Nepalese Rupee
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Nepalese Rupee
Nepalese rupee
? (Nepali)
ISO 4217
CodeNPR
Denominations
Subunit
 1/100Paisa
Symbol
Rs (plural), Re (singular)
Banknotes
 Freq. used5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000
 Rarely used1, 2, 25, 250
Coins
 Freq. used1, 2
 Rarely used1, 5, 10, 25, 50 paisa, 5, 10
Demographics
Date of introduction1932
User(s) Kingdom of Nepal (1932-2008)
   Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (2008 - present)
Issuance
Nepal Rastra Bank
 Websitewww.nrb.org.np
Valuation
Inflation7.1%
 SourceNepal Rastra Bank, November 2015
Pegged withIndia Indian rupee (INR) (INR)[1]
Pegged byINR1 = 1.6000 (buy)
INR1 = 1.6015 (sell)

The Nepalese rupee (Nepali: ?; symbol: , Rs; code: NPR) is the official currency of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal. The Nepalese rupee is subdivided into 100 paisa. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Nepal Rastra Bank, the central bank of Nepal. The Nepalese rupee was introduced in 1932 when it replaced the Nepalese mohar at the rate 2:1.[]

The Nepalese rupee () is pegged to the Indian rupee (INR) at the rate 1.60 = INR1 since 1994; prior to this, it had been pegged at the rate 1.45 = INR1.[2]

History

The rupee was introduced in 1932, replacing the silver mohar at a rate of 2 mohar = 1 rupee. At first, the rupee was called the Mohru in Nepali.[3]

1945-1955

Rupees in Nepal and Pakistan were worth the same amount. Early banknotes which were issued between 1945 and 1955 during the rule of King Tribhuvan were put into circulation by the Sadar Muluki Khana (The Treasury) as Nepal did not have a Central Bank at that time. Notes issued under the reign of King Tribhuvan were therefore not signed by a bank governor, but by a Kajanchi (Head of the Treasury) who also serves as a Hindu high-priest. As such, Nepal's early paper currency probably include the only bank-notes in the world which were signed by a high-priest. These early notes were printed by the Indian Security Press in Nashik and do not have any security features, except for watermarks and the special paper on which they are printed.

The "Bullet paisa"

Nepal, 4 Paisa 1955 - The "Bullet paisa"

In 1955, 4 Paisa coins were minted, made from rifle cartridges from World War II that were used by the Gurkha soldiers who fought against the Imperial Japanese in the Pacific. The coins were produced by removing the primer of the cartridge and the bullets were then converted into the 4 Paisa coins to commemorate their courage and victory during the war.

Due to the small number of cartridges found, these coins were minted for one year only.

They are known as the "Nepal Bullet Paisa".[4] [5]

1972-2001

Five rupees coin (BS 2053)

During King Birendra's rule, one can also distinguish between two major series of banknotes. The first series features the king wearing the military uniform while on the notes of the second series the king is wearing the traditional Nepalese crown adorned with feathers of the bird of paradise. During this period regular banknotes of 2 and 20 rupees and special banknotes of 25 and 250 rupees were issued for the first time. The legends found on the last issues of Gyanendra revert to Nepal sarkar ("Nepalese government"), thus omitting the reference to the king.

2007-2012

One rupee coin (2005)
One rupee coin (2009)

In October 2007, a 500-rupee note was issued on which the king's portrait was replaced by Mount Everest. This reflects the historic change from a kingdom to a republic which took place in May 2008 in Nepal. Further notes of 5, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 1000 rupees with Mount Everest and without reference to the king in their legends followed in 2008. The first issues of the 500- and 1000-rupee notes were printed on paper which still had the king's crowned portrait as a watermark in the "window" on the right part of the face of the notes. It was decided to print a red Rhododendron flower (Nepal's national flower) on top of the watermark. Notes of these denominations which were issued in 2009 and thereafter are printed on paper which has a Rhododendron flower as watermark instead of the royal portrait and were therefore released without the additional overprint in red.

Banknotes

On 17 September 1945, the government introduced notes for 5, 10 and 100 rupees, with the name mohru used in Nepalese.[6] There are also 25- and 250-rupee notes commemorating the Silver Jubilee of Birendra Bir Bikram Shah in 1997.[] Since 2007, Nepalese rupee banknotes have been produced by Perum Peruri, the mint company of Indonesia.[7]

In 2012, Nepal Rastra Bank issued a revised banknote series that is similar to the 2007 series, but now include inscriptions in English and the year of issue on the back.

