Pata? (Hebrew: pata?, IPA: [pa'ta?], Biblical Hebrew: pa?a?) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a horizontal line ⟨ ⟩ underneath a letter. In modern Hebrew, it indicates the phoneme which is close to the "a" sound in the English word far and is transliterated as an a.
In Modern Hebrew, a pata? makes the same sound as a qamatz, as does the ?a?af pata? (Hebrew: IPA: [?a'taf pa'ta?], "reduced pata?"). The reduced (or ?a?af) niqqud exist for pata?, qamatz, and segol which contain a shva next to it.
The following table contains the pronunciation and transliteration of the different pata?s in reconstructed historical forms and dialects using the International Phonetic Alphabet. The pronunciation in IPA is above and the transliteration is below.
|, ||Pata? male||[a:]||?||[?]|
A pata? on a letter ?, ?, or (that is, ? with a dot (mappiq) in it) at the end of a word is sounded before the letter, and not after. Thus, ? (Noah; properly transliterated as Noa?) is pronounced /no.a?/ in Modern Hebrew and /no.a?/ or /no.?a?/ in Biblical Hebrew. This only occurs at the ends of words, only with pata? and only with these three letters. This is sometimes called a pata? gnuva, or "stolen" pata? (more formally, "furtive pata?"), since the sound "steals" an imaginary epenthetic consonant to make the extra syllable.
By adding two vertical dots (shva) the vowel is made very short. However, these vowels lengths are not manifested in Modern Hebrew.
|Vowel comparison table|
|? ||? ||? ||a||spa|
|? ||U+05B2||HATAF PATAH|