Mono Language (Congo)
Get Mono Language Congo essential facts below. View Videos or join the Mono Language Congo discussion. Add Mono Language Congo to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Mono Language Congo
Native toDemocratic Republic of the Congo
RegionNorthwestern corner of Congo (DRC)
Native speakers
(65,000 cited 1984 census)[1]
Language codes
ELPMono (Democratic Republic of the Congo)
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Mono is a language spoken by about 65,000 people[2] in the northwestern corner of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. It is one of the Banda languages, a subbranch of the Ubangian branch of the Niger-Congo languages. It has five dialects: Bili, Bubanda, Mpaka, Galaba, and Kaga.

Mono has 33 consonant phonemes, including three labial-velar stops (/k?p/, /b/, and prenasalized /b/), an asymmetrical eight-vowel system, and a labiodental flap /?/ (allophonically a bilabial flap [?]) that contrasts with both /v/ and /w/. It is a tonal language.


Tones in Mono: high, low, medium[3]


  1. ^ Mono at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Ethnologue report for Mono
  3. ^ Olson, Kenneth S. 2004
  • Kamanda-Kola, Roger. 2003. Phonologie et morpho-syntaxe du mono: Langue oubanguienne du Congo R.D. (LINCOM Studies in African Linguistics 60). Munich: LINCOM EUROPA.
  • Olson, Kenneth S. (2004), "Mono" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 233-238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744
  • Olson, Kenneth S. 2005. The phonology of Mono (SIL International and the University of Texas at Arlington Publications in Linguistics 140). Dallas: SIL & UTA.
  • Olson, Kenneth S. & Brian E. Schrag. 2000. 'An overview of Mono phonology'. In H. Ekkehard Wolff & Orin Gensler (eds.), Proceedings from the 2nd World Congress of African Linguistics, Leipzig 1997, 393-409. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe.

External links

  • SIL article on new phonetic symbol for labiodental flap

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes