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Nasr ( Arabic: "Vulture") was apparently a pre-Islamic Arabian deity of the Himyarites. Reliefs depicting vultures have been found in  Himyar, including at Ma?na'at M?riya and Haddat Gulays, and Nasr appears in theophoric names.   Nasr has been identified by some scholars with Maren-  Shamash,  who is often flanked by vultures in depictions at  Hatra.  Hisham ibn Al-Kalbi's describes a temple to Nasr at Book of Idols Balkha, an otherwise unknown location. Some sources attribute the deity to "the dh?-l-Khila tribe of Himyar".      Himyaritic inscriptions were thought to describe "the vulture of the east" and "the vulture of the west", which Augustus Henry Keane interpreted as solstitial worship; however these are now thought to read "eastward" and "westward" with  n-s-r as a preposition.  J. Spencer Trimingham believed Nasr was "a symbol of the sun". [a]  Classical references
Nasr is mentioned in the
Qur'an (71:23) as an idol at the time of the Noah:
" ? ? ?
And they say: Forsake not your gods, nor forsake Wadd, nor Suw, nor Yagh?th and Yaq and Nasr." [ Quran 71:23]
An Arabian vulture-god is mentioned by other ancient texts, including the
Babylonian Talmud ( 11b): Avodah Zarah
?anan b. ?isda says that
Abba b. Aybo says, and some say it was ?anan b. Rava who said that Abba b. Aybo says, "There are five permanent idolatrous temples: the temple of Bel in Babylon, the temple of Nebo in Borsippa , the temple of [b] Atargatis in Manbij, the temple of Serapis in [c] Ashkelon, and the temple of Nishra in Arabia". [d] 
Doctrine of Addai:
Who is this
Nebo, an idol made which ye worship, and Bel, which ye honor? Behold, there are those among you who adore Bath Nical, as the inhabitants of Harran your neighbours, and [e] Atargatis, as the people of Manbij, and Nishra, as the Arabians; also the sun and the moon, as the rest of the inhabitants of Harran, who are as yourselves. [f]  
A further mention is found in
Jacob of Serugh's On the Fall of the Idols, wherein the Persians are said to have been led by the devil to construct and worship N-s-r . 
^ In a separate challenge to the theory of solstitial worship,
?isda relays that ?anan b. Rava interpreted Abba b. Aybo's claim that the temple was permanent (v.i.) to mean "constantly worshipped for the entire year." This is accepted by  Shlomo b. Yiaq, who notes, "permanent -- all year, for every day of the year would their worshippers make a festival and bring sacrifices". 
^ Printings and some MSS read
, a Kursi scatological quip ( Kursi resembles both the Aramaic \? Borsippa and the Biblical Hebrew ? squat). Borsippa's name is the butt of several Talmudic jokes; it is also called Bolsippa (as in, Balal S'fas ) jumbled the language of and Bor Shapi  Empty Pit. 
^ Aramaic? ( hapax). The reading Serapis is supported by:
Bochart argues for the emendation based on Herodotus' identification of the Ashkelon temple in his Aphrodite Urania Histories (1:105), some 750 years prior. See Venus Castina.
^ Aramaic ( hapax). The reading vulture-god is supported by:
The emendation is supported by:
rhet. Compare Isaiah 46:1
^ ?, same spelling as
Hanan bar Rava. Identified as the vulture-god by Clemont-Ganneau, among others. 
^ a b c
Hawting, G. R. (1999). . Cambridge UP. The Idea of Idolatry and the Emergence of Islam: From Polemic to History ISBN . 9781139426350
Paul Yule, Late ?imyarite Vulture Reliefs, in: eds. W. Arnold, M. Jursa, W. Müller, S. Procházka, Philologisches und Historisches zwischen Anatolien und Sokotra, Analecta Semitica In Memorium Alexander Sima (Wiesbaden 2009), 447-455, ISBN 978-3-447-06104-9
^ a b c d
Greenfield, Jonas Carl (2001). . BRILL. 'Al Kanfei Yonah ISBN . 978-90-04-12170-6
. 1975. Proceedings of the Seminar for Arabian Studies
Kaizer, Ted; Hekster, Olivier (2011-05-10). . BRILL. Frontiers in the Roman World: Proceedings of the Ninth Workshop of the International Network Impact of Empire (Durham, 16-19 April 2009) ISBN . 978-90-04-21503-0
Dirven, Lucinda. "Horned Deities of Hatra. Meaning and Origin of a Hybrid Phenomenon, in Mesopotamia 50 (2015), 243-260".
al-Kalbi, Ibn (2015-12-08). . Princeton University Press. Book of Idols ISBN . 978-1-4008-7679-2
. 1853. The Bombay Quarterly Magazine and Review
al-Shidy?q, A?mad F?ris (2015-10-15). . NYU Press. Leg Over Leg: Volumes One and Two ISBN . 978-1-4798-0072-8
Tisdall, William St Clair (1911). . Society for promoting Christian knowledge. The Original Sources of the Qur'ân
Lenormant, François; Chevallier, Elisabeth (1871). . J.B. Lippincott. Medes and Persians, Phoenicians, and Arabians
Keane, Augustus Henry (1901). . E. Stanford. The Gold of Ophir, Whence Brought and by Whom?
^ "Avodah Zarah 11b". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 2021-03-06.
^ "Rashi on Avodah Zarah 11b:8:1". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 2021-03-06.
^ Trimingham, J. Spencer (1990). Christianity Among the Arabs in Pre-Islamic Times. Stacey Publishing.
ISBN 978-1-900988-68-1. pg. 20
B'reishit Rabbah 38:12
"Avodah Zarah 11b:8". www.sefaria.org . Retrieved .
Clermont-Ganneau, Charles (1897). "Bibliothèque de l'Ecole des hautes études...: Sciences philologiques et historiques".
"The Doctrine of Addai (1876). English Translation". www.tertullian.org . Retrieved .