Nachum Eliezer Rabinovitch ( Hebrew: ? ; 30 April 1928 - 6 May 2020), born Norman Louis Rabinovitch, was a Canadian-Israeli  Religious Zionist rabbi and . He posek headed the London School of Jewish Studies from 1971 to 1982, and the hesder yeshiva Birkat Moshe in Ma'ale Adumim from 1982 until his death. 
Early life and education
Nahum Rabinovitch was born in
Montreal, Quebec to Sarah (née Weiner) and Sam Rabinovitch. After completing an eight-year course of studies under Rabbi  Pinchas Hirschsprung, Rabinovitch received from Montreal's Yeshivas Merkaz HaTorah in the city's first rabbinical ordination ceremony. semicha 
After obtaining an
honours degree in commerce from Sir George Williams College, he left for Baltimore to pursue a Master of Science degree in mathematics at Johns Hopkins University. While there, he studied at Yeshivas Ner Yisroel, where he received a second ordination from Rabbi Yaakov Yitzchok Ruderman.
Between 1955 and 1963, Rabinovitch served as spiritual leader of the Brith Sholom Beth Israel Congregation in
Charleston, South Carolina. In this role, he helped establish the city's first Jewish day school, of which he served as principal. He also held appointments as  lecturer in mathematics at the College of Charleston and chaplain to the Sixth Naval District Headquarters. 
In 1963, he was called to serve as a community rabbi in
Toronto, and assumed the pulpit of the Clanton Park Synagogue in Downsview. He completed a  Ph.D. in the philosophy and history of mathematics at the University of Toronto in 1971 under the supervision of Kenneth O. May. His doctoral thesis,  Probability and Statistical Inference in Ancient and Medieval Jewish Literature, was published as a monograph in 1973.
Rabinovitch was appointed principal of
Jews' College in early 1970, and settled in  London that spring. Notable among his students at the College was Chief Rabbi Lord  Jonathan Sacks,  who has cited Rabinovitch as his primary  role model. Ten years later, he accepted an offer to become  of rosh yeshiva Yeshivat Birkat Moshe, a institution in hesder Ma'ale Adumim.
In 2015, together with a group of prominent Israeli rabbis, Rabinovitch established
Giyur Kehalacha, an independent offering beit din conversions outside of the Chief Rabbinate. 
Philosophical and political views
Halakhic rulings on various subjects, including organ donation, surrogacy, birth control, army service, , and Shabbat . kashrut His philosophical approach, influenced by  Maimonidean rationalism, emphasized the connection between philosophy and Halakha, between Torah and scientific studies, and between theoretical learning and practical applications.
Rabinovitch was an authority on the writings of Maimonides, about which he published numerous books and essays. He is perhaps best known for his fourteen-volume
Yad Peshuta ( lit. 'Outstretched Hand'), an in-depth commentary on Maimonides' Mishneh Torah. He also authored  Melumdei Mil?amah ( lit. 'Learned in War'), a collection of responsa dealing with Halakhic issues facing religious members of the Israel Defense Forces.
Rabinovitch was a
religious Zionist, a supporter of the settlement movement, and a vocal opponent of the  Oslo Accords and the Disengagement.  He was, however, often more liberal in social and religious matters than many in the religious Zionist movement.  In an interview, Rabinovitch said that he backed religious studies for women, and did not see a problem in Halakhic decisions taken by women.  Nonetheless, he signed a letter in 2019 agreeing with the  Chief Rabbinate's opposition to religious Jewish women serving in the IDF. He also ruled that it is incumbent on Israeli  combat medics and doctors to treat and save the lives of Palestinian combatants, even if wounded in the course of attacking Israelis. Rabinovitch characterized  Christianity and Islam positively as movements that spread monotheism, morality, and messianic hope. In addition, Rabinovitch differed from many other religious Zionist leaders in that he did not view the State of Israel as a harbinger of the  Messiah and argued for greater seperation between religion and state in Israel. Often his iconoclastic positions were deeply influenced not only by Jewish tradition, but by the core ideas of political liberalism as well. 
In 1995, Rabinovitch was among a group of rabbis accused of indirectly influencing
Yigal Amir to assassinate Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, having branded Rabin a and likened his government to moser Nazis.  The previous summer, he had also issued a ruling that Jewish soldiers should disobey any government orders to vacate  West Bank army bases. 
Rabinovitch had six children, including British journalist
Dina Rabinovitch (born in 1963), who died in 2007 of breast cancer. 
Hadar Itamar [ ] (in Hebrew). Jerusalem: Da?at Torah. 1971.
Probability and Statistical Inference in Ancient and Medieval Jewish Literature. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1973.
(in Hebrew). Ma'ale Adumim: Maaliyot Press. 1998. Darkah shel Torah [? ?]
Melumdei Mil?ama [ ] (in Hebrew). Ma'ale Adumim: Maaliyot Press. 2004.
(in Hebrew). Ma'ale Adumim: Maaliyot Press. 2008. Siach Nachum [ ?]
(in Hebrew). Ma'ale Adumim: Maaliyot Press. 2010. Iyunim be-Mishnato shel ha-Rambam [ ]
Mesilot Bilvavam [ ] (in Hebrew). Ma'ale Adumim: Maaliyot Press. 2015. Yad Peshuta [ ] (in Hebrew). 1-14. Ma'ale Adumim: Maaliyot Press. 1977-2016.
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (Winter 1965). "Chametz and Matzah: A Halakhic Perspective". . Tradition 7 (4): 77-88. JSTOR 23256045.
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (Fall 1966). "A Halakhic View of the Non-Jew". . Tradition 8 (3): 27-39. JSTOR 23256082.
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (Spring 1968). "What Is the Halakhah for Organ Transplants?". . Tradition 9 (4): 20-27. JSTOR 44818165.
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (August 1969). "Studies in the History of Probability and Statistics. XXII: Probability in the Talmud". . Biometrika 56 (2): 437-441. JSTOR 2334437.
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (Summer 1970). "Rabbi Hasdai Crescas (1340-1410) on Numerical Infinities". . Isis 61 (2): 224-230. doi: 10.1086/350621. JSTOR 229976. S2CID 144368575.
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (1970). "Rabbi Levi ben Gershom and the Origins of Mathematical Induction". . Archive for History of Exact Sciences 6 (3): 237-248. doi: 10.1007/BF00327237. JSTOR 41133303. S2CID 119948133.
"A Fifteenth-Century Law of Large Numbers". . Isis 65 (2): 229-238. June 1974. doi: 10.1086/351259. S2CID 143806284.
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (Fall 1974). "The Religious Significance of Israel". . Tradition 14 (4): 20-28. JSTOR 23258511.
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (December 1974). "Early Antecedents of Error Theory". . Archive for History of Exact Sciences 13 (4): 348-358. doi: 10.1007/BF00327300. S2CID 119599431.
"Torah and Science: Conflict or Complement?". Challenge: Torah Views on Science and Its Problems. Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers. 1976. pp. 44-53. ISBN . 9781583304242
"Torah and the Spirit of Free Enquiry". Challenge: Torah Views on Science and Its Problems. Jerusalem: Feldheim Publishers. 1976. pp. 53-67. ISBN . 9781583304242
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (1977). "The One and the Many: Early Stochastic Reasoning in Philosophy". . Annals of Science 34 (4): 331-344. doi: 10.1080/00033797700200261.
"Halachah and Technology". . Proceedings of the Association of Orthodox Jewish Scientists 2: 129-149. 1969. "All Jews Are Responsible for One Another". Jewish Tradition and the Nontraditional Jew. Northvale, N.J.: Aronson Press. 1992. pp. 177-204.
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"Birth: Norman Louis Rabinovitch" (30 April 1928) [Microfilm]. Drouin Collection, Series: Ahavath Sholom (1928), p. 7. Montreal: Institut Généalogique Drouin.
Kalili, Ran (2020). "HaRav Nahum Rabinovitch, ZT"L". Barkai Center for Practical Rabbinics & Community Development . Retrieved 2020.
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Greenwood, Hanan (7 May 2020). "Rabbi Nachum Rabinovitch dies at 92". Israel Hayom . Retrieved 2020.
"Toronto Meetings". . 25 November 1949. p. 4. The Canadian Jewish Review
"Montreal Meetings". . 31 March 1950. p. 4. The Canadian Jewish Review
Rockoff, Stuart; Rosengarten, Dale; Neely, Alyssa (October 2009). "Charleston Jewry: 320 Years and Counting" (PDF). The Jewish Historical Society Society of South Carolina. 14 (2): 6.
"Dr. Rabinovitch Honoured by Central Fund". . 13 December 1964. p. 10. The Canadian Jewish News
"Toronto Meetings". . 1 March 1963. p. 9. The Canadian Jewish Review
"New Rabbi Will Be Installed". . 28 February 1964. p. 5. The Canadian Jewish News
Rabinovitch, Nachum L. (1971). (PhD Thesis). University of Toronto. Probability and Statistical Inference in Ancient and Medieval Jewish Literature OCLC 1007548200.
Probability and Statistical Inference in Ancient and Medieval Jewish Literature. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 1973. ISBN . 978-1-4875-7458-1 OCLC 1085567037.
"Rabbi Rabinovitch of Toronto Appointed Principal of Jews College in London". JTA Daily News Bulletin. 37 (24). Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 5 February 1970.
"Spiritual Leader Leaves Toronto". . 25 June 1971. p. 4. The Canadian Jewish News
"About the Yeshiva". Yeshivat Birkat Moshe . Retrieved 2020.
Sacks, Jonathan (6 May 2020). "Rabbi Sacks on the passing of Rav Nachum Rabinovitch z"l". The Office of Rabbi Sacks . Retrieved 2020.
Rosenberg, Yair (13 November 2013). "Jonathan Sacks on European Anti-Semitism, Israel's Chief Rabbinate, and More". Tablet . Retrieved 2020. Baruch Hashem, my rebbe is still alive, Rabbi Nahum Rabinovitch, rosh yeshiva at Ma'alei Adumim. I was his talmid for 12 years. We learned together every day except Shabbos. He's my role model.
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Nadler, Allan (Summer 2018). "Maimonides in Ma'ale Adumim". : 38-40. Jewish Review of Books
"In first, Israeli judge recognizes conversion to Judaism by private court". . 13 September 2018 The Times of Israel . Retrieved 2020.
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Weinberg, David M. (5 June 2020). "Celebrating the life and works of Rabbi Dr. Nachum Eliezer Rabinovitch". The Jerusalem Post . Retrieved 2020.
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Rosenberg, Yair; Schwartz, Yedidya (6 October 2016). "Israeli Rabbis You Should Know". Tablet . Retrieved 2020.
HaLevi, Ezra (15 May 2006). "Hesder Yeshiva Head: Teach Our Kids to Refuse Immoral Orders". . Arutz Sheva
Sharon, Jeremy (6 May 2020). "Senior religious-Zionist leader Rabbi Nachum Rabinowitz dies, aged 92". Jerusalem Post . Retrieved 2020.
Brill, Alan (7 June 2020). "Rabbi Nahum Rabinovitch on Philosophy of Halakhah". The Book of Doctrines and Opinions: Notes on Jewish Theology and Spirituality . Retrieved 2020.
Fishman, Tzvi (19 September 2019). "Can Women Serve in the IDF According to Halacha?". . The Jewish Press
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Schwartz, Rami (2021). "The Political Theology of Rabbi Nachum Eliezer Rabinovitch". . The Torah u-Madda Journal 18: 1-32.
Hellinger, Moshe; Hershkowitz, Isaac; Susser, Bernard (2018). . Albany: State University of New York Press. p. 111-112. Religious Zionism and the Settlement Project: Ideology, Politics, and Civil Disobedience ISBN . 978-1-4384-6839-6 OCLC 980302566.
Green, David B. (10 January 1999). "A Political Act: Was Yitzhak Rabin's assassin tacitly--or overtly--encouraged to pull the trigger?". . The New York Times
Miller, Marjorie (23 November 1995). "Questions Raised by Rabin Slaying Still Shake Rabbis". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 2020.
Rowley, Storer H. (17 November 1995). "Rabbi May Have Played a Role in Rabin's Slaying". Chicago Tribune . Retrieved 2020.
"Prominent religious Zionist rabbi Nachum Rabinovitch dies at 92". . 6 May 2020 Times of Israel . Retrieved 2020.
"Obituary: Dina Rabinovitch". . 2 November 2007 The Times . Retrieved 2020.