: Spain. In precolonial times, the Philippine islands were a divided and unspecified part of the Malay archipelago, one inhabited by dozens of ethnolinguistic groups, residing in countless independent villages, strewn across thousands of islands. By the end of the seventeenth century, however, a dramatic change had happened in the archipelago. A multiethnic community had come together to form the colonial beginnings of a someday nation: the Philippines. The powerful influence of Christian-Moro antagonisms on the formation of the early Philippines remains evident more than four hundred years later, as the Philippine national government continues to grapple with Moro separatists groups, even in 2013.
^Steinberg, David Joel (2018). "Chapter - 3 A SINGULAR AND A PLURAL FOLK". THE PHILIPPINES A Singular and a Plural Place. Routledge. p. 47. doi:10.4324/9780429494383. ISBN978-0-8133-3755-5. The cultural identity of the mestizos was challenged as they became increasingly aware that they were true members of neither the indio nor the Chinese community. Increasingly powerful but adrift, they linked with the Spanish mestizos, who were also being challenged because after the Latin American revolutions broke the Spanish Empire, many of the settlers from the New World, Caucasian Creoles born in Mexico or Peru, became suspect in the eyes of the Iberian Spanish. The Spanish Empire had lost its universality.
^Nuguid, Nati. (1972). "The Cavite Mutiny". in Mary R. Tagle. 12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History. [Manila]: National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 from StuartXchange Website.
^Atwood, J. Brian; Schuette, Keith E. A Path to Democratic Renewal(PDF) (Report). p. 350 – via National Democratic Institute for International Affairs and National Republican Institute for International Affairs.
^Jacinto, G.S., Azanza, R.V.,Velasquez,I.B. and Siringan, F.P.(2006)."Manila Bay:Environmental Challenges and Opportunities" in Wolanski, E.(ed.) The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours. Springer: Dordrecht, Netherlands. p309-328.
^Carpenter, Kent E. & Victor G. Springer (April 2005). "The center of the center of marine shore fish biodiversity: the Philippine Islands". Environmental Biology of Fishes. 74 (2): 467-480. doi:10.1007/s10641-004-3154-4. S2CID8280012.
^R. I. Y., Adan (2000). "Crocodile farming: a multi-million dollar industry"(PDF). SEAFDEC Asian Aquaculture. Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. XXII: ww. Retrieved 2020. Two known crocodile species in the Philippines exists, the Crocodylus mindorensis (freshwater crocodile), also known as the Philippine crocodile, and Crocodylus porosus (saltwater crocodile).
^Teves, Catherine (December 14, 2018). "PH seeks more climate action for Coral Triangle". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on December 14, 2018. Retrieved 2020. The Coral Triangle refers to a roughly triangular area in the tropical marine waters of the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Timor-Leste.
^Agoo, Esperanza Maribel G. (June 2007). "Status of Orchid Taxonomy Research in the Philippines"(PDF). Philippine Journal of Systematic Biology. 1. Retrieved 2020. There are over 137 genera and about 998 species of orchids so far recorded for the archipelago. This represents about 10% of the total flora of the Philippines. The Philippines ranks second to New Guinea in occurrence of endemic species in the Malesian region.
^ ab"Climate of the Philippines". Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration. Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved 2020. Based on the average of all weather stations in the Philippines, excluding Baguio, the mean annual temperature is 26.6o C. The coolest months fall in January with a mean temperature of 25.5oC while the warmest month occurs in May with a mean temperature of 28.3oC. Latitude is an insignificant factor in the variation of temperature while altitude shows greater contrast in temperature. Thus, the mean annual temperature of Baguio with an elevation of 1,500 meters is 18.3oC.
^Soares, PA; Trejaut, JA; Rito, T; Cavadas, B; Hill, C; Eng, KK; Mormina, M; Brandão, A; Fraser, RM; Wang, TY; Loo, JH; Snell, C; Ko, TM; Amorim, A; Pala, M; Macaulay, V; Bulbeck, D; Wilson, JF; Gusmão, L; Pereira, L; Oppenheimer, S; Lin, M; Richards, MB (2016). "Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations". Hum Genet. 135 (3): 309-26. doi:10.1007/s00439-015-1620-z. PMC4757630. PMID26781090. The final component (dark blue in Fig. 3b) has a high frequency in South China (Fig. 2b) and is also seen in Taiwan at ~25-30 %, in the Philippines at ~20-30 % (except in one location which is almost zero) and across Indonesia/Malaysia at 1-10 %, declining overall from Taiwan within Austronesian-speaking populations.
