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Classical sources usually considered the Paeonians distinct from the rest of the Paleo-Balkan people, comprising their own ethnicity and language. It is considered a Paleo-Balkan language but this is only a geographical grouping, not a genealogical one. Modern linguists are uncertain as to the classification of Paeonian, due to the extreme scarcity of surviving materials in the language, with numerous hypotheses having been published:
Dysoron (? and ?) (nowadays Dysoro ()), name of a mountain, from "dys-", "bad" (cf. Greekdyskolos "difficult", and "oros" Greekoros, "mountain");
Agrianes, name of a tribe, possibly from *agro- "field" (cf. Lat. ager, Grc. agros, Eng. acre) with cognates in the Greek tribe of Agraioi who lived in Aetolia, and the name of the month Agrianos which is found throughout the Dorian and Aeolian worlds.
The Indo-European voiced aspirates (*bh, *dh, etc.) became plain voiced consonants (/b/, /d/, etc.), just like in Illyrian, Thracian, and Phrygian.
^Harry van der Hulst, Rob Goedemans and Ellen van Zanten as ed., A Survey of Word Accentual Patterns in the Languages of the World, Empirical Approaches to Language Typology, Walter de Gruyter, 2010, ISBN311019631X, p. 433.
^Susan Wise Bauer (2007). The History of the Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome.ISBN0-393-05974-X, page 518: "... Italy); to the north, Thracian tribes known collectively as the Paeonians."
^Francesco Villari. Gli Indoeuropei e le origini dell'Europa. Il Mulino, 1997. ISBN88-15-05708-0.
^cite journal|Hrach Martirosyan "Origins and historical development of the Armenian language" in Journal of Language Relationship, International Scientific Periodical, n.º10 (2013). Russian State University for the Humanities, Institute of Linguistics of the Russian Academy of Sciences.