Patrick Joseph Hayes
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Patrick Joseph Hayes


Patrick Joseph Cardinal Hayes
Archbishop of New York
Cardinal Patrick Hayes.jpg
SeeNew York
AppointedMarch 10, 1919
InstalledMarch 19, 1919
Term endedSeptember 4, 1938
PredecessorJohn Murphy Farley
SuccessorFrancis Spellman
Other post(s)Cardinal-Priest of Santa Maria in Via
Vicar Apostolic for the United States Armed Forces
Orders
OrdinationSeptember 8, 1892
by Michael Corrigan
ConsecrationOctober 28, 1914
by John Murphy Farley
Created cardinalMarch 24, 1924
by Pius XI
RankCardinal-Priest
Personal details
Born(1867-11-20)November 20, 1867
DiedSeptember 4, 1938(1938-09-04) (aged 70)
Monticello, New York, U.S.
BuriedSt. Patrick's Cathedral, New York
Previous post(s)
MottoDomine Mane Nobiscum
(Stay With Us O Lord)
Coat of armsPatrick Joseph Cardinal Hayes's coat of arms
Ordination history of
Patrick Joseph Hayes
History
Episcopal consecration
Consecrated byJohn Murphy Farley
DateOctober 28, 1914
Episcopal succession
Bishops consecrated by Patrick Joseph Hayes as principal consecrator
William F. O'Hare, S.J.February 25, 1920
John Joseph DunnOctober 28, 1921
Daniel Joseph CurleyMay 1, 1923
John Joseph MittySeptember 8, 1926
Joseph Francis RummelMay 28, 1928
John Francis O'HernMarch 9, 1929
James Edward KearneyOctober 28, 1932
James Thomas Gibbons HayesJune 18, 1933
Stephen Joseph DonahueMay 1, 1934
Bartholomew J. EustaceMarch 25, 1938
Styles of
Patrick Hayes
Coat of arms of Patrick Joseph Hayes.svg
Reference styleHis Eminence
Spoken styleYour Eminence
Informal styleCardinal
SeeNew York

Patrick Joseph Hayes (November 20, 1867 - September 4, 1938) was an American cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of New York from 1919 until his death, and was elevated to the cardinalate in 1924.

Early life and education

Patrick Hayes was born in the Five Points section of Manhattan to Daniel Hayes and Mary Gleason.[1] In his own words, Hayes "was born very humble and, I may say, of poor people."[2] Both of his parents were from County Kerry, Ireland, and moved to the United States in 1864.[3] A younger brother, John, was born in 1870. Hayes' mother died in June 1872, and his father later remarried around 1876; a half-sister, Anastasia, was also born that year.[3] At age 15, he was sent to live with his aunt and uncle, who ran a grocery store where Hayes then worked.[3]

After attending La Salle Academy, Hayes studied at Manhattan College, where he excelled at philosophy and the classics and obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree with high honors in 1888.[3] At Manhattan, he also befriended George Mundelein, who would later become Archbishop of Chicago.[4] Hayes then attended St. Joseph's Seminary in Troy.[1]

Priesthood

Hayes was ordained to the priesthood by Archbishop Michael Corrigan on September 8, 1892.[1] He was then sent for further studies at the Catholic University of America in Washington, D.C., earning a Licentiate of Sacred Theology in 1894.[3]

Upon his return to New York City, Hayes was appointed Curate at St. Gabriel's Church on the Lower East Side, where he served under its pastor, John Murphy Farley (whom he would later succeed as Archbishop of New York).[3] Hayes, following Farley's elevation to the episcopacy, served as his private secretary from 1895 to 1903, thereafter he was appointed chancellor of the Archdiocese and Rector of the Cathedral College.[3] He was named Domestic Prelate of His Holiness on October 15, 1907.[1]

Early episcopal career

Auxiliary Bishop of New York

On July 3, 1914, Hayes was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of New York and Titular Bishop of Thagaste by Pope Pius X.[5] He received his episcopal consecration on the following October 28 from Cardinal Farley, with Bishops Henry Gabriels and Thomas Cusack serving as co-consecrators, at St. Patrick's Cathedral.[5]

Bishop for the Military Services

Hayes was later named Vicar Apostolic of Military, USA, on November 24, 1917.[5] Serving as head of the American military ordinariate during World War I, he recruited hundreds of priests as commissioned officers or chaplains.[3] He was also one of the four episcopal members of the executive committee of the National Catholic War Council.[3]

Archbishop of New York

Following the death of Cardinal Farley in September 1918, Hayes was appointed by Pope Benedict XV as the fifth Archbishop of New York on March 10, 1919.[5] He was formally installed as Archbishop on the following March 19.[4] He founded the archdiocesan Catholic Charities in 1920, and subsequently became known as "the Cardinal of Charities."[4] In a 1921 pastoral letter, Hayes strongly condemned abortion, contraception and divorce.[6] He had the first convention of the American Birth Control League raided,[7] and later called its members "prophets of decadence".[8] He welcomed the election of Éamon de Valera as President of the Irish Republic and contributed $1,000 to Sinn Féin.[3]

Cardinal

Pope Pius XI created him Cardinal Priest of Santa Maria in Via in the consistory of March 24, 1924. It was speculated that the Pope delayed his elevation to the Sacred College of Cardinals because a group affiliated with New York's St. Patrick's Cathedral had stoned the Union Club for flying a British flag,[clarification needed] but Pius nevertheless warmly greeted Hayes at the consistory as "dear little brother".[4][9]

The cardinal opposed Prohibition, backed legislation to limit indecency on the stage, and endorsed unemployment relief during the Great Depression. Commenting on the Depression in 1931, he stated, "The American people are experiencing a return to religion following a period of carelessness and cynicism marked by the prosperity of the land...Now they are returning when they find they are in need of something greater than the material in facing adversity and stress."[2]

After the Rev. Charles Coughlin praised the former Mayor Jimmy Walker in New York, Hayes, who had earlier denounced Walker for his perceived lack of morality, ruled that no ecclesiastical visitor might address a religious gathering without the cardinal's permission.[10]

On June 24, 1924, he offered the invocation at the opening of the 1924 Democratic National Convention.[11] He used his Tammany Hall connections to line up Democratic support in Congress for legislation protecting Catholic schools in the Philippines in 1932.[12] During the Spanish Civil War, Hayes was outspoken in his support for the fascist-nationalist forces of General Franco, "claiming that 'Loyalists are controlled by radicals and communists'." [13][14]

Hayes had a summer house in the Catskill Mountains, near St. Joseph's camp, maintained by the Amityville Dominican nuns; he once encountered a group of Klansmen there.[4]

Death and legacy

In September 1938, Hayes died from a heart attack, caused by coronary thrombosis, in Monticello, New York, at age 70.[15]

Hayes lay in state at St. Patrick's Cathedral and a Requiem Mass was celebrated on 9 September 1938. He was interred in the crypt of the Cathedral following the Mass.[]

Cardinal Hayes High School in The Bronx is named after him.

Images

Hayes as the Archdiocesan Chancellor and President of Cathedral College
Cardinal Hayes on the September 30, 1935, cover of Time

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Miranda, Salvador. "Hayes, Joseph". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church.
  2. ^ a b "Roman Senator". Time Magazine. March 16, 1931. Archived from the original on April 6, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Hayes, Patrick Joseph". Dictionary of American Biography. Archived from the original on July 10, 2011. Retrieved 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d e "Catholics in Cleveland". Time Magazine. September 30, 1935. Archived from the original on November 2, 2012.
  5. ^ a b c d "Patrick Joseph Cardinal Hayes". Catholic-Hierarchy.org.
  6. ^ Hayes, Patrick (November 14, 1921). "Christmas Pastoral Letter of Archbishop Hayes". Catholic Family News. Archived from the original on July 20, 2011. Retrieved 2009.
  7. ^ "Birth Control's 21st". Time Magazine. February 18, 1935. Archived from the original on December 22, 2011.
  8. ^ ""Sanger, Censorship, and the Catholic Church - The Latest Battle in a Long War," #6, Winter 1993/4". Margaret Sanger Papers Project. Archived from the original on October 11, 2012. Retrieved 2015.
  9. ^ "Two Americans". Time Magazine. March 17, 1924. Archived from the original on November 21, 2010.
  10. ^ "Priest in Politics". Time Magazine. December 11, 1933. Archived from the original on February 15, 2009.
  11. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924)
  12. ^ Morris, Charles R. (May 12, 2000). "Politicians of the Cloth". The New York Times.
  13. ^ McGreevy, John T. (September 17, 2004). Catholicism and American Freedom: A History. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-32608-6.
  14. ^ "Hemingway and the Fascist Salute -- Watchtower ONLINE LIBRARY". wol.jw.org. Retrieved 2022.
  15. ^ "Death of Hayes". Time Magazine. September 12, 1938. Archived from the original on August 26, 2010.

External links

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
--
Apostolic Vicar for the Military Services
1917 - 1938
Succeeded by
Preceded by Archbishop of New York
1919 - 1938
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Auxiliary Bishop of New York
1914 - 1919
Succeeded by

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Patrick_Joseph_Hayes
 



 



 
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