^Go, Matthew C. (January 15, 2018). "An Admixture Approach to Trihybrid Ancestry Variation in the Philippines with Implications for Forensic Anthropology". Human Biology. 232 (3): 178. doi:10.13110/humanbiology.90.3.01. Retrieved 2020. Filipinos appear considerably admixed with respect to the other Asian population samples, carrying on average less Asian ancestry (71%) than our Korean (99%), Japanese (96%), Thai (93%), and Vietnamese (84%) reference samples. We also revealed substructure in our Filipino sample, showing that the patterns of ancestry vary within the Philippines--that is, between the four differently sourced Filipino samples. Mean estimates of Asian (76%) and European (7%) ancestry are greatest for the cemetery sample of forensic signifijicance from Manila.
^Cooper, Matthew (November 15, 2013). "Why the Philippines Is America's Forgotten Colony". National Journal. Retrieved 2015. c. At the same time, person-to-person contacts are widespread: Some 600,000 Americans live in the Philippines and there are 3 million Filipino-Americans, many of whom are devoting themselves to typhoon relief.
^Rawashdeh, Saeb (October 11, 2016). "Arab world's ancient links to Philippines forged through trade, migration and Islam -- ambassador". The Jordan Times. Retrieved 2020. In the case of the Philippines, the ancient Hadrami migration found its way from Islamised areas in the south towards Sulu, the southwestern archipelagic region of the Philippines," she said, adding that the Hadramis settled in Cotabato, Maguindao, Zamboanga, Davao and Bukidnon. An estimated 2 per cent of Filipinos can claim Arab ancestry, the ambassador noted..
^ abRepublic of the Philippines. Commission on Higher Education. (August 2010). "Information on Higher Education System". Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved 2011.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link). Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education. Retrieved April 17, 2011.
^"Develop your skills with TESDA". Manila Standard. Retrieved 2020. TESDA is not only limited to offering trainings that will develop vocational and technical skills of the enrollees. It is also mandated to promote middle-level manpower.
^Hayden Cooper, 2012, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Government urged to help kidnapped Australian, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Warren Richard Rodwell from Australia being held captive by this group since December 5, 2011...please do whatever to raise the 2 million US dollars they are asking for my release ..."
^Roel Pareño, The Philippine Star, March 24, 2013, Sayyaf releases Aussie hostage, Retrieved July 6, 2020, "...Australian Warren Rodwell emerged early yesterday withered after being held for 15 months by Abu Sayyaf bandits in southern Mindanao..."
^Sun Star, April 25, 2014, Abducted tourist, hotel staff now in Sulu, Retrieved September 3, 2014, "...Abu Sayyaf bandits have brought a Chinese tourist and a Filipino hotel receptionist to their jungle stronghold in southern Philippines after kidnapping the women from a dive resort in eastern Malaysia ..."
^de Villiers, Bertus (2015). "Special regional autonomy in a unitary system - preliminary observations on the case of the Bangsomoro homeland in the Philippines". Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America. 48 (2): 205-226. JSTOR26160114.
^Gatpolintan, Leslie (October 20, 2019). "Cebu-Cordova bridge project to employ 3K more workers". Philippine News Agency. Archived from the original on July 8, 2020. Retrieved 2020. At 8.25 kilometers, the infrastructure will be the longest bridge connecting two islands in the country. The main bridge will have a span of 390 meters and a navigational clearance of 51 meters to allow large vessels to pass underneath.
^ abAguilar, Glenn D. (2004). "Philippine Fishing Boats". In Silvestre, Geronimo; Green, Stuart J.; White, Alan T.; Armada, Nygiel; Luna, Cesar; Cruz-Trinidad, Annabelle; Carreon, Marciano F., III (eds.). In Turbulent Seas: The Status of Philippine Marine Fisheries. Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Republic of the Philippines. pp. 118-121. ISBN9719275340.
^ abcFuntecha, Henry F. (2000). "The history and culture of boats and boat-building in the Western Visayas". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 28 (2): 111-132. JSTOR29792457.