Mongolian Script
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Mongolian script
Bosoo mongol bicig.png
Example text
Script type
CreatorTata-tonga
Time period
ca.1204 - present
Directiontop-to-bottom, left-to-right 
LanguagesMongolian language
Manchu language (obsolete)
Daur language (obsolete)
Evenki language (experimentally)
Related scripts
Parent systems
Child systems
Manchu alphabet
Oirat alphabet (Clear script)
Buryat alphabet
Galik alphabet
Evenki alphabet
Xibe alphabet
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Mong, 145 , ​Mongolian
Unicode
Unicode alias
Mongolian
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The classical or traditional Mongolian script,[a] also known as the Qudum Mong?ol bi?ig,[b][] was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. It is traditionally written in vertical lines Text direction TDright.svg Top-Down, right across the page. Derived from the Old Uyghur alphabet, Mongolian is a true alphabet, with separate letters for consonants and vowels. The Mongolian script has been adapted to write languages such as Oirat and Manchu. Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China to this day to write Mongolian, Xibe and experimentally, Evenki.

Computer operating systems have been slow to adopt support for the Mongolian script, and almost all have incomplete support or other text rendering difficulties.

History

The Stele of Yisüngge [ru], with the earliest known inscription in the Mongolian script.[1]:33

The Mongolian vertical script developed as an adaptation of the Old Uyghur alphabet for the Mongolian language.[2]:545 From the seventh and eighth to the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the Mongolian language separated into southern, eastern and western dialects. The principal documents from the period of the Middle Mongol language are: in the eastern dialect, the famous text The Secret History of the Mongols, monuments in the Square script, materials of the Chinese-Mongolian glossary of the fourteenth century, and materials of the Mongolian language of the middle period in Chinese transcription, etc.; in the western dialect, materials of the Arab-Mongolian and Persian-Mongolian dictionaries, Mongolian texts in Arabic transcription, etc.[3]:1-2 The main features of the period are that the vowels ï and i had lost their phonemic significance, creating the i phoneme (in the Chakhar dialect, the Standard Mongolian in Inner Mongolia, these vowels are still distinct); inter-vocal consonants ?/g, b/w had disappeared and the preliminary process of the formation of Mongolian long vowels had begun; the initial h was preserved in many words; grammatical categories were partially absent, etc. The development over this period explains why the Mongolian script looks like a vertical Arabic script (in particular the presence of the dot system).[3]:1-2

Eventually, minor concessions were made to the differences between the Uyghur and Mongol languages: In the 17th and 18th centuries, smoother and more angular versions of the letter tsadi became associated with [d?] and [t?] respectively, and in the 19th century, the Manchu hooked yodh was adopted for initial [j]. Zain was dropped as it was redundant for [s]. Various schools of orthography, some using diacritics, were developed to avoid ambiguity.[2]:545

Traditional Mongolian is written vertically from top to bottom, flowing in lines from left to right. The Old Uyghur script and its descendants, of which traditional Mongolian is one among Oirat Clear, Manchu, and Buryat are the only known vertical scripts written from left to right. This developed because the Uyghurs rotated their Sogdian-derived script, originally written right to left, 90 degrees counterclockwise to emulate Chinese writing, but without changing the relative orientation of the letters.[4][1]:36

The reed pen was the writing instrument of choice until the 18th century, when the brush took its place under Chinese influence.[5]:422 Pens were also historically made of wood, reed, bamboo, bone, bronze, or iron. Ink used was black or cinnabar red, and written with on birch bark, paper, cloths made of silk or cotton, and wooden or silver plates.[6]:80-81

Reed pens
Ink brushes

Mongols learned their script as a syllabary, dividing the syllables into twelve different classes, based on the final phonemes of the syllables, all of which ended in vowels.[7]

The script remained in continuous use by Mongolian speakers in Inner Mongolia in People's Republic of China. In the Mongolian People's Republic, it was largely replaced by the Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet, although the vertical script remained in limited use. In March 2020, the Mongolian government announced plans to increase the use of the traditional Mongolian script and to use both Cyrillic and Mongolian script in official documents by 2025.[8][9][10]

Names

The traditional Mongolian script is known by a wide variety of names. Because of its similarity to the Old Uyghur alphabet, it became known as the Uigurjin Mongol script.[c] During the communist era, when Cyrillic became the official script for the Mongolian language, the traditional script became known as the Old Mongol script,[d] in contrast to the New script,[e] referring to Cyrillic. The name Old Mongol script stuck, and it is still known as such among the older generation, who didn't receive education in the new script.[]

Overview

The traditional or classical Mongolian alphabet, sometimes called Hudum 'traditional' in Oirat in contrast to the Clear script (Todo 'exact'), is the original form of the Mongolian script used to write the Mongolian language. It does not distinguish several vowels (o/u, ö/ü, final a/e) and consonants (syllable-initial t/d and k/g, sometimes ?/y) that were not required for Uyghur, which was the source of the Mongol (or Uyghur-Mongol) script.[4] The result is somewhat comparable to the situation of English, which must represent ten or more vowels with only five letters and uses the digraph th for two distinct sounds. Ambiguity is sometimes prevented by context, as the requirements of vowel harmony and syllable sequence usually indicate the correct sound. Moreover, as there are few words with an exactly identical spelling, actual ambiguities are rare for a reader who knows the orthography.

Letters have different forms depending on their position in a word: initial, medial, or final. In some cases, additional graphic variants are selected for visual harmony with the subsequent character.

The rules for writing below apply specifically for the Mongolian language, unless stated otherwise.

Sort orders

  • Traditional: n, q/k, ?/g, b, p, s, ?, t, d, l, m, ?...[11][12]:7
  • Modern: n, b, p, q/k, ?/g, m, l, s, ?, t, d, ?...[11][12]:7
  • Other modern orderings that apply to specific dictionaries also exist.[13]

Vowel harmony

Mongolian vowel harmony separates the vowels of words into three groups - two mutually exclusive and one neutral:

  • The back, male, masculine,[14] hard, or yang[15] vowels a, o, and u.
  • The front, female, feminine,[14] soft, or yin[15] vowels e, ö, and ü.
  • The neutral vowel i, able to appear in all words.

Any Mongolian word can contain the neutral vowel i, but only vowels from either of the other two groups. The vowel qualities of visually separated vowels and suffixes must likewise harmonize with those of the preceding word stem. Such suffixes are written with front or neutral vowels when preceded by a word stem containing only neutal vowels. Any of these rules might not apply for foreign words however.[3]:11, 35, 39[16]:10[17]:4[13]

Separated final vowels

Two examples of the two kinds of letter separation: with the suffix ‑un and the final vowel ‑a

A separated final form of vowels a or e is common, and can appear at the end of a word, word stem, or suffix. This form requires the letter preceding it to be final-shaped, and an inter-word gap in between. This gap can be transliterated with a hyphen.[note 1][3]:30, 77[18]:42[1]:38-39[17]:27[19]:534-535

The presence or lack of a separated a or e can also indicate differences in meaning between different words (compare qar‑a 'black' with ? qara 'to look').[20]:3[19]:535

Its form could be confused with that of the identically shaped traditional dative-locative suffix ‑a/‑e exemplified further down. That form however, is more commonly found in older texts, and more commonly takes the forms of tur/tür or dur/dür instead.[16]:15[21][1]:46

Separated suffixes

1925 logo of Buryat-Mongolian newspaper in Mongolian script
1925 logo of Buryat-Mongolian newspaper ?   Buriyad Mong?ol‑un ünen 'Buryat-Mongol truth' with the suffix ‑un.

All case suffixes, as well as any plural suffixes consisting of one or two syllables are likewise separated by a preceding and hyphen-transliterated gap.[note 2] A maximum of two case suffixes can be added to a stem.[3]:30, 73[16]:12[21][22][17]:28[19]:534

Single-letter vowel suffixes appear with the final-shaped forms of a/e, i, or u/ü,[3]:30 as in ?a?ar‑a 'to the country' and edür‑e 'on the day',[3]:39 or ulus‑i 'the state' etc.[3]:23 Multi-letter suffixes most often start with an initial- (consonants), medial- (vowels), or variant-shaped form. Medial-shaped u in the two-letter suffix ‑un/‑ün is exemplified in the adjacent newspaper logo.[3]:30[19]:27

Compound names

In the modern language, proper names (but not words) usually forms graphic compounds (such as those of Qas'erdeni 'Jasper-jewel' or Kökeqota - the city of Hohhot). These also allow components of different harmonic classes to be joined together, and where the vowels of an added suffix will harmonize with those of the latter part of the compound. Ortographic peculiarities are most often retained, as with the short and long teeth of an initial-shaped ö in ‍?᠌‍ Muu'ökin 'Bad Girl' (protective name). Medial t and d, in contrast, are not affected in this way.[3]:30[23]:92[1]:44[24]:88

Isolate citation forms

Isolate citation forms for syllables containing o, u, ö, and ü may in dictionaries appear without a final tail as in bo/bu or mo/mu, and with a vertical tail as in / or / (as well as in transcriptions of Chinese syllables).[13][1]:39

Notes on letter tables

A dash indicates a non-applicable position for that letter.

Parentheses enclose glyphs or positions whose corresponding sounds are not found in native Mongolian words.

Palatalized phonemes have been excluded. These are conditioned by a following i.[18]:178

Components

Listed in the table below are letter components (graphemes, or in Mongolian: ᠎? ?irul?‑a / ? zurlaga) commonly used across the script. Some of these are used with several letters, and others to contrast between them. As their forms and usage may differ between § writing styles however, examples of these can be found under this section below.

Common components[26][27]:4-5[28]:29-30, 205[29][23]:82-83[1]:36[12]:1[30][31]:20[32]:211-212[33]:10-11[34][35][36]
Form Name(s) Used with
?‍ 'Crown': titim ((?/?)? tit(i/e)m) all initial vowels (a, e, i, o, u, ö, ü, ?), and some initial consonants (n, m, l, h, etc).
'Tooth': ? a?u? (? atsag) a, e, n, ng, q, ?, m, l, d, etc; historically also r.
'Tooth': ? sidü ( shüd)
'Spine, backbone': niru?u ( nuruu) the vertical line running through words.
'Tail': segül (? süül) a, e, n, etc. A final connected flourish/swash pointing right.
‍᠋ 'Short tail':  bo?uni segül (/ ? bogino/bogoni süül) final q, ?, m, and s
[...]: orki?a ( orkhits) separated final a or e.
'Sprinkling, dusting': ?a?ul?‑a (? tsatslaga) lower part of final a or e; the lower part of final g.
‍?᠌ 'Hook': degege ( degee) final i and d.
?‍ 'Shin, stick': silbi ( shilbe) i; initial ö and ü; the upper part of final g; ? and y, etc.
'Straight shin': ? silu?un silbi ( shuluun shilbe)
'Long tooth': ? ? urtu sidü ( urt shüd)
?‍ 'Shin with upturn': egeteger silbi (?(?)? e(e)tger shilbe) y.
?‍ Shin with downturn: ? mata?ar silbi ( matgar shilbe) ? and w.
?‍ Horned shin: örgesütei silbi ( örgöstei shilbe) r, and historically also the upper part of final g and separated a.
?᠋‍ 'Looped shin': ? ?ou?atai silbi ( gogtsootoi shilbe) t and d.
?‍ 'Hollow shin': köndei silbi ( khöndii shilbe) h and zh.
‍? 'Bow': ? numu ( num) final i, o-ü, and r; ng, b, p, k, g, etc.
‍‍ 'Belly, stomach,' loop, contour: gedesü ( gedes) the enclosed part of o-ü, b, p, initial t and d, etc.
?‍ 'Hind-gut': aru‑yin gedesü ( aryn gedes) initial t and d.
‍‍ Flaglet, tuft: ?arti? ( zartig Wylie: 'jar-thig) the left-side diacritic of f and z.
‍?‍
? [...]: [...] ( yatgar zartig) initial q and ?.
‍‍ 'Braid, pigtail': ge?ige ( gezeg) m.
'Horn': ? eber (? ever)
‍‍ 'Horn': ? eber (? ever) l.
'Braid, pigtail': ge?ige ( gezeg)
‍‍ 'Corner of the mouth': ?aba?i ((?/?)? zavij) s and ?.
‍?‍ [...]: ? serege eber ( ? seree ever) ?.
'Fork': a?a ( ats)
‍?‍ [...]: [...] (? ? jaljgar ever) ?.
'Tusk, fang': soyu?‑a (? soyoo)

Vowels

?

Letter[3]:17, 18[2]:546
‑a a Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration[37]
‑? ? Cyrillic transliteration[27][37]
-- ?[f] Isolate
?᠋[g]
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
‍? Connected final
-- Separated final
Ligatures[3]:22-23[2]:546
ba pa Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[h] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 3]
‑a Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
‑? Cyrillic transliteration
Separated suffix-initial
Separated suffix
  • Transcribes Chakhar 6;[13][38] Khalkha , , and .[18]:40-42
  • Medial and final forms may be distinguished from those of other tooth-shaped letters through: vowel harmony (e), the shape of adjacent consonants (see QA-q/k and GA-?/g below), and position in syllable sequence (n, ng, q, ?, d).[21]
  • The final tail extends to the left after bow-shaped consonants (such as b, p, f, KA-g, and KHA-k), and to the right in all other cases.
  • ‍?᠋‍ = medial form used after the junction in a proper name compound.[1]:44
  • Mongolian letter A (final form-2).svg⟩ = connected galik final.[3]:26-28[1]:38-39
  • Derived from Old Uyghur aleph, written twice for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:17, 18-19[2]:546
‑e e Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
‑? ? Cyrillic transliteration
-- ?[g] Isolate
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
‍? Connected final
-- Separated final
Ligatures[3]:22-23, 24-25[2]:546
be pe ke ge Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[h] [i] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 4]
‑e Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
‑? Cyrillic transliteration
 ?‍ Separated suffix-initial
Separated suffix
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha , , , and .[18]:40-42
  • Medial and final forms may be distinguished from those of other tooth-shaped letters through: vowel harmony (a) and its effect on the shape of a words consonants (see QA-q/k and GA-?/g below), or position in syllable sequence (n, ng, d).[21]
  • The final tail extends to the left after bow-shaped consonants (such as b, p, QA-k, and GA-g), and to the right in all other cases.
  • ?᠋‍ = a traditional initial form.[41]:6
  • Derived from Old Uyghur aleph.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:17, 19[2]:546
i Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
? Isolate
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Mongolian letter manchu I (medial form-3).svg[j] Medial (syllable-final)
‍? Final
Ligatures[3]:22-23, 24-25[2]:546
bi pi ki gi Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[k] [l] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 5]
‑i Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
‑? Cyrillic transliteration
Separated suffix-initial
Separated suffix
  • Transcribes Chakhar or ;[13][38] Khalkha , , and .[18]:40-42
  • Today often absorbed into a preceding syllable when at the end of a word.[]
  • Written medially with the single stroke after a consonant, and with two after a vowel (with rare exceptions like ‍?‍ naima 'eight' or ‍?‍ naiman 'eight'/tribal name).[3]:31[16]:9, 39[1]:38
  • ‍?᠋‍ = a handwritten Inner Mongolian variant on the sequence yi (as in / sayin 'good' being written ᠋? sain).[16]:58[1]:38[42]:346
    • Also the medial form used after the junction in a proper name compound.[1]:44
  • Derived from Old Uyghur yodh, preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:17, 19-20[2]:546
o Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?[m] Isolate
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
‍? Final
Ligatures[3]:22-23[2]:546
bo po Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha , , and .[18]:40-42
  • Undistinguishable from u in native words, except when inferred by its placement.[3]:19[16]:9-10
  • ‍?᠋ = the final form used in loanwords, as in radio ( radio).[27]:48[1]:36[36]
  • ‍?᠋‍ = medial form used after the junction in a proper name compound.[1]:44
  • Derived from Old Uyghur waw, preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:17, 19-20[2]:546
u Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
? Isolate
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
‍? Final
Ligatures[3]:22-23[2]:546
bu pu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 6]
‑u ‑u ‑un ‑ud ‑uru?u Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
‑? ‑? Cyrillic transliteration
Mongolian letter U (final form).svg -- -- -- Suffix
Mongolian letter U (medial form).svg --
Mongolian letter U (initial form).svg -- --
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha , , and .[18]:40-42
  • Undistinguishable from o in native words, except when inferred by its placement.[3]:19[16]:9-10
  • ‍?᠋‍ = medial form used after the junction in a proper name compound.[1]:44
  • Derived from Old Uyghur waw, preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:17, 20[2]:546
ö Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?[n] Isolate
?‍ Word-initial
‍?᠋‍ Medial (word-initial syllable)
‍?‍ Medial (subsequent syllables)
‍? Final
Ligatures[3]:22-23, 24-25[2]:546
Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[o] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha [?], , and .[18]:40-42
  • Undistinguishable from ü in native words, except when inferred by its placement.[3]:20[16]:9-10
  • ‍?᠋ = an alternative final form; also used in loanwords.[1]:39
  • The syllable-initial medial form ‍?᠋‍ is also used in non-initial syllables in proper name compounds,[1]:44 as well as in loanwords[]
  • ‍?᠌‍ = medial form used after the junction in a proper name compound.[1]:44
  • Derived from Old Uyghur waw, followed by a yodh in word-initial syllables, and preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:17, 20[2]:546
ü Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?[p] Isolate
?‍ Word-initial
‍?᠋‍ Medial (word-initial syllable)
‍?‍ Medial (subsequent syllables)
‍? Final
Ligatures[3]:22-23, 24-25[2]:546
Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[o] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 7]
‑ü ‑ü ‑ün ‑ügei ‑üd Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
‑? ‑? ‑? Cyrillic transliteration
Mongolian letter Ue (final form).svg -- -- -- Suffix
Mongolian letter Ue (medial form).svg --
Mongolian letter Ue (initial form).svg -- --
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha , , and .[18]:40-42
  • Undistinguishable from ö in native words, except when inferred by its placement.[3]:20[16]:9-10
  • ‍?᠋ = an alternative final form; also used in loanwords.[1]:39 Additionally used in native and modern Mongolian 'milk' (Classical Mongolian or sün).[26]:741, 744[1]:39
  • The syllable-initial medial form ‍?᠋‍ is also used in non-initial syllables in proper name compounds,[1]:44 as well as in loanwords[]
  • ‍?᠌‍ = medial form used after the junction in a proper name compound.[1]:44
  • Derived from Old Uyghur waw, followed by a yodh in word-initial syllables, and preceded by an aleph for isolate and initial forms.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[1]:38-39
? Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration[q]
? Cyrillic transliteration
? Isolate
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
‍? Final
Example ligatures
f? g? k? Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Stands in for e in loanwords,[1]:38[38] as in ᠋? ?üropa ( Yevrop).[27]:48[36]
  • Produced with + using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

Consecutive vowels

Doubled vowels[3]:10, 30[16]:59[note 8]
ii oo uu üü Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
-- -- [r] Isolate
[s] --
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
-- -- [t] Final
  • The doubled vowels ii, uu, and üü mark these as long. Medial oo is instead both used in a few words to mark the vowel as short, and to distinguish it from u.[3]:30
Diphthongs[3]:31-32[16]:58[18]:111[1]:41-42
[...]i ai ei ii oi ui -- üi Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
[...]? -- Cyrillic transliteration
Mongolian letter manchu I (medial form-3).svg[u] ᠌‍ ᠌‍ -- ᠌‍ Word-initial
‍᠌‍ -- ‍᠌‍ Medial
Mongolian letter I (final form).svg -- Final
Diphthongs, continued[3]:31-32
au u‑a uu‑a Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ‑? Cyrillic transliteration
-- -- -- Word-initial
‍‍ Medial
-- [v] Final

Native consonants

?

Letter[3]:17, 20-21[2]:546[32]:212-213
n Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍? Final
C-V syllables[27]:8
n‑a n‑e na ne ni no nu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
-- [w] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 9]
‑na ‑ne ‑nu ‑nü Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
 ‍  ‍ Suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha , and .[18]:40-42
  • Distinction from other tooth-shaped letters by position in syllable sequence.[]
  • Dotted before a vowel (attached or separated); undotted before a consonant (syllable-final) or a whitespace.[3]:20[2]:546[17]:6[13] Final dotted n is also found in modern Mongolian words.[1]:37
  • Derived from Old Uyghur nun.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 114[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:15, 17[2]:546[32]:212-213
ng Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration[q]
Cyrillic transliteration
-- Word-initial
-- Medial (syllable-initial)
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-final)
‍? Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[18]:40-42
  • Derived from Old Uyghur nun-kaph digraph.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 115[1]:35
  • Produced with + using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:(12), 17, 22[2]:546[32]:212-213
b Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍? Final
C-V syllables[27]:16
ba be bi bo bu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[h] [k] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 10]
‑ban ‑ben ‑bar ‑ber Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
Suffixes
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha , , and .[18]:40-42
  • For Classical Mongolian, Latin v is used only for transcribing foreign words, so most ? (v) in Mongolian Cyrillic correspond to ? (b) in Classical Mongolian.[]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur pe.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 115[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:12, 15, 17, 23[2]:546[32]:212-213
p Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
-- Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables[27]:46
pa pe pi po pu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[18]:40-42
  • Only at the beginning of Mongolian words (although words with an initial p tend to be foreign).[20]:5[24]:27[13]
  • Galik letter, derived from Mongolian b.[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

? (1/2)

Letter[3]:14, 17, 21[2]:546[32]:212-213
q Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
? Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
-- Medial (syllable-final)
-- Final
C-V syllables[3]:15[27]:19
q‑a q‑e qa qe qi qo qu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
-- [x] -- -- Isolate
-- -- -- Word-initial
-- ‍‍ -- ‍‍ -- Medial
-- -- Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[]
  • Distinction from other tooth-shaped letters by position in syllable sequence.[]
  • A separated isolate-shaped Block-printed -q.svg ‑q appears in the Uyghur loan title aya?‑q‑a tegimlig 'worthy of respect; reverend'.[2]:546[23]:43
  • Derived from Old Uyghur merged gimel and heth.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113-115[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

? (2/2)

Letter[3]:14, 17, 24-25[2]:546[32]:212-213
k Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
Mongolian letter Qa (initial form).svg Word-initial
Mongolian letter Qa (initial form).svg Medial (syllable-initial)
-- Medial (syllable-final)
-- Final
C-V syllables[3]:15[27]:19
ka ke ki ko ku Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
-- [i] [l] -- ⟨?⟩ [o] Isolate
[y]
-- -- Word-initial
-- ‍‍ ‍‍ -- ‍‍ Medial
-- -- Final
Separated suffixes[note 11]
‑ki ‑kin Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
Suffixes
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[]
  • Syllable-initially undistinguishable from g.[3]:15, 24[16]:9
  • Derived from Old Uyghur kaph.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113, 115[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

? (1/2)

Letter[3]:14, 17, 21-22[2]:546[32]:212-213
? Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration[q]
? Cyrillic transliteration
? Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍?[z] Final
C-V syllables[3]:15[27]:21
?‑a ?‑e ?a ?e ?i ?o ?u Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
-- -- -- Isolate
-- -- -- Word-initial
-- ‍‍ -- ‍‍ -- Medial
-- -- Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13] Khalkha , and .[18]:40-42
  • Dotted before a vowel (attached or separated); undotted before a consonant (syllable-final) or a whitespace.[3]:21[2]:546[17]:5[13]
  • May turn silent between two adjacent vowels, and merge these into a long vowel or diphthong.[3]:36-37[1]:7 Qa?an () 'Khagan' for instance, is read as Qaan unless reading classical literary Mongolian. Some exceptions like tsa-g-aan 'white' exist.[]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur merged gimel and heth.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113-115[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

? (2/2)

Letter[3]:14-15, 17, 24-25[2]:546[32]:212-213
g Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
[z] Final
C-V syllables[3]:15[27]:21
g? ge gi go gu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
-- [i] [l] -- [o] Isolate
-- -- Word-initial
-- ‍‍ ‍‍ -- ‍‍ Medial
-- -- Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[]
  • Syllable-initially undistinguishable from k.[3]:15, 24[16]:9 When it must be distinguished from k medially, it can be written twice (as in öggügsen 'given', compared with ? ükügsen 'dead').[16]:59[36]
  • Occurs word-initially with a consonant following it in loanwords, such as Block-printed gshan.svg g?an 'moment' (dotless ? example), or gramm 'gram'.[3]:15, 32, 34[36] The final form is also found written like the bow-shaped Manchu final ‍?᠋ k.[1]:39
    Emblem of the Inner Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party using bow-shaped final g in bi?ig
  • May turn silent between two adjacent vowels, and merge these into a long vowel or diphthong.[3]:36-37[1]:7 Deger for instance, is read as deer. Some exceptions like ügüi 'no' exist.[]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur kaph.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113, 115[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:13, 17, 24[2]:546[32]:212, 214
m Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍? Final
C-V syllables[27]:8
m‑a m‑e ma me mi mo mu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
-- [aa] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[18]:40-42
  • Derived from Old Uyghur mem.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:13, 17[2]:546[32]:212, 214
l Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍? Final
C-V syllables[27]:8
l‑a l‑e la le li lo lu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
-- [ab] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 12]
‑lu ‑lü Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
 ‍ Suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[18]:40-42
  • Not occurring word-initially in native words.[16]:10
  • Forms a ligature with a preceding "bow"-shaped consonant in loanwords such as ?᠎?⟨?⟩ blam-a 'lama' from Tibetan Wylie: bla-ma.[3]:15, 32[1]:36
  • Derived from Old Uyghur hooked resh.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:13, 17, 23[2]:546[32]:212, 214
s Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍? Final
C-V syllables[27]:41
s‑a s‑e[44] sa se si so su Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
-- [ac] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar , or before i;[16]:58[13] Khalkha , or before i. Before a morpheme boundary however, there is no change of s to /?/ before an i.[16]:84
  • Derived from Old Uyghur merged samekh and shin.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:13, 17, 23[2]:546[32]:212, 214
? Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables[27]:41
?a ?e ?i ?o ?u Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[ad] Isolate
[ae] --
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[]
  • Final ? is only found in modern Mongolian words.[3]:15[1]:37
  • Derived from Old Uyghur merged samekh and shin.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113-114[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:13, 17, 23[2]:546[32]:212, 214
t Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
-- Medial (syllable-final)
-- Final
C-V syllables[27]:31
ta te ti to tu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[af] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 13]
‑ta ‑te ‑tu ‑tü Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
 ‍  ‍ Suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[18]:40-42
  • Syllable-initially undistinguishable from d in native words.[3]:23[16]:9[13]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur taw (initial) and lamedh (medial).[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Positional variants on taw?‍/‍?᠋‍/‍?⟩ are used consistently for t in foreign words.[3]:23[1]:37
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:13, 17, 23[2]:546[32]:212, 214
d Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍? Final
C-V syllables[27]:31
da de di do du Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[af] Isolate
?᠋?᠋ ?᠋?᠋
-- ?᠋?[ag] -- ?᠋?[ag]
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 14]
‑d ‑da ‑de ‑du ‑dü Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
‑? Cyrillic transliteration
Mongolian letter Da (initial form-2).svg Suffix-initial
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha , and .[18]:40-42
  • Syllable-initially undistinguishable from t in native words.[3]:23[16]:9[13] When it must be distinguished from t medially, it can be written twice, and with both medial forms (as in quddu? 'well', compared with qutu? 'holy').[16]:59[36] Alternatively, a dot is sometimes used to the right of the letter in 19th and 20th century manuscripts.[3]:26
  • The belly-tooth-shaped form is used before consonants (syllable-final), the other before vowels.[16]:58[17]:5
  • Derived from Old Uyghur taw (initial, belly-tooth-shaped medial, and final) and lamedh (other medial form).[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Positional variants on lamedh?᠋‍/‍?‍/‍?᠋⟩ are used consistently for d in foreign words.[3]:23 (As in ?᠋ d?ng / den, ded / ded, or ed / ed).[36]
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:13, 17[2]:546[32]:212, 214
? Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
-- Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables[27]:38
?a ?e ?i ?o ?u Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
[ah] [ai] Isolate
[ai] -- [ai]
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha , and (Mongolian Cyrillic ?, and ?, respectively).[13]:§ 1.2[20]:2
  • In Buryat, a derived letter with two dots on the right ⟨?; Mongolian letter Cha with two dots (isolated form).svg⟩ is used in places where ? is pronounced as ?.[45]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur (through early Mongolian) tsade.[16]:59[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:13, 17, 24[2]:546[32]:212, 214
? Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration[q]
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
-- Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables[27]:28
?‑a ?‑e ?a ?e ?i ?o ?u Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
[aj] [ak] [al] Isolate
[am] --
-- Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha , and d?z (Mongolian Cyrillic ?, and ?, respectively).[13]:§ 1.2[20]:2
  • Derived from Old Uyghur yodh (initial), and Old Uyghur (through early Mongolian) tsade (medial).[16]:59[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:14, 17, 24[2]:546[32]:212, 214
y Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
Medial (syllable-initial)
-- Medial (syllable-final)
-- Final
C-V syllables[27]:25
y‑a y‑e ya ye yi yo yu Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
-- Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
Separated suffixes[note 15]
‑y ‑yi ‑yin ‑yu?an ‑yügen Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
‑? Cyrillic transliteration
Mongolian letter Ya (initial form-2).svg -- Suffixes
Mongolian letter Ya (initial form).svg --
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[18]:40-42
  • The unhooked initial and medial forms are older ones.[2]:545, 546[1]:40
  • Derived from Old Uyghur yodh, through borrowed Manchu hooked yodh.[2]:545[16]:59
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[3]:13-14, 17[2]:546[32]:212, 214
r Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
‍? Final
C-V syllables[27]:14
r‑a r‑e ra re ri ro ru Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
-- Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ Medial
Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38] Khalkha .[18]:40-42
  • Not occurring word-initially except in loanwords.[3]:14 Transcribed foreign words usually get a vowel prepended; transcribing ? (Russia) results in ? Oros.[]
  • Derived from Old Uyghur resh.[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

Foreign consonants

A KFC in Hohhot, the capital of Inner Mongolia, China, with a trilingual sign in Chinese, Mongolian and English
From left to right : Phagspa, Lantsa, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese and Cyrillic

?

