Nisan (or Nissan; Hebrew: , StandardN?san, TiberianN?s?n) in the Hebrew and the Babylonian calendars, is the month of the barley ripening and first month of spring. The name of the month is an Akkadian language borrowing, although ultimately originates in Sumeriannisag "first fruits". In the Hebrew calendar it is the first month of the ecclesiastical year, called the "first of the months of the year" (Book of Exodus 12:1-2), "first month" (Ex 12:14), and the month of Aviv (Ex 13:4) ? e? h?-'î?). It is called Nisan in the Book of Esther in the Tanakh and later in the Talmud, which calls it the "New Year", Rosh HaShana, for kings and pilgrimages. It is a month of 30 days. Nisan usually falls in March-April on the Gregorian calendar. Counting from 1 Tishrei, the civil new year, it would be the seventh month (eighth, in leap year), but this is not done in Jewish culture.
Name and origin
The biblical Hebrew months were given enumerations instead of names. The new moon of Aviv, which in the Hebrew language means "barley ripening" literally and by extension, "spring season",(Exodus 9:31) is one of the few called both by name and by its number, the first. "Nisan" and other Akkadian names for the equivalent lunar months in the Babylonian lunisolar calendar came to be applied during the Babylonian captivity, in which the month of Aviv's name was Ara? Nis?nu, the "month of beginning".
Holidays and observances
1 NisanLunar new year, marking the month of Aviv (spring), as the first month of the year, which month was later called Nisan. The first national mitzvah was given to the Jewish people to fix the calendar to the new moon of Aviv, according to the Book of Exodus 12:1-2, 12:18. (c. 1456 BCE)
4-11 Nisan - Approximate dates of the Akitu festival of ancient Babylon, celebrating the sowing of barley in the first month of spring, Nisanu.
10 Nisan - Yom HaAliyah - Aliyah Day, Israeli national holiday
15 Nisan (474 BC) - Esther appears before Ahasuerus unsummoned and invites him and Haman to a feast to be held the same day. During the feast she requests that the king and Haman attend a second feast the next day.
16 Nisan (c. 1273 BCE) - The Israelites stop eating manna six days after entering the Holy Land.
16 Nisan (c. 474 BCE) - Esther's second feast, during which she accuses Haman regarding his plot to annihilate her nation. Ahasuerus orders his servants to hang Haman.
17 Nisan (c. 24th century BCE) - Noah's Ark came to rest on mountains of Ararat
17 Nisan (c. 474 BCE) - Haman hanged after Esther's second drinking party.
21 Nisan (c. 1456 BCE) - The sea splits, allowing Israel to escape the Egyptian army.
26 Nisan (c. 1386 BCE) - Traditional yahrzeit of Joshua son of Nun.
29 Nisan (1699) - In Bamberg, Germany during a commercial crisis in 1699, the populace rose up against the Jews, and one Jew saved himself by throwing prunes from a gable-window down upon the mob. That event, the 29th of Nisan, called the Zwetschgen Taanit "Plum-Fast", was commemorated by a fast and a Purim festivity until the extermination of the Jewish community there.
^Muss-Arnolt, W., [www.jstor.org/stable/3259081 The Names of the Assyro-Babylonian Months and Their Regents], Journal of Biblical Literature Vol. 11, No. 1 (1892), pp. 72-94 , accessed 10 Aug. 2020