Philippine Senatorial Elections
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Philippine Senatorial Elections

The Senate, when it existed, met at the Old Legislative Building from 1918 to 1941, from 1949 to 1973, and from 1987 to 1997.

Elections to the Senate of the Philippines are done via plurality-at-large voting; a voter can vote for up to twelve candidates, with the twelve candidates with the highest number of votes being elected. The 24-member Senate uses staggered elections, with only one-half of its members up for election at any given time, except for special elections, which are always held concurrently with regularly scheduled elections.[1]

Manner of choosing candidates

With the advent of the nominal multi-party system in 1987, political parties have not been able to muster enough candidates to fill their 12-person slate. This means they have to join coalitions or alliances in order to present a full slate. If a slate is still not complete, "guest candidates" may be invited, even from rival slates. A guest candidate may not be compelled to join the campaign rallies of the slate that invited him/her. A party may even not include their entire ticket to a coalition slate, or assign their candidates to competing slates. A candidate may defect from one slate to another or be unaffiliated with any slate while the campaign is ongoing. The Commission on Elections uses the names of the political parties on the ballot.

Once elected, the parties involved in the different slates may form alliances with one another totally different from the alliances prior to the election.

In Third Republic elections under the nominal two-party system, the Liberal Party and the Nacionalista Party often presented complete 8-person tickets; a party may even exceed the 8-person slate due to perceived popularity. The first instance of having guest candidates was in 1955, when the opposition Liberals adopted Claro M. Recto of the Nacionalista Party, who had also opposed the presidency of Ramon Magsaysay. Parties having guest candidates was seen as a weakness of finding candidates within their ranks.[2]

Manner of election

1916 to 1935

Map of the senatorial districts.

From 1916 to 1934, the country was divided into 12 senatorial districts. Eleven of these districts elected two senators each. In 1916, each district elected two senators (plurality-at-large): one was to serve a six-year term, the other a three-year term. On each election thereafter, one seat per district was up (first past the post). The senators from the 12th district were appointed by the American governor-general for no fixed term.[3]

In 1935, the electorate approved in a plebiscite a new constitution that abolished the Senate and instituted a unicameral National Assembly of the Philippines. The members of the Constitutional Convention originally wanted bicameralism but could not agree on how the senators shall be elected: via the senatorial districts or being nationally elected.[4]

1941 to 1949

The electorate in 1940 approved in a plebiscite amendments to the constitution that restored the bicameral Congress of the Philippines, including the Senate. Elections for the Senate were held on every second Monday of November of every odd-numbered year; however, the old senatorial districts were not used anymore; instead, the 24-member Senate was to be elected on a nationwide at-large basis.[4] As the first election in the new setup, the voters in the 1941 election voted for 24 senators. However, they were also given the option of writing the party's name on the ballot, wherein all of the candidates of the party would receive votes. With the 24 candidates with the most votes winning in the election, the ruling Nacionalista Party won all 24 seats in a landslide victory. The winners included Rafael Martinez, who replaced Norberto Romualdez, who died the day before the election; Martinez won because of voters who had selected the party, rather than specifying a particular candidate.[5]

Due to World War II, Congress was not able to convene until June 1945. President Sergio Osmeña called for special sessions to convene the 1st Congress of the Commonwealth of the Philippines until elections could be organized. Originally, to observe the staggered terms, the eight candidates with the most votes were to serve for eight years, the next eight for four years, and still the next eight for two years. However, several members had died and others were disqualified because they were charged with collaboration with the Japanese, so the Senate conducted a lottery to determine which senators would serve until 1946 and which would serve until 1947.[6] In the 1946 election, voters elected 16 senators; the first eight candidates with the highest number of votes were to serve until 1951, the next eight were to serve until 1949.[3]

1951 to 1971

The Senate chamber at the Old Congress building: Cipriano P. Primicias, Sr., far left, debates Quintín Paredes, far right. In the center are, from left to right, Justiniano Montano, Mariano Jesús Cuenco, Enrique B. Magalona, and Francisco Delgado. In the foreground is Edmundo Cea.

Electoral reform enacted in 1951 eliminated block voting, which had given voters the option of writing the party's name on the ballot. In a 1951 election, voters voted for eight senators for the first time and each voter had to write at most eight names for senator (writing the party's name would result in a spoiled vote). Noting that after the elimination of block voting, many people voted for a split ticket, political scientist David Wurfel has remarked that "The electoral reform of 1951 was thus one of the most important institutional changes in the postwar Philippines, making the life of the opposition easier."[5]

On September 23, 1972, President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law and assumed legislative powers. In a 1973 plebiscite, the electorate approved a new constitution that abolished Congress and replaced it with a unicameral National Assembly, which would ultimately be the Batasang Pambansa (parliament).[3]

1987 to present

The GSIS building: The Senate session hall.

Marcos was overthrown as a result of the 1986 People Power Revolution. The new president, Corazon Aquino, appointed a Constitutional Commission to write a new constitution. The electorate approved the constitution in 1987, restoring the bicameral Congress. Instead of electing 8 senators every two years, the new constitution provided that 12 senators would be elected every three years. As part of the transitory provisions, the voters elected 24 senators in the 1987 election, to serve until 1992. In the 1992 election, the voters still voted for 24 candidates, but the first 12 candidates with the most votes were to serve until 1998, while the next 12 were to serve only until 1995. Thereafter, 12 candidates are elected every second Monday of May every third year since 1995.[7]

Summary

Elections Elected Seats per
district
Districts Total
seats
1916 22 2 11 24
1919 11 1 11 24
1922 11 1 12 24
1925 11 1 12 24
1928 11 1 12 24
1931 11 1 12 24
1934 11 1 12 24
Senate abolished from 1935 to 1941. Senators elected in 1941 will not serve until 1945.
1941 24[a] 24 1 24
1946 16[b] 16 1 24
1947 8 8 1 24
1949 8 8 1 24
1951 8+1 special[c] 9 1 24
1953 8 8 1 24
1955 8+1 special[d] 9 1 24
1957 8 8 1 24
1959 8 8 1 24
1961 8 8 1 24
1963 8 8 1 24
1965 8 8 1 24
1967 8 8 1 24
1969 8 8 1 24
1971 8 8 1 24
Senate abolished from 1972 to 1987.
1987 24 24 1 24
1992 24[e] 24 1 24
1995 12 12 1 24
1998 12 12 1 24
2001 12+1 special[f] 13 1 24
2004 12 12 1 24
2007 12 12 1 24
2010 12 12 1 24
2013 12 12 1 24
2016 12 12 1 24
2019 12 12 1 24
2022 12 12 1 24
  1. ^ Out of the 24 senators-elect, the first eight candidates with the highest number of votes will serve for six years, the next eight for four years, and the next eight for two years. However, this was not followed due to the intervention of World War II. The senators in 1945 drew lots on who would be serving until 1946, and until 1947.
  2. ^ Out of the 16 senators-elect, the first eight candidates with the highest number of votes will serve for six years, and the next eight for four years.
  3. ^ A special election for the seat vacated by Fernando Lopez who was elected vice president in 1949 was held.
  4. ^ A special election for the seat vacated by Carlos P. Garcia who was elected vice president in 1953 was held.
  5. ^ Out of the 24 senators-elect, the first twelve candidates with the highest number of votes will serve for six years, and the next twelve for three years.
  6. ^ Teofisto Guingona, Jr. was appointed vice president on 2001; the thirteenth-placed candidate in the election will serve for Guingona's unexpired term of three years.[8]

List of results

Senatorial districts era

Election Nacionalista Progresista Democrata Collectivista Pro-
Independencia
Consolidato Independents Total
1916 22 1 1 24
1919 21 1 2 24
1922 12 5 3 4 24
1925 5 8 3 6 2 24
1928 24 0 3 24
1931 6 4 2 12
1934 6 17 1 24

At-large era

In this table, the "administration" ticket is the ticket supported by the sitting president. In 1992, Corazon Aquino who was nominally supporting the LDP, supported the presidential candidacy of Fidel V. Ramos of Lakas, making the "administration ticket" ambiguous.

Election Seats won (Party/coalition totals)[9]
Administration ticket Primary opposition ticket Others
1941 24 Nacionalistas
1946 7 Nacionalistas 8 Nacionalistas (Liberal wing) 1 Popular Front
1947 6 Liberals 2 Nacionalistas
1949 8 Liberals
1951 0 Liberals 9 Nacionalistas
1953 0 Liberals 5 Nacionalistas 2 Democrats
1 Citizens'
1955 9 Nacionalistas 0 Liberals
1957 6 Nacionalistas 2 Liberals
1959 5 Nacionalistas 2 Liberals 1 NCP
1961 2 Nacionalistas 4 Liberals 2 Progressives
1963 4 Liberals 4 Nacionalistas
1965 2 Liberals 5 Nacionalistas 1 NCP
1967 6 Nacionalistas 1 Liberal 1 independent
1969 6 Nacionalistas 2 Liberals
1971 2 Nacionalistas 6 Liberals
1987 22 LABAN 2 GAD
1992 16 LDP 5 NPC 2 Lakas
1 Liberal/PDP-Laban
1995 9 Lakas-Laban 3 NPC
1998 5 Lakas 7 LAMMP
2001 8 PPC 4 Puwersa ng Masa 1 independent
2004 7 K-4 5 KNP
2007 2 Team Unity 8 GO 2 Independents
2010 2 Lakas-Kampi 3 Liberals 2 Nacionalistas
2 PMP
1 PRP
1 NPC
1 Independent
2013 9 Team PNoy 3 UNA
2016 7 KDM 4 PGP 1 UNA
2019 9 HNP 0 Otso Diretso 1 Independent
1 NPC
1 UNA
2022 1 TNP 1 TRoPa 4 UniTeam
4 shared candidates
1 Lacson-Sotto slate
1 independent

Top-notcher

Since the at-large era, a high-scoring winner can be seen as a strong contender for a future presidential or vice-presidential bid.[1]

Election Topnotcher Party Future election to higher office result
1941 Claro M. Recto Nacionalista Lost 1957 presidential election
1946 Vicente J. Francisco Nacionalista (Liberal wing) Lost 1949 vice presidential election
1947 Lorenzo Tañada Liberal Lost 1957 vice presidential election
1949 Quintin Paredes Liberal
1951 Jose P. Laurel Nacionalista
1953 Fernando Lopez Democratic Won 1965 vice presidential election
1955 Pacita Madrigal-Warns Nacionalista
1957 Gil Puyat Nacionalista Lost 1961 vice presidential election
1959 Ferdinand Marcos Liberal Won 1965 presidential election
Won 1969 presidential election
Won 1981 presidential election
Victory at the 1986 presidential election disputed
1961 Raul Manglapus Progressive Lost 1965 presidential election
1963 Gerardo Roxas Liberal Lost 1965 vice presidential election
1965 Jovito Salonga Liberal Lost 1992 presidential election
1967 Jose Roy Nacionalista
1969 Arturo Tolentino Nacionalista Victory at the 1986 vice presidential election disputed
1971 Jovito Salonga Liberal (see 1965)
1987 Jovito Salonga LABAN (see 1965)
1992 Tito Sotto LDP Lost 2022 Philippine vice presidential election
1995 Gloria Macapagal Arroyo LDP Won 1998 vice presidential election
Won 2004 presidential election
1998 Loren Legarda Lakas-NUCD-UMDP Lost 2004 vice presidential election
Lost 2010 vice presidential election
2001 Noli de Castro Independent Won 2004 vice presidential election
2004 Mar Roxas Liberal Lost 2010 vice presidential election
Lost 2016 presidential election
2007 Loren Legarda NPC (see 1998)
2010 Bong Revilla Lakas-Kampi TBD
2013 Grace Poe Independent Lost 2016 presidential election
2016 Franklin Drilon Liberal
2019 Cynthia Villar Nacionalista TBD
2022 Robin Padilla PDP-Laban

Senate composition

These are at the start of each Congress. A senator may change parties or leave office mid-term.

Election 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
1941
1946
1947
1949
1951
1953
1955
1957
1959
1961
1963
1965
1967
1969
1971
1987
1992
1995
1998
2001
2004
2007
2010
2013
2016
2019
2022

Latest elections

2022

e o d Summary of the May 9, 2022 Philippine Senate election results
# Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
1. Robin Padilla Tuloy na Pagbabago, UniTeam[a] PDP-Laban 27,027,235 48.18%
2. Loren Legarda UniTeam[a], Lacson-Sotto slate[b], MP3[c], Tuloy na Pagbabago[d] NPC 24,367,564 43.44%
3. Raffy Tulfo MP3[c], Lacson-Sotto slate[b] Independent 23,488,450 41.87%
4. Win Gatchalian UniTeam NPC 20,678,804 36.86%
5. Francis Escudero Lacson-Sotto slate[b], MP3[c], TRoPa[e] NPC 20,320,069 36.22%
6. Mark Villar UniTeam, Tuloy na Pagbabago[d] Nacionalista 19,563,262 34.88%
7. Alan Peter Cayetano Independent 19,359,758 34.51%
8. Juan Miguel Zubiri UniTeam, MP3[c] Independent 18,931,207 33.75%
9. Joel Villanueva Lacson-Sotto slate[b], MP3[c], TRoPa[e] Independent 18,539,537 33.05%
10. JV Ejercito Lacson-Sotto slate, MP3[c] NPC 15,901,891 28.35%
11. Risa Hontiveros TRoPa, LEAD[f] Akbayan 15,470,005 27.58%
12. Jinggoy Estrada UniTeam PMP 15,174,288 27.05%
13. Jejomar Binay MP3[c], Lacson-Sotto slate[b], TRoPa[e] UNA 13,348,887 23.80%
14. Herbert Bautista UniTeam NPC 13,206,704 23.54%
15. Gilbert Teodoro UniTeam, Tuloy na Pagbabago[d] PRP 12,827,577 22.87%
16. Guillermo Eleazar Lacson-Sotto slate Reporma 11,360,526 20.27%
17. Harry Roque UniTeam, Tuloy na Pagbabago[d] PRP 11,285,713 20.14%
18. Gregorio Honasan Lacson-Sotto slate[b], UniTeam[a] Independent 10,668,886 19.04%
19. Chel Diokno TRoPa, LEAD[f] KANP 10,020,008 17.88%
20. Larry Gadon UniTeam KBL 9,712,118 17.33%
21. Antonio Trillanes TRoPa Liberal 8,653,717 15.44%
22. Dick Gordon Lacson-Sotto slate[b], MP3[c], TRoPa[e] Bagumbayan 8,427,820 15.04%
23. Leila de Lima TRoPa, LEAD[f] Liberal 7,305,153 13.04%
24. Neri Colmenares Makabayan, LEAD[f], MP3[c] Makabayan 6,108,365 10.90%
25. Alex Lacson TRoPa Ang Kapatiran 5,499,733 9.81%
26. Salvador Panelo Tuloy na Pagbabago PDP-Laban 4,916,875 8.77%
27. Francis Leo Marcos Independent 4,548,568 8.12%
28. Teddy Baguilat LEAD[f], TRoPa Liberal 4,284,752 7.65%
29. Monsour del Rosario Reporma Reporma 3,824,557 6.82%
30. Carl Balita Aksyon Aksyon 3,771,019 6.73%
