January 4, 1920(1920-01-04) (aged 76) Madrid, Spain
Novelist, playwright, politician
Benito Pérez Galdós (May 10, 1843 – January 4, 1920) was a Spanish realist novelist. He was the leading literary figure in 19th-century Spain, and some scholars consider him second only to Miguel de Cervantes in stature as a Spanish novelist.
Galdós was a prolific writer, publishing 31 novels, 46 Episodios Nacionales (National Episodes), 23 plays, and the equivalent of 20 volumes of shorter fiction, journalism and other writings. He remains popular in Spain, and is considered as equal to Dickens, Balzac and Tolstoy. Some of his works have been translated into English, as he has slowly become popular in the Anglophone world.
While his plays are generally considered to be less successful than his novels, Realidad (1892) is important in the history of realism in the Spanish theatre.
Benito Pérez Galdós was born in his family's home, located in Calle Cano in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (currently known as the Casa-Museo or House-Museum Pérez Galdós) on the 10th May 1843. He was the tenth and last son of the Lieutenant Colonel Don Sebastián Pérez and Doña Dolores Galdós. Two days after his birth, he was baptized under the name of Benito María de los Dolores in the church of San Francisco de Asís in the same city.
He studied at San Agustín school, where he was taught by teachers trained in the principles of the Enlightenment. This event awakened in the young Benito a critical spirit, his love for history and his passion for the visual arts and literature. In 1862, after having completed his secondary studies, he travelled to Tenerife in order to obtain his certificate in Bachillerato in Arts. That same year he moved to Madrid to start his law degree, but he did not complete his studies.
While studying at university, he frequented the Ateneo of Madrid and other intellectual and artists' gatherings. Through them and his walks around the city, he became acquainted with the life in Madrid and witnessed the political and historical events of the time. These experiences are reflected in his journalistic works and first novels: The Golden Fountain Café (La Fontana de oro) (1870) and El audaz (1871).
Career as a writer
By 1865, he was publishing articles in La Nación on literature, art, music, and politics and it was clear that he was not going to pursue a legal career. His first attempt at a literary career came in 1867, when a didactic historical verse drama was rejected. His next venture into the theatre did not take place until 1892.
He had already become enthusiastic about the novels of Charles Dickens and, in 1868, his translation of Pickwick Papers introduced his work to the Spanish public. The previous year, he had visited Paris and had begun to read the works of Balzac. In 1870, he was appointed editor of La Revista de España and began to express his opinions on a wide range of diverse topics such as history, culture, politics, art, music and literature. Between 1867 and 1868, he wrote what would be his first novel, La Fontana de Oro, a historical work set in the period 1820-1823. With the help of money from his sister-in-law, it was published privately in 1870. Critical reaction was slow to gain momentum but it was eventually hailed as the beginning of a new phase in Spanish fiction, and was highly praised for its literary quality as well as for its social and moral purpose.
Pérez Galdós, circa 1863.
He next developed the outline of a major project, the Episodios Nacionales: a series of historical novels outlining the major events in Spanish history from the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 to his own times. The ostensible aim of this project was to regenerate Spain through the awakening of a new sense of national identity. The first episode was called Trafalgar and appeared in 1873. Successive episodes appeared in fits and starts until the forty-sixth and final novel, Cánovas, appeared in 1912. Every so often, Galdós seemed to grow tired of this project and stated that he would not write another episode. However, the public bought them avidly, despite the criticism that was levelled at his other works, and they remained the basis of his contemporary reputation and income. He conducted an enormous amount of research in the writing of these stories because official reports, newspaper accounts and histories were often rigidly partisan. To achieve balance and a wider perspective, Galdós sought out survivors and eyewitnesses to the actual events - such as an old man who had been a cabin boy aboard the ship Santísima Trinidad at Trafalgar, who became the central figure of that book. Galdós is often critical of the official versions of the events he describes and often ran into problems with the Catholic Church, then a dominant force in Spanish cultural life.
His other novels were classified into the groups by José Montesinos:
The early works from La Fontana de Oro up to La familia de León Roch (1878). The best known of these is probably Doña Perfecta (1876), which describes the impact made by the arrival of a young radical on a stiflingly clerical town. In Marianela (1878) a young man regains his eyesight after a life of blindness and rejects his best friend Marianela for her ugliness.
The Novelas españolas contemporáneas, from La desheredada (1881) to Angel Guerra (1891), a loosely related series of 22 novels which are the author's major claim to literary distinction, including his masterpiece Fortunata y Jacinta (1886-87). They are bound together by the device of recurring characters, borrowed from Balzac's La Comédie humaine. Fortunata y Jacinta is almost as long as War and Peace. It concerns the fortunes of four characters: a young man-about-town, his wife, his lower-class mistress, and her husband. The character of Fortunata is based on a real girl whom Galdós first saw in a tenement building in Madrid, drinking a raw egg - which is the way in which the fictional characters come to meet.
The later novels of psychological investigation, many of which are in dialogue form.
Influences and characteristics
Galdós was an enthusiastic traveller. His novels display a detailed knowledge of not only Madrid but many other cities, towns and villages of Spain - such as Toledo in Angel Guerra. He visited Great Britain on many occasions, his first trip being in 1883. The descriptions of the various districts and low-life characters that he encountered in Madrid, particularly in Fortunata y Jacinta, are similar to the approaches of Dickens and the French Realist novelists such as Balzac. Galdós also shows a Balzacian interest in technology and crafts, for example the lengthy descriptions of the ropery in La desheredada or the detailed accounts of how the heroine of La de Bringas (1884) embroiders her pictures out of hair.
He was also inspired by Émile Zola and Naturalism in which, under the influence of the deterministic philosophy of Hippolyte Taine, writers strove to show how their characters were forged by the interaction of heredity, environment and social conditions - race, milieu, et moment. In addition, these writers were keen to suggest that their works were scientific dissections of society. This set of influences is, perhaps, at its clearest in Lo prohibido (1884-85), which is also noteworthy for being told in the first person by an unreliable narrator who, in addition, dies during the course of the work - it pre-dates similar experiments by André Gide such as L'immoraliste.
Another influence came from the philosophy of Karl Christian Friedrich Krause, which became influential in Spain mainly due to the influence of the famous educationalist Francisco Giner de los Ríos. The clearest example of this influence on Galdós is in his novel El Amigo Manso (1882). However, it is also clear that the mystical tendencies of krausismo led to his interest in insanity and the strange wisdom that can sometimes be shown by those people who appear to be mad. This becomes a theme of great importance in the works of Galdós from Fortunata y Jacinta onwards, for example in Miau (1888) and his final novel La razón de la sinrazón.
All through his literary career, Galdós incurred the wrath of the Catholic press. He attacked what he saw as abuses of entrenched and dogmatic religious power rather than religious faith or Christianity per se. In fact, the need for faith is a very important feature in many of his novels and there are many sympathetic portraits of priests and nuns.
His first mature play was Realidad, an adaptation of his novel of the same name, which had been written in dialogue. Galdós was attracted to the idea of making direct contact with his public and seeing and hearing their reactions. Rehearsals began in February 1892. The theatre was packed on the opening night and received the play enthusiastically. Galdós took about 15 curtain calls. However, although the audience reception was good, the play did not receive universal critical acclaim because of its realistic dialogue which did not accord with the general theatrical language of the time, the setting of a scene in the boudoir of a courtesan, and the un-Spanish attitude towards a wife's adultery. The Catholic press did not attend the performance but this did not prevent them from denouncing the author as a perverse and wicked influence. The play ran for twenty nights.
In 1901, his play Electra caused a storm of outrage and floods of equally hyperbolic enthusiasm. As in many of his works, Galdós targeted clericalism and the inhuman fanaticism and superstition that can accompany it. The performance was interrupted by audience reaction and the author had to take many curtain calls. After the third night, the conservative and clerical parties organised a demonstration outside the theatre. The police moved in and arrested two members of a workers' organization who had reacted against the demonstration. Several people were wounded as a result of the clash and, the next day, the newspapers were divided between liberal support for the play and Catholic/conservative condemnation. Over one hundred performances were given in Madrid alone and the play was also performed in the provinces. In 1934, 33 years later, a revival in Madrid produced much the same degree of uproar and outrage.
Later life and political involvement
Despite his attacks on the forces of conservatism, Galdós had shown only a weak interest in being directly involved in politics. In 1886 the Prime Minister Práxedes Mateo Sagasta appointed him as the (absent) deputy for the town and district of Guayama, Puerto Rico at the Madrid parliament; he never visited the place, but had a representative inform him of the status of the area and felt a duty to represent its inhabitants appropriately. This appointment lasted for five years and mainly seems to have given him the chance to observe the conduct of politics at first hand, which informs scenes in some of his novels.
By 1907, however, there was no sign of national regeneration and the government of the day was making no attempt to control or limit the powers of the Catholic Church. At the age of 64, he re-entered the political arena as a Republican deputy. He seems to have undertaken the task of uniting the anti-monarchic groups, which included Democrats, Republicans, liberals and socialists. He even approached the Marxist leader Pablo Iglesias and persuaded him to join a new organisation called La Conjunción Republicano-socialista, with Galdós as its titular head.
However, by 1912, Galdós was growing disillusioned with the way that the personal ambitions of his fellow Republicans conflicted with achieving genuine political change and it was becoming clear that the coalition of anti-monarchic groups was unable to exercise any great influence over developments. He began to fade from the scene of active political involvement. In 1914, he was the Republican candidate for Las Palmas, but this was more of a local tribute to him. In 1918, he joined in a protest with Miguel de Unamuno and Mariano de Cavia against the encroaching censorship and authoritarianism coming from the putatively constitutional monarch. He had been blind since 1912, was in financial difficulties and increasingly troubled by illness.
He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature for five years, 1912-16, which would both have increased his prestige outside Spain and improved his financial status, but neither was successful. Among those who nominated Pérez Galdós was the 1904 winner José Echegaray. A national subscription scheme was set up to raise money to help Pérez Galdós, to which the King and his Prime Minister Romanones were the first to subscribe. The activities of the Catholic press, which sneered at the writer as a blind beggar, along with the outbreak of World War I, led to the scheme being closed in 1916 with the money raised being less than half what would be required to clear his debts and set up a pension. In that same year, however, the Ministry of Public Instruction appointed him to take charge of the arrangements for the Cervantes tercentenary, for a stipend of 1000 pesetas per month. Although the event never took place, the stipend continued for the rest of Galdós's life.
In 1897, Pérez Galdós had been elected to the Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy). After becoming blind he continued to dictate his books for the rest of his life. Pérez Galdós died at the age of 76. Shortly before his death, a statue in his honour was unveiled in the Parque del Buen Retiro, the most popular park in Madrid, financed solely by public donations.
Una industria que vive de la muerte. Episodio musical del cólera (1865)
Necrología de un proto-tipo (1866)
La conjuración de las palabras. Cuento alegórico (1868)
El artículo de fondo (1871)
La mujer del filósofo (1871)
La novela en el tranvía (1871)
Un tribunal literario (1872)
La pluma en el viento o el viaje de la pluma (1873)
En un jardín (1876)
La mula y el buey (1876)
El verano (1876)
La princesa y el granuja (1877)
El mes de junio (1878)
La tienda-asilo (1886)
El Pórtico de la Gloria (1896)
Entre copas (1902)
La república de las letras (1905)
Crónicas de Portugal (1890)
Discurso de Ingreso en la Real Academia Española (1897)
Memoranda, Artículos y Cuentos (1906)
Política Española I (1923)
Política Española II (1923)
Arte y Crítica (1923)
Fisonomías Sociales (1923)
Nuestro Teatro (1923)
Cronicón 1883 a 1886 (1924)
Toledo. Su historia y su Leyenda (1927)
Viajes y Fantasías (1929)
Works translated into English
In the United Kingdom
Gloria (1879. London: Remington and Co. Translated by Natham Wetherell; 1883. Trübner & Co. Translated by Clara Bell)
Doña Perfecta, a tale of Modern Spain (1886. London: Samuel Tinsley, Translated by D. P. W.)