Letter[1]:38[27]:44-45
w Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration[q]
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍[an] Word-initial
‍?‍[ao] Medial (syllable-initial)
Medial (syllable-final)
Final
C-V syllables[27]:45
w‑a w‑e[aq] Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
?‑? ?‑? Cyrillic transliteration
[ar] Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for v in Sanskrit ? /va/). Transcribes /w/ in Tibetan ? /wa/;[47]:254[3]:28[39]:113 Old Uyghur and Chinese loanwords.[1]:34-35
  • Derived from Old Uyghur bet,[2]:539-540, 545-546[39]:111, 113 and "waw" (before a separated vowel).[]
  • Produced with + using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[27]:45
f Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍[as] Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
‍? Final
Ligatures[27]:45
fa f? fi fo Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ ‍᠋‍ Medial
‍᠋ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words.
  • Transcribes /p?/ in Tibetan ? /p?a/.[47]:96, 247[3]:28
  • Galik letter, derived from Mongolian b.[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter
g Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration[q]
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
‍? Final
Ligatures
ga g? gi go Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
⟨?⟩ [at] Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ [au] Medial
[av] Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for g in Tibetan ? /ga/; Sanskrit ? /ga/).[47]:87, 244, 251[3]:28
  • Galik letter.[16]:59-60
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[27]:46
k Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration[q]
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
‍? Final
Ligatures[27]:46
ka k? ki ko Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
Isolate
Word-initial
‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ ‍‍ ‍᠋‍ Medial
‍᠋ Final
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for k? in Tibetan ? /k?a/; Sanskrit ? /kha/).[47]:86, 244, 251[3]:28
  • Produced with + using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[27]:46
c Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍[aw] Word-initial
‍?‍[ax] Medial
‍?[ay] Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for ts? in Tibetan ? /ts?a/; Sanskrit ? /cha/).[47]:89, 144, 245, 254[3]:28
  • Galik letter, derived from Preclassical Mongolian tsade .[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[27]:46
z Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍[az] Word-initial
‍?‍[ba] Medial
‍?[bb] Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for dz in Tibetan ? /dza/; Sanskrit ? /ja/).[47]:89, 144, 245, 254[3]:28
  • Galik letter, derived from Preclassical Mongolian tsade .[1]:35
  • Produced with using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[27]:47
h Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍[bc] Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
‍?‌ Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38]
  • Used to transcribe foreign words (originally for h in Tibetan ? /ha/, ? /-ha/; Sanskrit ? /ha/).[47]:69, 102, 194, 244-249, 255[3]:27-28[16]:59
  • Galik letter, borrowed from the Tibetan alphabet, and preceded by an aleph for initial form.[16]:59-60[2]:545-546[1]:35
  • Produced with + using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[27]:47
? Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍[bd] Word-initial
-- Medial
-- Final
  • Transcribes Chakhar ;[13][38]
  • Transcribes Chinese r /?/ ([? ~ ?];[be] as in ? Ri), and used in Inner Mongolia. Always followed by an i.[38]
  • Transliterates /?/ in Tibetan ? /?a/.[47]:254 (?)
  • Produced with + using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter[27]:47
lh Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
‍?‍ Medial
-- Final
  • Transcribes Tibetan lh (as in ? Lhasa).[27]:48[38][49]
  • Digraph composed of ? l and ? h.[24]:30 Transcribes /lh/ in Tibetan /lha/.[47]:220[3]:27
  • Produced with + using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter
zh Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
-- Medial
-- Final
  • Transcribes zh in the Chinese syllable zhi only, and used in Inner Mongolia.[1]:39[38]
  • Galik letter, borrowed from the Tibetan alphabet.[1]:35
  • Produced with + using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

?

Letter
ch Scholarly/​Scientific transliteration
? Cyrillic transliteration
?‍ Word-initial
-- Medial
-- Final
  • Transcribes ch in the Chinese syllable chi (as in ? Ch?), and used in Inner Mongolia.[47]:91, 145, 153, 246[3]:28[38]
  • Produced with + using the Windows Mongolian keyboard layout.[40]

Punctuation

Example of the name Oyirad 'Oirat', 1604 manuscript

When written between words, punctuation marks use space on both sides of them. They can also appear at the very end of a line, regardless of where the preceding word ends.[23]:99 Red (cinnabar) ink is used in many manuscripts, either to symbolize emphasis or respect.[23]:241 Modern puncuation incorporates Western marks: parentheses; quotation, question, and exclamation marks; as well as precomposed ?! and !?.[19]:535-536

Punctuation[3]:28[28]:30[23]:99[37]:3[19]:535-536[36]
Form(s) Name Function(s)
? ?᠎?⟨?⟩ bir?‑a ( byarga) Marks start of a book, chapter, passage, or first line
?᠋
?᠌
?᠍
[...]
? ᠎? ⟨?⟩ ?uba?‑a ?eg ( tsuvaa tseg) Ellipsis
? 'Dot': ?eg ( tseg) Comma
? 'Double-dot': dabqur ?eg ( davkhar tseg) Period / full stop
? khos tseg[] Colon
? 'Four-fold/quadripartite dot': dörbel?in ?eg ( dörvöljin tseg) Marks end of a passage, paragraph, or chapter
? Mongolian soft hyphen
? niru?u ( nuruu) Mongolian non-breaking hyphen, or stem extender

Numerals

Examples of numbers 10 and 89: written horizontally on a stamp and vertically on a hillside, respectively

Mongolian numerals are either written from left to right, or from top to bottom.[3]:54[27]:9

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Examples

Writing styles

As exemplified in this section, the shapes of glyphs may vary widely between different styles of writing and choice of medium with which to produce them. The development of written Mongolian can be divided into the three periods of pre-classical (beginning - 17th century), classical (16/17th century - 20th century), and modern (20th century onward):[26][3]:2-3, 17, 23, 25-26[16]:58-59[2]:539-540, 545-546[27]:62-63[39]:111, 113-114[18]:40-42, 100-101, 117[1]:34-37[50]:8-11[32]:211-215

  • Rounded letterforms tend to be more prevalent with handwritten styles (compare printed and handwritten arban 'ten').
Block‑printed Pen-written form Modern brush‑​written​ form Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. form semi-modern forms
Block-printed arban 2.svg Block-printed arban.svg Pen-written arban.svg Brush-written arban 2.svg arban 'ten'
Block-printed arban v.svg
  • Final letterforms with a right-pointing tail (such as those of a, e, n, q, ?, m, l, s, ?, and d) may have the notch preceding it in printed form, written in a span between two extremes: from as a more or less tapered point, to a fully rounded curve in handwriting.
  • The long final tails of a, e, n, and d in the texts of pre-classical Mongolian can become elongated vertically to fill up the remainder of a line. Such tails are used consistently for these letters in the earliest 13th to 15th century Uyghur Mongolian style of texts.
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
Block-printed acha-eche suffix 2.svg Block-printed aca-ece suffix.svg Pen-written -a?a -e?e.svg Brush-written aca-ece suffix 2.svg ‑a?a/‑e?e
Block-printed aca-ece suffix v.svg
Block-printed un-uen suffix 2.svg Block-printed un-uen suffix.svg Pen-written -un -ün.svg Brush-written un-uen suffix 2.svg ‑un/‑ün
Block-printed un-uen suffix v.svg
Block-printed ud-ued suffix 2.svg Block-printed ud-ued suffix.svg Pen-written -ud -üd.svg Brush-written ud-ued suffix 2.svg ‑ud/‑üd
Block-printed ud-ued suffix v.svg
Block-printed ba-be 2.svg Block-printed ba-be.svg Pen-written ba.svg Brush-written ba 2.svg ba 'and'
  • A hooked form of yodh was borrowed from the Manchu alphabet in the 19th century to distinguish initial y from ?. The handwritten form of final-shaped yodh (i, ?, y), can be greatly shortened in comparison with its initial and medial forms.
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
Block-printed i suffix 2.svg Block-printed i suffix.svg Pen-written -i.svg Brush-written i suffix 2.svg ‑i
Block-printed -i alt.svg
Block-printed yi suffix 2.svg Block-printed yi suffix.svg Pen-written -yi.svg Brush-written yi suffix 2.svg ‑yi
Block-printed yin suffix 2.svg Block-printed yin suffix.svg Pen-written -yin.svg Brush-written yin suffix 2.svg ‑yin
Block-printed yin suffix v.svg
Block-printed sayin 2.svg Block-printed sayin.svg Pen-written sayin.svg Brush-written sayin 2.svg sain/sayin 'good'
Block-printed sayin v.svg
Block-printed yeke 2.svg Block-printed yeke.svg Pen-written yeke.svg Brush-written yeke 2.svg yeke 'great'
  • The definite status or function of diacritics were not established prior to classical Mongolian. As such, the dotted letters n, ?, and ?, can be found sporadically dotted or altogether lacking them. Additionally, both q and ? could be (double-)dotted to identify them regardless of their sound values. Final dotted n is also found in modern Mongolian words. Any diacritical dots of ? and n can be offset downward from their respective letters
  • When a bow-shaped consonant is followed by a vowel in Uyghur style text, said bow can be found to notably overlap it (see bi). A final b has, in its final pre-modern form, a bow-less final form as opposed to the common modern one:[1]:39
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
Block-printed u-ue suffix 2.svg Block-printed u-ue suffix.svg Pen-written -u -ü.svg Brush-written u-ue suffix 2.svg ‑u/‑ü
Block-printed bi 2.svg Block-printed bi.svg Pen-written bi.svg Brush-written bi 2.svg bi 'I'
Block-printed ab 2.svg Block-printed ab.svg Pen-written ab.svg Brush-written ab 2.svg ab (intensifying particle)
  • As in Block-printed emphatic particle 2.svg/Block-printed emphatic particle.svg kü, köke, g and separated a/e, two teeth can also make up the top-left part of an kaph (k/g) or aleph (a/e) in pre-classical texts. In back-vocalic words of Uyghur Mongolian, qi was used in place of ki, and can therefore be used to identify this stage of the written language. An example of this appears in the suffix
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
Block-printed a-e suffix or seprated vowel 2.svg Block-printed a-e suffix or seprated vowel.svg Pen-written -a -e.svg Brush-written a-e suffix or seprated vowel 2.svg ‑a/‑e
Block-printed a-e suffix or seprated vowel alt.svg
Block-printed a-e suffix or seprated vowel alt 2.svg
Block-printed a-e suffix or seprated vowel alt 3.svg
Block-printed lugh-a suffix 2.svg Block-printed lugh-a suffix.svg Pen-written -lu?-a.svg Brush-written lugh-a suffix 2.svg ‑lu?‑a
Block-printed köke 2.svg Block-printed koeke.svg Pen-written köke.svg Brush-written koeke 2.svg köke 'blue'
köge 'soot'
Block-printed jueg 2.svg Block-printed jueg.svg Pen-written ?üg.svg Brush-written jueg 2.svg ?üg 'direction'
  • In pre-modern Mongolian, medial ml (‍‍) forms a ligature: Mongolian script ml ligature.svg.
  • A pre-modern variant form for final s appears in the shape of a short final n , derived from Old Uyghur zayin. It tended to be replaced by the mouth-shaped form and is no longer used. An early example of it is found in the name of Gengis Khan on the Stele of Yisüngge [ru]: ?inggis. A zayin-shaped final can also appear as part of final m and ?.
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
Block-printed ez-e 2.svg Block-printed ese.svg Pen-written ese.svg es(‑)e 'not, no', (negation)
Block-printed es-e.svg
Block-printed uluz 2.svg Block-printed uluz.svg Pen-written ulus.svg ulus 'nation'
Block-printed uluz alt.svg
Block-printed nom 2.svg Block-printed nom.svg Pen-written nom.svg nom 'book'
Block-printed ?a? 2.svg Block-printed ?a?.svg Pen-written ?a?.svg ?a? 'time'
Block-printed ?a? 2 alt.svg Block-printed ?a? alt.svg
  • Initial taw (t/d), can akin to final mem (m), be found written quite explicitly loopy (as in nom 'book' and toli 'mirror'). The lamedh (t or d) may appear simply as an oval loop or looped shin, or as more angular, with an either closed or open counter (as in daki/deki or dur/dür). As in metü, a Uyghur style word-medial t can sometimes be written with the pre-consonantal form otherwise used for d. Taw was applied to both initial t and d from the outset of the script's adoption. This was done in imitation of Old Uyghur which, however, had lacked the phoneme d in this position.
Block‑printed Pen-written forms Modern brush‑​written​ forms Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. forms semi-modern forms
Block-printed toli 2.svg Block-printed toli.svg [...] Brush-written toli 2.svg toli 'mirror'
Block-printed daki-deki suffix 2.svg Block-printed daki-deki suffix.svg Pen-written -taki -teki -daki -deki.svg [...] ‑daki/‑deki
Block-printed tur-tuer-dur-duer suffix 2.svg Block-printed tur-tuer suffix.svg Pen-written -tur -tür.svg [...] ‑tur/‑tür
Block-printed dur-duer suffix.svg Pen-written -dur -dür.svg Brush-written dur-duer suffix 2.svg ‑dur/‑dür
Block-printed metü 2.svg Block-printed metü.svg Pen-written metü.svg [...] metü 'as'
The word ?iabd in an Uyghur Mongolian style: exemplifying a dotted syllable-final ?, and a final bd ligature
  • Following the late classical Mongolian orthography of the 17th and 18th centuries, a smooth and angular tsade (‍?‍ and ?) has come to represent ? and ? respectively. The tsade before this was used for both these phonemes, regardless of graphical variants, as no ? had existed in Old Uyghur:
Block‑printed Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. form semi-modern form
Block-printed ?e?eg 2.svg Block-printed ?e?eg.svg ?e?eg 'flower'
Block-printed semi-modern form Pen-written form Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Block-printed ?a?ar-qa?ar.svg Pen-written qa?ar ?a?ar.svg qa?ar/?a?ar 'cheek/place'
  • As in sara and ‑dur/‑dür, a resh (of r, and sometimes of l) can appear as two teeth or crossed shins; adjacent, angled, attached to a shin and/or overlapping.
Block‑printed Pen-written form Modern brush‑​written​ form Trans­lit­er­a­tion(s) & 'trans­la­tion'
Uyghur Mong. form semi-modern forms
Block-printed sara 2.svg Block-printed sara.svg Pen-written sara.svg Brush-written sara 2.svg sar(‑)a 'moon/month'
Block-printed sar-a.svg
Wikipedia slogan
Manuscript Type Unicode Transliteration
(first word)
Mclassical mimic.jpg Wikiclassicalmongol.svg
wi/vi
‍‍ gi/ki
‍‍ p?/
‍‍ di
?‍ ya
  • Transliteration: Wikip?diya ?ilügetü nebterkei toli bi?ig bolai.
  • Cyrillic: ? .
  • Transcription: Vikipedia chölööt nevterkhii toli bichig boloi.
  • Gloss: popflock.com resource free omni-profound mirror scripture is.
  • Translation: popflock.com resource is the free encyclopedia.

Gallery

Child systems

The Mongol script has been the basis of alphabets for several languages. First, after overcoming the Uyghur script ductus, it was used for Mongolian itself.

Clear script (Oirat alphabet)

In 1648, the Oirat Buddhist monk Zaya-pandita Namkhaijamco created this variation with the goals of bringing the written language closer to the actual pronunciation of Oirat and making it easier to transcribe Tibetan and Sanskrit. The script was used by the Kalmyks of Russia until 1924, when it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet. In Xinjiang, China, the Oirat people still use it.

