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Pantaleon portrait.jpg
Portrait of Pantaleon.
Indo-Greek king
Reign190-180 BC
PredecessorDemetrius I
Died180 BCE
MotherBerenisa I
King Pantaleon in profile, with Zeus on the reverse.
Agathocles commemorative coin for Pantaleon, represented on the obverse.
Cupro-nickel coin of king Pantaleon.
Obv: Bust of Dionysos with a wreath of leaves.
Rev: Panther with a small bell around the neck, touching a vine with the left leg. Greek legend? "Of King Pantaleon".

Pantaleon (Greek: ) was a Greek king who reigned some time between 190-180 BC in Bactria and India. He was a younger contemporary or successor of the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius, and is sometimes believed to have been his brother and/or subking.

The scarcity of his coinage indicates a short reign. Known evidence suggests that he was replaced by his (probable) brother or son Agathocles, by whom he was commemorated on a "pedigree" coin.

Copper-Nickel coinage

Some of his coins (as well as those of Agathocles and Euthydemus II) have another surprising characteristic: they are made of copper-nickel alloy, a technology that would not be developed in the West until the 18th century, but was known by the Chinese at the time. This suggests that exchanges of the metallic alloy or technicians happened between China and the region of Bactria.

Bilingual Indian-standard coinage

He was the first Greek king to strike Indian coins, peculiar irregular bronzes representing a lion with a dancing Indian woman, probably the goddess Lakshmi (a type also known in the Post-Mauryan coinage of Gandhara), which suggests he had his base in Arachosia and Gandhara and wanted support from the native population.

Greco-Bactrian kings Indo-Greek kings
West Bactria East Bactria Paropamisade
Arachosia Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura[2]
326-325 BCE Campaigns of Alexander the Great in India Nanda Empire
312 BCE Creation of the Seleucid Empire Creation of the Maurya Empire
305 BCE Seleucid Empire after Mauryan war Maurya Empire
280 BCE Foundation of Ai-Khanoum
255-239 BCE Independence of the
Greco-Bactrian kingdom
Diodotus I
Emperor Ashoka (268-232)
239-223 BCE Diodotus II
230-200 BCE Euthydemus I
200-190 BCE Demetrius I Sunga Empire
190-185 BCE Euthydemus II
190-180 BCE Agathocles Pantaleon
185-170 BCE Antimachus I
180-160 BCE Apollodotus I
175-170 BCE Demetrius II
160-155 BCE Antimachus II
170-145 BCE Eucratides I
155-130 BCE Yuezhi occupation,
loss of Ai-Khanoum
Eucratides II
Heliocles I
Menander I
130-120 BCE Yuezhi occupation Zoilos I Agathokleia Yavanarajya
120-110 BCE Lysias Strato I
110-100 BCE Antialcidas Heliokles II
100 BCE Polyxenos Demetrius III
100-95 BCE Philoxenus
95-90 BCE Diomedes Amyntas Epander
90 BCE Theophilos Peukolaos Thraso
90-85 BCE Nicias Menander II Artemidoros
90-70 BCE Hermaeus Archebius
Yuezhi occupation Maues (Indo-Scythian)
75-70 BCE Vonones Telephos Apollodotus II
65-55 BCE Spalirises Hippostratos Dionysios
55-35 BCE Azes I (Indo-Scythians) Zoilos II
55-35 BCE Vijayamitra/ Azilises Apollophanes
25 BCE - 10 CE Gondophares Zeionises Kharahostes Strato II
Strato III
Gondophares (Indo-Parthian) Rajuvula (Indo-Scythian)
Kujula Kadphises (Kushan Empire) Bhadayasa

External links

Preceded by
Demetrius I
Indo-Greek Ruler
(Arachosia, Gandhara)

190-185 BCE
Succeeded by
Apollodotus I
  1. ^ O. Bopearachchi, "Monnaies gréco-bactriennes et indo-grecques, Catalogue raisonné", Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, 1991, p.453
  2. ^ Quintanilla, Sonya Rhie (2 April 2019). "History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE". BRILL – via Google Books.

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