31. Rodante Marcoleta[g] Tuloy na Pagbabago, UniTeam[a] PDP-Laban 3,599,053 6.42%
32. Emmanuel Piñol Lacson-Sotto slate NPC 3,570,287 6.37%
33. Minguita Padilla Lacson-Sotto slate Reporma 3,567,523 6.37%
34. Luke Espiritu LEAD PLM 3,480,211 6.21%
35. Astra Pimentel-Naik PDP-Laban PDP-Laban 3,002,907 5.36%
36. Sonny Matula TRoPa, LEAD[f] Independent 2,698,368 4.81%
37. Greco Belgica Tuloy na Pagbabago PDDS 2,362,101 4.21%
38. Jopet Sison Aksyon Aksyon 2,223,959 3.96%
39. Samira Gutoc Aksyon, LEAD[f] Aksyon 2,225,400 3.97%
40. Carmen Zubiaga Independent 1,771,078 3.16%
41. Silvestre Bello Jr. PDP-Laban PDP-Laban 1,744,355 3.11%
42. Elmer Labog Makabayan, LEAD[f], MP3[c] Makabayan 1,582,623 2.82%
43. Rey Langit Tuloy na Pagbabago PDP-Laban 1,369,680 2.44%
44. Melchor Chavez WPP WPP 957,559 1.71%
45. Abner Afuang Independent 906,672 1.62%
46. Roy Cabonegro LEAD PLM 885,416 1.58%
47. Ibrahim Albani WPP WPP 849,825 1.51%
48. Lutgardo Barbo MP3 PDP-Laban 754,129 1.34%
49. John Castriciones Aksyon[h], Tuloy na Pagbabago PDP-Laban 719,198 1.28%
50. David d'Angelo LEAD PLM 697,520 1.24%
51. Agnes Bailen Independent 675,592 1.20%
52. Nur-Mahal Kiram Independent 603,542 1.08%
53. Nur-Ana Sahidulla PDDS PDDS 599,063 1.07%
54. Leo Olarte Bigkis Pinoy Bigkis Pinoy 574,893 1.02%
55. Ariel Lim Independent 564,802 1.01%
56. Fernando Diaz PPP PPP 562,591 1.00%
57. Jesus Arranza Independent 530,391 0.95%
58. Willie Ricablanca Jr. PM PM 494,603 0.88%
59. RJ Javellana Independent 474,958 0.85%
60. Marieta Mindalano-Adam Katipunan Katipunan 452,455 0.81%
61. Ernie Ereño PM PM 451,051 0.80%
62. Baldomero Falcone DPP DPP 400,138 0.71%
63. Emily Mallillin PPM PPM 394,274 0.70%
64. Rey Valeros Independent 356,679 0.64%
Total turnout 56,095,234 83.07%
Total votes 434,695,944 N/A
Registered voters, including overseas voters 67,525,619 100.0%
Source: COMELEC
  1. ^ a b c d Guest candidate of UniTeam Alliance
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Guest candidate of the Lacson-Sotto slate
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Guest candidate of the MP3 Alliance
  4. ^ a b c d Guest candidate of Tuloy na Pagbabago
  5. ^ a b c d Guest candidate of Team Robredo-Pangilinan
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Guest candidate of Labor and Ecology Advocates for Democracy
  7. ^ Withdrew
  8. ^ Guest candidate of Aksyon Demokratiko

2019

e o d Summary of the May 13, 2019 Philippine Senate election results
# Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
1. Cynthia Villar HNP Nacionalista 25,283,727 53.46%
2. Grace Poe Independent 22,029,788 46.58%
3. Bong Go HNP PDP-Laban 20,657,702 42.35%
4. Pia Cayetano HNP Nacionalista 19,789,019 41.84%
5. Ronald dela Rosa HNP PDP-Laban 19,004,225 40.18%
6. Sonny Angara HNP LDP 18,161,862 38.40%
7. Lito Lapid NPC 16,965,464 35.87%
8. Imee Marcos HNP Nacionalista 15,882,628 33.58%
9. Francis Tolentino HNP PDP-Laban 15,510,026 32.79%
10. Koko Pimentel HNP PDP-Laban 14,668,665 31.01%
11. Bong Revilla HNP Lakas 14,624,445 30.92%
12. Nancy Binay UNA UNA 14,504,936 30.67%
13. JV Ejercito HNP NPC 14,313,727 30.26%
14. Bam Aquino Otso Diretso Liberal 14,144,923 29.91%
15. Jinggoy Estrada HNP PMP 11,359,305 24.02%
16. Mar Roxas Otso Diretso Liberal 9,843,288 20.81%
17. Serge Osmeña Independent 9,455,202 19.99%
18. Willie Ong Lakas 7,616,265 16.12%
19. Dong Mangudadatu HNP PDP-Laban 7,499,604 15.86%
20. Jiggy Manicad HNP Independent 6,896,889 14.58%
21. Chel Diokno Otso Diretso Liberal 6,342,939 13.41%
22. Juan Ponce Enrile PMP 5,319,298 11.25%
23. Gary Alejano Otso Diretso Liberal 4,726,652 9.99%
24. Neri Colmenares Labor Win Makabayan 4,683,942 9.90%
25. Samira Gutoc Otso Diretso Liberal 4,345,252 9.19%
26. Romulo Macalintal Otso Diretso Independent 4,007,339 8.47%
27. Erin Tañada Otso Diretso Liberal 3,870,529 8.18%
28. Larry Gadon KDP KBL 3,487,780 7.37%
29. Florin Hilbay Otso Diretso Aksyon 2,757,879 5.83%
30. Freddie Aguilar Independent 2,580,230 5.46%
31. Glenn Chong KDP KDP 2,534,335 5.36%
32. Raffy Alunan Bagumbayan 2,059,359 4.35%
33. Faisal Mangondato KKK Independent 1,988,719 4.20%
34. Agnes Escudero KKK Independent 1,545,985 3.27%
35. Dado Padilla PFP 1,095,337 2.32%
36. Ernesto Arellano Independent 937,713 2.30%
37. Allan Montaño Labor Win Independent 923,419 2.25%
38. Leody de Guzman Labor Win PLM 893,506 2.17%
39. Melchor Chavez WPP WPP 764,473 2.06%
40. Vanjie Abejo KKK Independent 656,006 2.00%
41. Toti Casiño KDP KDP 580,853 1.97%
42. Abner Afuang WPP WPP 559,001 1.92%
43. Shariff Albani WPP WPP 496,855 1.87%
44. Dan Roleda UNA UNA 469,840 1.80%
45. Ding Generoso KKK Independent 449,785 1.75%
46. Nur-Ana Sahidulla KDP KDP 444,096 1.68%
47. Abraham Jangao Independent 434,697 1.65%
48. Marcelino Arias WPP WPP 404,513 1.59%
49. Richard Alfajora KKK Independent 404,513 1.57%
50. Sonny Matula Labor Win, WPP WPP 400,339 1.50%
51. Elmer Francisco PFP 395,427 1.45%
52. Joan Sheelah Nalliw KKK Independent 390,165 1.38%
53. Gerald Arcega WPP WPP 383,749 1.30%
54. Butch Valdes KDP KDP 367,851 1.20%
55. Jesus Caceres KKK Independent 358,472 0.90%
56. Bernard Austria PDSP 347,013 0.70%
57. Jonathan Baldevarona Independent 310,411 0.67%
58. Emily Mallillin KKK Independent 304,215 0.64%
59. Charlie Gaddi KKK Independent 286,361 0.50%
60. RJ Javellana KDP KDP 258,538 0.47%
61. Junbert Guigayuma WPP WPP 240,306 0.40%
62. Luther Meniano WPP WPP 159,774 0.30%
Total turnout 47,296,442 74.31%
Total votes 362,179,156 N/A
Registered voters 63,643,263 100.0%
Source: COMELEC

2016

e o d Summary of the May 9, 2016 Philippine Senate election results
Rank Candidate Party Votes %
1. Franklin Drilon Liberal 18,607,391 41.52%
2. Joel Villanueva Liberal 18,459,222 41.39%
3. Tito Sotto NPC 17,200,371 38.51%
4. Panfilo Lacson Independent 16,926,152 37.82%
5. Dick Gordon Independent 16,719,322 37.28%
6. Juan Miguel Zubiri Independent 16,119,165 35.87%
7. Manny Pacquiao UNA 16,050,546 35.67%
8. Francis Pangilinan Liberal 15,955,949 35.56%
9. Risa Hontiveros Akbayan 15,915,213 35.53%
10. Win Gatchalian NPC 14,953,768 33.58%
11. Ralph Recto Liberal 14,271,868 31.79%
12. Leila de Lima Liberal 14,144,070 31.55%
13. Francis Tolentino Independent 12,811,098 28.64%
14. Serge Osmeña Independent 12,670,615 28.20%
15. Martin Romualdez Lakas 12,325,824 27.60%
16. Isko Moreno PMP 11,126,944 24.95%
17. TG Guingona Liberal 10,331,157 22.92%
18. Jericho Petilla Liberal 7,046,580 15.77%
19. Mark Lapid Aksyon 6,594,190 14.71%
20. Neri Colmenares Makabayan 6,484,985 14.48%
21. Edu Manzano Independent 5,269,539 11.69%
22. Roman Romulo Independent 4,824,484 10.79%
23. Susan Ople Nacionalista 2,775,191 6.07%
24. Alma Moreno UNA 2,432,224 5.42%
25. Greco Belgica Independent 2,100,985 4.62%
26. Raffy Alunan Independent 2,032,362 4.45%
27. Larry Gadon KBL 1,971,327 4.40%
28. Rey Langit UNA 1,857,630 4.12%
29. Lorna Kapunan Aksyon 1,838,978 4.03%
30. Dionisio Santiago Independent 1,828,305 4.02%
31. Samuel Pagdilao Independent 1,755,949 3.91%
32. Melchor Chavez WPP 1,736,822 3.85%
33. Getulio Napeñas UNA 1,719,576 3.82%
34. Ina Ambolodto Liberal 1,696,558 3.62%
35. Allan Montaño UNA 1,605,073 3.56%
36. Walden Bello Independent 1,091,194 2.41%
37. Jacel Kiram UNA 995,673 2.12%
38. Shariff Albani Independent 905,610 1.94%
39. Jovito Palparan Independent 855,297 1.87%
40. Cresente Paez Independent 808,623 1.80%
41. Sandra Cam PMP 805,756 1.77%
42. Dante Liban Independent 782,249 1.72%
43. Ramon Montaño Independent 759,263 1.68%
44. Aldin Ali WPP 733,838 1.56%
45. Romeo Maganto Lakas 731,021 1.60%
46. Godofredo Arquiza Independent 680,550 1.50%
47. Levi Baligod Independent 596,583 1.31%
48. Diosdado Valeroso Independent 527,146 1.16%
49. Ray Dorona Independent 495,191 1.09%
50. Eid Kabalu Independent 379,846 0.81%
Total turnout 44,979,151 80.69%
Total votes 319,308,507 --
Registered voters 55,739,911 100%
Reference: Commission on Elections sitting as the National Board of Canvassers.[10][11]

References

  1. ^ a b John Gray Geer, ed. (2004). Public opinion and polling around the world: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO, Inc. p. 690. ISBN 1-57607-911-2.
  2. ^ Quezon, Manuel L. III (May 11, 2013). "The Great Divide: The midterm election of 2013 (Part 1)". Manuel L. Quezon III. Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  3. ^ a b c "History of the Senate". Official website of the Senate. Retrieved 2010.
  4. ^ a b Quezon, Manuel III (June 15, 2009). "Reviewing the prewar plebiscites". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  5. ^ a b Quezon, Manuel III (November 20, 2006). "Block voting". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved 2010.
  6. ^ Quezon, Manuel III (April 10, 2008). "Senate the victim of a design flaw". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved 2011.
  7. ^ R., Lazo (2009). Philippine governance and the 1987 constitution. Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-4546-3.
  8. ^ Araneta, Sandy (July 24, 2001). "It's final: Honasan is No. 13". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 2011.
  9. ^ Dieter Nohlen; Florian Grotz; Christof Hartmann, eds. (2001). Elections in Asia and the Pacific: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific. Oxford University Press. pp. 223-224. ISBN 978-0-19-924959-6.
  10. ^ Commission on Elections en banc sitting as the National Board of Canvassers (May 19, 2016). "NBOC Resolution No. 007-16" (PDF). Retrieved 2016.
  11. ^ Commission on Elections en banc sitting as the National Board of Canvassers (May 19, 2016). "2016 Official Senatorial Election Results". Rappler. Retrieved 2016.

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