2012 Mount Everest series (current)
Image Value Main Colour Description Date of issue
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse
5 rupees Lilac and pink Mount Everest; temple of Taleju; obverse of coin Two yaks grazing; Mount Everest 2012
5 rupees Lilac and pink Mount Everest; Kasthamandap Temple Yak 2017
10 rupees Brown and green Mount Everest; Garud Narayan of Changu Narayan temple Three black bucks grazing; trees; bank logo 2012
10 rupees Brown and green Mount Everest; Garud Narayan of Changu Narayan temple Antelope; trees; bank logo 2017
20 rupees Orange and Brown Mount Everest; temple of god Krishna of Patan; Garuda atop pillar Swamp deer; trees; mountain; bank logo 2012
20 rupees Orange and Brown Mount Everest; temple of god Krishna of Patan; Garuda atop pillar Sambar deers; trees; mountain; bank logo 2016
50 rupees Purple, Green and Blue Mount Everest; Rama-Janaki temple of Janakpur Male tahr; mountains; bank logo 2012
50 rupees Purple Green and Blue Mount Everest; Rama-Janaki temple of Janakpur Snow leopard; bank logo 2016
100 rupees Green and Lilac Mount Everest; Mayadevi inside silver metallic oval; map of Nepal; Ashoka pillar; wood carvings from temple of Taleju in Kathmandu; description "Lumbini - Birthplace of Lord Buddha" One-horned rhinoceros in grassy plain; bank logo 2012
100 rupees Green and Lilac Mount Everest; Mayadevi inside silver metallic oval; map of Nepal; Ashoka pillar; wood carvings from temple of Taleju in Kathmandu; description "Lumbini - Birthplace of Lord Buddha" One-horned rhinoceros and its offspring in grassy plain; bank logo 2015
500 rupees Brown and violet Mount Everest; god Indra; Mount Amadablam and Thyangboche monastery; wood carvings; clouds Two tigers drinking melted snow 2012
500 rupees Brown and violet Mount Everest; god Indra; Mount Amadablam and Thyangboche monastery; wood carvings; clouds Tiger 2016
1,000 rupees Blue and gray Mount Everest, Swayambhunath stupa & Harati temple Elephant 2013
1,000 rupees Blue and gray Mount Everest, Swayambhunath stupa & Harati temple Twin Asian Elephants 2019
For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Exchange rates

Between 1857 and 1930, the Nepalese rupee (two half-rupees or mohars[8]) was fixed at 1.28 per Indian rupee.[3] After this period, its value fluctuated against the Indian rupee, falling to 1.60 = INR1 in 1939, rising to 0.60 = INR1 during the Second World War and falling again afterwards. In 1952, the government of Nepal officially pegged the Nepalese rupee at 1.28 = INR1, although the market rate remained at 1.60 = INR1.[3]

Between 1955 and 1957, there was a series of soft peg revaluations that started at 1.755 = INR1 and appreciated to 1.305 = INR1 by 1957. In 1958, the government applied a new exchange rate of 1.505 = INR1 for the purchase of plane tickets only. A hard peg of 1.60 = INR1 was instituted in 1960, which was revalued to 1.0155 = INR1 when the Indian rupee was sharply devalued on 6 June 1966.[3] The Indian rupee ceased to be legal tender in Nepal in 1966.[3]

From 1967 to 1975, the government pegged the Nepalese rupee against the Indian rupee, the US dollar and gold, starting at 1.35 = INR1, 10.125 = US$1 and 1 = 0.08777g gold. By the time the gold peg was removed in 1978, the exchange rate was 1.39075 = 1, 12.50 = $1 and 1 = 0.0808408g gold.[3]

In 1983, the Nepali rupee's anchor was changed to a trade-weighted basket of currencies, which in practice amounted to a hard peg against the Indian rupee. This remained until 1993, when the peg was officially set at 1.60 = 1.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Nepal Rastra Bank". nrb.org.np. Retrieved 2016.
  2. ^ "'Nepal to keep currency pegged to Indian rupee' | Business Line". Thehindubusinessline.com. 2018-01-11. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Schuler, Kurt (2004-02-29). "Tables of Modern Monetary History: Asia". Archived from the original on 2007-02-19. Retrieved .
  4. ^ "4 Paisa - Tribhuvana Bir Bikram". Numista > Coins > Nepal > Nepal, 4 Paisa - Tribhuvana Bir Bikram. 18 February 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  5. ^ Collector Club - La casa del collezionismo, I semestre 2021, inserto, pag 6 "La moneta proiettile".
  6. ^ Linzmayer, Owen (2012). "Nepal". The Banknote Book. San Francisco, CA: www.BanknoteNews.com.
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-05-08. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. ^ Rawat, Pooran Chand (1974). Indo-Nepal Economic Relations. Lawrence Verry Incorporated. p. 130. ISBN 9780842606561. The Nepalese half rupee was given the name of 'Mohar' because it bore the seal of the King.
  • Agrawal (Giriya), Shyam and Gyawali, Kamal Prasad: Notes and Coins of Nepal. Nepal Rastra Bank Golden Jubilee Year 2005/06, Kathmandu, 2006.
  • Bertsch, Wolfgang: "The Legends on the Banknotes of Nepal", International Banknote Society (IBNS) Journal, vol. 48, no. 3, 2009, p. 39-44.
  • Jha, Hari Jaya: An Overview of Nepalese Paper Money. Manjeeta Jha, Lalitpur (Patan), B.S. 2058 (= A.D. 2001).
  • Lorenzoli, Giovanni: "Nepali artistic buildings as seen on Nepali notes". Journal of the International Banknote Society, vol. 43, no. 3 (2004), p. 6-14.
  • Shrestha, Ramesh: Nepalese Coins & Bank Notes (1911 to 1955). Kazi Mudhusudan Raj Bhandary, Kathmandu, 2007.
  • Wittmann, Hans: Die Banknoten des Königreichs Nepal. Unpublished, Wiesbaden, 2002.

Sources

External links


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