Marianela (1893. London: Digby, Long. Translated by Mary Wharton)
Doña Perfecta (1894. London: The Fisher Unwin. Translated by Mary Wharton; 1999. London: Widenfeld & Nicolson Ltd. Translated by A. K. Tulloch; 2009. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Translated by Graham Whittaker)
The Spendthrifts [La de Bringas] (1951. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. The Illustrated Novel Library. Translated by Gamel Woolsey; 1953. London: Reader's Union. Translated by Gamel Woolsey)
Torment [Tormento] (1952. London: Widenfeld & Nicolson Ltd. Translated by J. M. Cohen)
Miau (1963. London: Methuen. Translated by J. M. Cohen)
Fortunata and Jacinta: Two Stories of Married Women [Fortunata y Jacinta] (1973. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Translated by Lester Clarck)
La desheredada (1976. London: The Folio Society. Translated by Lester Clarck)
Torquemada on the Fire [Torquemada en la hoguera] (1985. Glasgow: University of Glasglow. Translated by Nicholas Round)
Fortunata and Jacinta [Fortunata y Jacinta] (1987. London: Viking. Translated by Agnes Moncy Gullón; 1992. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Translated by Harriet S. Turner; 1998. London: Penguin Books. Translated by Agnes Moncy Gullón)
Torquemada (1988. London: André Deutsch. Translated by Frances M. López-Morillas)
Nazarín (1993. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Translated by Jo Labanyi)
Misericordia (1995. Santry: Dedalus. Translated by Charles de Salis; 2007. Madrid: Isidora. Revista de Estudios Galdosianos no. 3, pgs. 6-293. Translated by Robert H. Russell; 2013. Madrid: Ediciones. Translated by Robert H. Russell)
That Bringas Woman: The Bringas Family [La de Bringas] (1996. London: Phoenix. Translated by Catherine Jagoe)
Tristana (1996. London: Bristol Classical Press; 1998. London: Duckworth Publishers; 1998. London: Bloomsbury Publishing; 2016. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Translated by Pablo Valdivia)
Inferno [Tormento] (1998. London: Phoenix House (Weidenfeld & Nicolson). Translated by Abigail Lee Six)
Halma (2015. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Translated by Robert S. Rudder, Ignacio López-Calvo)
Trafalgar (1905/1921/1951. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Translated by Frederick Alexander Kirkpatrick)
Meow. A Tragicomedy [Miau] (2014. Liverpool: Aris & Phillips Hispanic Classics. Translated by Ruth Katz Crispin)
The Conspiracy of Words [La conjuración de las palabras] ( 2007. Madrid: Isidora. Revista de Estudios Galdosianos no. 4, pgs. 165-170. Translated by Robert H. Russell)
In the United States
Gloria (1882. New York: William S. Gottsberger Publisher. Translated by Clara Bell; 2012. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub. Translated by N. Wetherell)
Doña Perfecta (1884. New York: Gottsberger. Translated by Clara Bell; 1883. New York: George Munro, Publisher. Translated by D. P. W.; 1885. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Translated by Mary jane Serrano; 1940 New York: P. F. Collier & Son; 1960. New York: Barron's Educational Series, Inc. Translated by Harriet de Onís; 2013. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub. Translated by D. P. W)
Marianela (1883. New York: William S. Gottsberger Publisher. Translated by Clara Bell; 2013. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub; 2015. Scholar's Choice Publisher. Translated by Mary Wharton)
La familia de León Roch (1888. New York: William S. Gottsberger Publisher. Translated by Clara Bell)
Marianela: A Story of Spanish Love [Marianela] (1892. Chicago: A.C. McClurg and Company. Translated by Hellen W. Lester)
The Spendthrifts [La de Bringas] (1952. Mew York: Farrar Straus & Young. The Illustrated Novel Library. Translated by Gamel Woolsley; 2013. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub)
Tristana (1961. Peterborough, NH: R. R. Smith. Translated by R. Selden-Rose. 2014. Review Books Classics. New York: ReadHowYouWant. Translated by Margarte Jull Costa)
Compassion [Misericordia] (1962. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. Translated by Toby Talbot)
El amigo Manso (1963. New York: Oxford University Press)
Miau (1970. New York: Oxford University Press. Translated by Eduard R. Mulvihill, Roberto G. Sánchez)
León Roch: a Romance [La familia de León Roch] (1974. New York: Howard Ferting. Translated by Clara Bell)
The Shadow [La sombra] (1980. Ohio: Ohio University Press. Translated by Karen O. Austin)
Fortunata and Jacinta: Two Stories of Married Women [Fortunata y Jacinta] (1986. Georgia: University of Georgia Press. Translated by Agnes Moncy Gullón)
Torquemada. Torquemada at the Stake - Torquemada on the Cross - Torquemada in Purgatory - Torquemada and Saint Peter [Torquemada en la hoguera. Torquemada en la Cruz. Torquemada en el Purgatorio. Torquemada y San Pedro] (1986. New York: Columbia University Press. Translated by Frances M. López-Morillas)
The Golden Fountain Café: a Historic Novel of the XIXth Century [La Fontana de Oro] (1989. Pittsburgh, PA: Latin American Literary Review Press. Translated by Walten Rubin et al.)
Our Friend Manso [El amigo Manso] (1987. New York: Columbia University Press. Translated by Robert Russell)
Ángel Guerra (1990. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. Translated by Karen O. Austin)
The Unknown [La incógnita](1991. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. Translated by Karen O. Austin)
Reality [Realidad] (1992. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. Translated by Karen O. Austin)
The Cape of Don Francisco Torquemada: 1.Torquemada in the Bonfire. 2. Torquemada on the Cross. 3. Torquemada in Purgatory. 4. Torquemada and Saint Peter [Torquemada en la hoguera. Torquemada en la Cruz. Torquemada en el Purgatorio. Torquemada y San Pedro] (1996. San Bernardino, CA: Borgo Press. Translated by Robert G. Trimble)
Nazarín (1997. Pittsburgh, PA: Latin American Literary Review Press. Translated by Robert S. Ruder, Gloria Chacón de Arjona)
Torquemada at the Stake [Torquemada en la hoguera] (2004. Mineola, New York: Dover. Translated by Stanley Appel Baum)
Dona Perfecta [Doña Perfecta] (2009. ReadHowYouWant Publisher. Easy Read Edition; 2014. United States: Independent Publishin-Platform)
Leon Roch: a Romance. Volumne 1. [La familia de León Roch] (2018. Franklin Classics Trade Press)
Benito Pérez Galdós. Best Novels (2017. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub. Translated by Mary J. Serrano)
Trafalgar. A Tale (1884. New York: William S. Gottsberger Publisher. Translated by Clara Bell; 1993. New York: H. Fertig)
The Court of Charles IV. A Romance of the Escorial [La Corte de Carlos IV] (1886. New York: William S. Gottsberger Publisher. Translated by Clara Bell; 1993. New York: H. Fertig)
La batalla de los Arapiles (1985. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. Translated by R. Ogden)
Saragossa. A History of Spanish Valor [Zaragoza] (1899. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Translted by Minna Caroline Smith)
The Campaign of the Maestrazgo [La campaña del Maestrazgo] (1990. Wakefield. N. H.: Longwood Academic. Translated by Lila Wells Guzmán)
Gerona (1993. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Translated by G. J. Racz; 20115. Scholar's Select. Palala Press. Goodreads)
A Royalist Volunteer [Un voluntario realista] (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Translated by Lila Wells Guzmán)
Juan Martin el Empecinado (2009. Charleston: Nabu Press)
El Grande Oriente (2009. Charleston: Nabu Press)
Aita Tettuaen (2009. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub)
The Court of Charles IV [La Corte de Carlos IV] (2009. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub. Translated by Clara Bell)
Saragossa [Zaragoza] (2015. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub. Translated by Minna Smith)
Trafalgar (2016. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub)
The Grandfather. Drama in five acts [El abuelo] (1910. Boston: Poet Lore XXXI, no. 3. Translated by Elizabeth Wallace; 2017. Miami: Editorial Rarebooksclub)
Electra (1911. Chicago: The Drama, no. 2, pgs. 12-138; 1919. Boston: R. G. Badger in Contemporary Spanish Dramatists. Translated by Charles Alfred Turrell)
The Duchess of San Quintín, Daniela [La de San Quintín] (1928. New York-London: D. Appleton and Company. Translated by Eleanor Bontecou, P. M. Hayden, J. G. Underhill)
Marianela (2014. Texas: Stone Cottage Theater. Adapted by Mark-Brian Sonna)
The Duchess of San Quintín: a play in three acts [La de San Quintín] (2016. Newark: Juan de la Cuesta Cop. Translated by Robert M. Fedorcheck)
Pérez Galdós' House-Museum
The Pérez Galdós' House-Museum (Casa-Museo Pérez Galdós in Spanish) is located in the Triana neighbourhood, in the centre of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria. The house (the place where Galdós was born) was acquired and created in 1954 by the Cabildo de Gran Canaria and inaugurated on 9 July 1960 by María Pérez Galdós Cobián, the writer's daughter.
In the House-Museum visitors can see the house where the writer grew up, as well as a display of documents (letters, manuscripts...), furniture, musical instruments, paintings and photos that belonged to both the writer and his family.
The aim of the House-Museum is the conservation, study and dissemination of the legacy of Benito Pérez Galdós. For this matter, the management of the House-Museum has organised eleven international congresses, countless conferences and exhibitions, school visits, and has developed a publishing line with several collections of its own.
The House-Museum also has its own library with numerous works by Galdós in different languages, as well as the author's complete collection in ePub format (only in Spanish) and a virtual tour, among others.