Manchu alphabet

The Manchu alphabet was developed from the Mongolian script in the early 17th century to write the Manchu language. A variant is still used to write Xibe. It is also used for Daur. Its folded variant may for example be found on Chinese Qing seals.

Vagindra alphabet

Another alphabet, sometimes called Vagindra or Vaghintara, was created in 1905 by the Buryat monk Agvan Dorjiev (1854-1938). It was also meant to reduce ambiguity, and to support the Russian language in addition to Mongolian. The most significant change, however, was the elimination of the positional shape variations. All letters were based on the medial variant of the original Mongol alphabet. Fewer than a dozen books were printed using it.[]

Evenki alphabet

The Qing dynasty Qianlong Emperor erroneously identified the Khitan people and their language with the Solons, leading him to use the Solon language (Evenki) to "correct" Chinese character transcriptions of Khitan names in the History of Liao in his "Imperial Liao Jin Yuan Three Histories National Language Explanation" (?/? Q?ndìng Liáo J?n Yuán S?nsh? Guóy?ji?) project. The Evenki words were written in the Manchu script in this work.

In the 1980s, an experimental alphabet for Evenki was created.

Additional characters

Galik characters

In 1587, the translator and scholar Ayuush Güüsh (? ?) created the Galik alphabet (-?), inspired by the third Dalai Lama, Sonam Gyatso. It primarily added extra characters for transcribing Tibetan and Sanskrit terms when translating religious texts, and later also from Chinese. Some of those characters are still in use today for writing foreign names (compare table above).[51]

Unicode

Mongolian script was added to the Unicode standard in September 1999 with the release of version 3.0. However, there are multiple design issues in Mongolian Unicode that have not been fixed until now.[when?][52] The model is extremely unstable[53] and the user group dislike the 1999 design.

  • The 1999 Mongolian script Unicode codes are duplicated and not searchable.
  • The 1999 Mongolian script Unicode model has multiple layers of FVS (free variation selectors), MVS, ZWJ, NNBSP, and those variation selections conflict with each other, which create incorrect results.[54] Furthermore, different vendors understood the definition of each FVS differently, and developed multiple applications in different standards.[55]
  • The Mongolian User Group is in a panic, and over 10,000 users signed up in 10 days in 2019 April to request local authority to fundamentally review the 1999 Unicode model.

Blocks

The Unicode block for Mongolian is U+1800-U+18AF. It includes letters, digits and various punctuation marks for Hudum Mongolian, Todo Mongolian, Xibe (Manchu), Manchu proper, and Ali Gali, as well as extensions for transcribing Sanskrit and Tibetan.

Mongolian[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+180x FV
 S1 
FV
 S2 
FV
 S3 
 MV 
S
U+181x
U+182x
U+183x
U+184x
U+185x
U+186x
U+187x
U+188x
U+189x
U+18Ax
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

The Mongolian Supplement block (U+11660-U+1167F) was added to the Unicode Standard in June, 2016 with the release of version 9.0:

Mongolian Supplement[1][2]
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1166x 𑙠 𑙡 𑙢 𑙣 𑙤 𑙥 𑙦 𑙧 𑙨 𑙩 𑙪 𑙫 𑙬
U+1167x
Notes
1.^ As of Unicode version 13.0
2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points

Font issues

Mongolian popflock.com resource preview. A representation of what mn.wiki would look like if Mongolian script support was properly implemented. Mn.wiki already exists, but support has not been implemented. Not all text is "real Mongolian" -- only the text and name of the article are, the rest of the text being English written in Mongolian script.

Although the Mongolian script has been defined in Unicode since 1999, there was no native support for Unicode Mongolian from the major vendors until the release of the Windows Vista operating system in 2007 and fonts need to be installed in Windows XP and Windows 2000 to show properly, and so Unicode Mongolian is not yet widely used. In China, legacy encodings such as the Private Use Areas (PUA) Unicode mappings and GB18030 mappings of the Menksoft IMEs (espc. Menksoft Mongolian IME) are more commonly used than Unicode for writing web pages and electronic documents in Mongolian. In addition, unlike the usual vertical format, computers tend to show the script in right-to-left lines by default.

The inclusion of a Unicode Mongolian font and keyboard layout in Windows Vista has meant that Unicode Mongolian is now gradually becoming more popular,[] but the complexity of the Unicode Mongolian encoding model and the lack of a clear definition for the use variation selectors are still barriers to its widespread adoption, as is the lack of support for inline vertical display. As of 2015 there are no fonts that successfully display all of Mongolian correctly when written in Unicode. A report published in 2011 revealed many shortcomings with automatic rendering in all three Unicode Mongolian fonts the authors surveyed, including Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti.[56]

Furthermore, Mongolian language support has suffered from buggy implementations: the initial version of Microsoft's Mongolian Baiti font (version 5.00) was, in the supplier's own words, "almost unusable",[57] and as of 2011 there remain some minor bugs with the rendering of suffixes in Firefox.[58] Other fonts, such as Monotype's Mongol Usug and Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript, suffer even more serious bugs.[56]

bi?ig as it should appear (without FVS; )

In January 2013, Menksoft released several OpenType Mongolian fonts, delivered with its Menksoft Mongolian IME 2012. These fonts strictly follow Unicode standard, i.e. bichig is no longer realized as "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2" (incorrect) but "B+I+CH+I+G" (correct), which is not done by Microsoft and Founder's Mongolian Baiti, Monotype's Mongol Usug, or Myatav Erdenechimeg's MongolianScript.[59] However, due to the impact of Mongolian Baiti, many still use the Microsoft defined incorrect realization "B+I+CH+I+G+FVS2", which results in an incorrect rendering in correctly-designed fonts like Menk Qagan Tig.

Mongolian script can be represented in LaTeX with the MonTeX package.[60]

Sometimes even if a font is installed the script may display as horizontal rather than vertical depending on the operating system or font.

Samples

The text samples below should match their image counterparts. This ensures that a text in Mongolian script is being rendered somewhat properly. The specific example letters given here are:

  • The separated final vowel ‑a or ‑e.
  • The initial consonant and vowel of separated suffixes ‑yin and ‑lüge, respectively.
  • The first vowel of the particle buu/büü.
  • The vowel harmony dependent letter pairs q/k and ?/g: see bilig.
  • The initial letter of the interrogative particle uu/üü.
  • The particle ?‑a.

Note that in some browsers, letters are rotated 90° counterclockwise. If an isolate letter a (?) resembles a 'W' and not a '?', rotate the letters 90° clockwise.

Image Text Transliteration(s)
Block-printed a-e suffix or seprated vowel alt 2.svg ᠎? ‑a/‑e
Block-printed yin suffix.svg ‑yin
Block-printed lüge suffix.svg  ? ‑lüge
Block-printed buu büü.svg buu/büü
Block-printed bilig.svg bilig
Block-printed interrogative particle.svg uu/üü
Block-printed ?-a.svg ?᠎? ?‑a

See also

Notes

  1. ^ In Mongolian script: Monggol.svg Bicig.svgMong?ol bi?ig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Mongol bichig
  2. ^ In Mongolian script: ; Mongolian Cyrillic: Khalkha: , Khudam Mongol bichig, Buryat: , Khudam Mongol besheg, Kalmyk: ?, Xuudm Moñhl biçg
  3. ^ Mongolian: Uigurjin mongol bichig
  4. ^ Mongolian: Khuuchin mongol bichig
  5. ^ Mongolian: ? ? Shine üseg
  6. ^ As in the interjection ? a ( aa) 'a!, oh!, well!'.[26]:1
  7. ^ a b As in the exclamation a/e (/// aa/ee/oo/öö), or interjection ? e ( ee) 'oh!'.[26]:1, 284
  8. ^ a b c As in ba ( ba) 'and'.[26]:64[3]:22
  9. ^ a b c As in /?/ ke/kege/kegen ( khee) 'pattern, piping, design, stamp'.[26]:438, 442
  10. ^ Stand-in for the correct (context-sensitive only) glyph.
  11. ^ a b As in bi ( bi) 'I'.[26]:101[3]:22
  12. ^ a b c See the ‑ki suffix.[26]:462
  13. ^ As in ? ? ( oo) 'powder' in general; 'face powder'.[26]:598, 625
  14. ^ As in ?/ ö/öge ( öö) 'fault; roughness, unevenness'.[26]:627, 630
  15. ^ a b c d As in the strengthening (emphatic) ( khüü) particle,[26]:494[16]:46 or /? kö/köge ( khöö) 'soot; obstacle, hindrance; trouble', or 'ring of mail'.[26]:475, 478
  16. ^ As in ?/? egüü/ü ( üü) 'wart; excrescence'.[26]:303, 995
  17. ^ a b c d e f g Alternative scholarly transliterations include those of native ng (?), ? (?), ? (j), and those of galik ? (é), w (v), g (k), and k (kh).[37]
  18. ^ Interrogative uu/üü particle (subject to vowel harmony; /// uu/üü/yuu/yuü) used after the predicate.[26]:437, 889, 1014[3]:172[16]:38[1]:53[24]:183 The positional variant yuu/yüü (/ yuu/yuü) is only used in the modern language.[26]:0437[1]:53
  19. ^ As in /? uu/a?uu (--/? --/aguu) 'vast, great[ly]' etc.[26]:18,889
  20. ^ As in the prohibitive particle buu/büü ( büü) 'don't'.[26]:141, 153[3]:166[16]:38 Compare with the conjunction ? :xiii buyu (? buyuu) 'or',[26]:132[16]:44 and küü ( khüü) 'son, young boy'.[26]:509[27]:37
  21. ^ Stand-in for the correct (context-sensitive only) glyph.
  22. ^ As in the final diphthongs u-a and uu-a.[3]:31
  23. ^ As in ni ( ni), a modern form used in place of anu 'their' and inu 'his'.[26]:46-47, 412, 577[3]:139
  24. ^ As in / qa/qami?‑a ( khaa) 'where'.[26]:895, 923
  25. ^ As in /.[36]
  26. ^ a b For the two looks of the particle / si?/sig ( shig) 'similar to, similarly, like' etc, the choice between final ? or g is dependent on whether it occurs after a masculine or a feminine word, respectively.[26]:699[24]:201
  27. ^ As in the exclamation / ma/mai ((?) ma(i)) 'here, take it'.[26]:519, 522
  28. ^ As in the intensifying / la/le / ele (? l) particle, or la ((?) laa(n)) 'candle'.[26]:308, 513
  29. ^ As in sa ( saa) 'paralysis, palsy'.[26]:653
  30. ^ As in ?a ( shaa) 'crape, netting'.[26]:747
  31. ^ As in ?o ( shoo) 'dice, oracle bones'.[26]:754
  32. ^ a b As in the second person singular/plural pronoun ta 'you',[26]:760[3]:85-86 or the intensifying da/de (/ daa/dee) particle used after the predicate.[26]:211
  33. ^ a b See the ‑du/‑dü suffix.[26]:270
  34. ^ As in the second person singular pronoun ?i ( chi) 'thou, you'.[26]:174[3]:85-86
  35. ^ a b c As in the strengthening/intensifying (emphatic) and concessive ?u/?ü (? ch) 'even, as for' particle,[26]:203[16]:46 /? ?o/?o?u ( tsoo) 'through and through, completely',[26]:193, 195 or ( tsüü) 'spike, bolt'.[26]:209
  36. ^ [2]:546 As in ?‑a ((?) za(a)) 'well', 'allright';[3]:24[32]:345[36] emphatic final;[16]:46, 59 ?‑a particle expressing presumption, probability, or hope;[26]:1018 doubt-expressing ?‑a and corroborative ?‑e particle.[46]
  37. ^ As in the interjection ?a ( zaa) 'all right, yes, very good, well!, now then'.[26]:1018
  38. ^ See the ‑yi suffix.
  39. ^ As in ?o ( zoo) 'vertebrae'.[26]:1065
  40. ^ As in ? w?ir (? ochir),[27]:44 or ? wiwanggirid (? vivangirid).[3]:12[36]
  41. ^ As in ? dawa ( davaa), or pawlow.[27]:44-45
  42. ^ As in pawlow.[27]:45[36]
  43. ^ [44][13]
  44. ^ As in bodisadw‑a ( bodisadva).[27]:45[36]
  45. ^ As in ᠋?᠋ foto (? foto).[27]:48
  46. ^ With a vertical tail is correct, but isolate renders incorrectly (without) as of Noto 1.04.
  47. ^ With a yodh/shilbe is correct, but medial ‍᠋‍ renders incorrectly (without) as of Noto 1.04.
  48. ^ With a vertical tail is correct, but final ‍᠋ renders incorrectly (without) as of Noto 1.04.
  49. ^ As in (n-dotted) m?nt/c?m?nt ( tsyemyent).[27]:49[36]
  50. ^ As in (n-dotted) stanci ( stants).[27]:48[36]
  51. ^ As in trap?c ( trapyets).[36]
  52. ^ As in (medially n-dotted) zandan ( zandan).[36]
  53. ^ As in (medially n-dotted) b?nzin ( benzin).[36]
  54. ^ As in (n-dotted) bronz ( bronz).[36]
  55. ^ As in sanskrit hari 'green',[3]:15 or ? hrom (? khrom).[36]
  56. ^ As in ?ükow ( jukov).[27]:49
  57. ^ Lee & Zee (2003) and Lin (2007) transcribe these as approximants, while Duanmu (2007) transcribes these as voiced fricatives. The actual pronunciation has been acoustically measured to be more approximant-like.[48]
  1. ^ In digital typesetting, this shaping is achived by inserting a MONGOLIAN VOWEL SEPARATOR (HTML ᠎ · MVS) between the separated letters.
  2. ^ In digital typesetting, this shaping is achived by inserting a NARROW NO-BREAK SPACE (HTML   · NNBSP) between the separated letters.
  3. ^ Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter a include: ‑a (vocative or dative-locative), ‑a?a (ablative), and ‑a?a?an (reflexive+ablative).[22]
  4. ^ Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter e include: ‑e (vocative or dative-locative), ‑e?e (ablative), and ‑e?egen (reflexive+ablative).[22]
  5. ^ Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter i include: ‑i (accusative), ‑iyan/‑iyen (reflexive), and ‑iyar/‑iyer (instrumental).[22]
  6. ^ Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter u include: ‑u or ‑un (genitive), ‑ud (plural), and ‑uru?u (directive).[22]
  7. ^ Separated suffixes starting with, or made up by the letter ü include: ‑ü or ‑ün (genitive), ‑ügei (negation), and ‑üd (plural).[22]
  8. ^ Examples with doubled vowels include: tuuli 'epic, epic poem', ...[43]:834
  9. ^ Separated suffixes starting with the letter n include: ‑nar/‑ner or / ‑nu?ud/‑nügüd (plural).[22]
  10. ^ Separated suffixes starting with the letter b include: ‑ban/‑ben (reflexive), and ‑bar/‑ber (instrumental).[22]
  11. ^ Separated suffixes starting with the letter k include: ‑ki or ‑kin (case-bound possession).[22]
  12. ^ Separated suffixes starting with the letter l include: / ‑lu?‑a/‑lüge (comitative).[22]
  13. ^ Separated suffixes starting with the letter t include: ‑tai/‑tei (comitative), / ‑ta?an/‑tegen (reflexive+dative-locative), / ