Operation Maritime Guard
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Operation Maritime Guard
Operation Maritime Guard
Part of the NATO intervention in Bosnia
USS Theodore Roosevelt at sea.jpg
USS Theodore Roosevelt, which participated in Operation Maritime Guard
ObjectiveBlockade the former Yugoslavia.
DateNovember 22, 1992 - 1993
Executed by NATO

Operation Maritime Guard was a NATO blockade, in the international waters of the Adriatic Sea, of the former Yugoslavia.[1][2][3]

Scope

The operation began on November 22, 1992.[4][5] It followed NATO Operation Maritime Monitor, and was in support of UN Security Council Resolution 787, which called upon states acting individually or otherwise to enforce the UN embargoes of the former Yugoslavia ("calls upon States ... to use such measures commensurate with the specific circumstances as may be necessary" to enforce the embargo).[1][2][4][6][7]

It authorized NATO to use force, and included stopping, inspecting, and diverting ships bound for the former Yugoslavia.[5][8] All ships bound to or coming from the territorial waters of the former Yugoslavia were halted for inspection and verification of their cargoes and destinations.[9]

With support from Turkey, the Netherlands, and Germany, the operation was strengthened to allow for NATO aircraft to shoot down aircraft that violated the blockade.[10] An article in the academic journal International Affairs stated that Operation Maritime Guard was: "the first authorized use of force to back a UN Security Council resolution".[11]

In April 1993, a NATO official said that warships would shoot if necessary to stop a ship to enforce the blockade, with inert munitions which could include machine gun bullets and armor-piercing cannon shells.[12][13]

Forces and results

The blockade comprised destroyers from Turkey, Italy, Germany, Greece, and the United Kingdom, and frigates from the United States and the Netherlands, assisted by NATO Maritime Patrol Aircraft.[14][15] The frigate USS Kauffman and aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt were among the warships that took part in the operation.[16][17] AWACS supported the effort with its sophisticated maritime radar by providing blockading ships with long-range sea surveillance coverage.[18]

The blockade was directed by the Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe, U.S. Admiral Mike Boorda.[1]

Under the blockade, 12,367 ships were contacted, 1,032 of them were inspected or diverted to a port to be inspected, and 9 ships were found to be violating the UN embargoes.[1]

Successor

Its successor was Operation Sharp Guard. That was a multi-year joint naval blockade in the Adriatic Sea by NATO and the Western European Union on shipments to the former Yugoslavia that began on June 15, 1993, was suspended on June 19, 1996, and was terminated on October 2, 1996.[19][20][21][22]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d John Pike. "Operation Maritime Guard". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2010.
  2. ^ a b Ugo Caruso (2007). "The Interplay between Council of Europe, OSCE, EU and NATO" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 12, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  3. ^ "Peace-Keeping Operations: Requirements and Effectiveness; NATO's Role" (PDF). June 2001. Retrieved 2010.
  4. ^ a b Jennifer Medcalf (2005). NATO: a beginner's guide. Oneworld Publications. Retrieved 2010 – via Internet Archive. operation maritime guard.
  5. ^ a b Kaufman, Joyce P. (2002). NATO and the former Yugoslavia: crisis, conflict, and the Atlantic Alliance. ISBN 9780742510227. Retrieved 2010.
  6. ^ Craig H. Allen (2007). Maritime counterproliferation operations and the rule of law. ISBN 9780275996987. Retrieved 2010.
  7. ^ John Pike. "Operation Maritime Monitor". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2010.
  8. ^ Regional Organizations. The Air Force Law Review. 1997. Retrieved 2010.
  9. ^ "Interoperability of U.S. and NATO Allied Air Forces: Supporting Data and Case Studies", RAND, 2003
  10. ^ Giovanna Bono (2003). NATO's 'peace-enforcement' tasks and 'policy communities,' 1990-1999. ISBN 9780754609445. Retrieved 2010.
  11. ^ "NATO: from Kosovo to Kabul" Archived 2011-07-12 at the Wayback Machine, 2009
  12. ^ "Toledo Blade - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "The Times-News - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved .
  14. ^ James Gow (1997). Triumph of the lack of will: international diplomacy and the Yugoslav War. Columbia University Press. p. 130. Retrieved 2010 – via Internet Archive. operation maritime guard.
  15. ^ "Lessons From Bosnia: The IFOR Experience", 1998
  16. ^ "USS Kaufmann: Command History for Calendar Year 1993", 1994
  17. ^ "The Argus-Press - Google News Archive Search". news.google.com. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "NATO AWACS: Alliance Keystone for Out-of-Area Operations". Journal.forces.gc.ca. Retrieved 2010.
  19. ^ Bruce A. Elleman; S. C. M. Paine (2007). Naval coalition warfare: from the Napoleonic War to Operation Iraqi Freedom. ISBN 9780415770828. Retrieved 2010.
  20. ^ Bellamy, Christopher (June 20, 1996). "Naval blockade lifts in Adriatic". London: The Independent. Retrieved 2010.
  21. ^ "NPR : Transcripts Search Results".
  22. ^ Peter L. Hays; Brenda J. Vallance; Alan R. Van Tassel (1997). American defense policy. JHU Press. p. 533. Retrieved 2010 – via Internet Archive. operation sharp guard.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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