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Orthodox Jewish philosophy comprises the philosophical and theological teachings of Orthodox Judaism. Though Orthodox Judaism sees itself as the heir of traditional rabbinic Judaism, the present-day movement is thought to have first formed in the late 18th century, mainly in reaction to the Jewish emancipation and the growth of the Haskalah and Reform movements. Orthodox Jewish philosophy concerns itself with interpreting traditional Jewish sources, reconciling the Jewish faith with the changes in the modern world and the movement's relationships with the State of Israel and other Jewish denominations.
Specific philosophies developed by Orthodox Jewish thinkers include:
Torah Judaism, an ideological concept used to legitimize Jewish movements within the framework of Orthodox Jewish values.
Eliezer Berkovits (1908-1992), authored a number of works on Jewish theology including God, Man, and History (1959) and Man and God: Studies in Biblical Theology (1969)
Israel Eldad (1910 or 1922-1996), a Zionist teacher and writer associated with the Lehi movement
David Hartman (1931-2013), philosopher of contemporary Judaism, author of a number of works including A Living Covenant: The Innovative Spirit in Traditional Judaism (1998) and A Heart of Many Rooms: Celebrating the Many Voices Within Judaism (1999)
Daniel Rynhold, Associate Professor of Jewish Philosophy at Yeshiva University and the author of Two Models of Jewish Philosophy: Justifying One's Practices (2005)
Elijah of Vilna (1720-1797), the Vilna Gaon, known primarily for his commentary on Talmud and Shulchan Aruch, the Vilna Gaon also authored a number of Kabbalistic works and is noted for his position on Tzimtzum
Chaim Volozhin (1749-1821), student of the Vilna Gaon, author of Nefesh Ha-Chaim dealing with Kabbalistic and general Jewish theological ideas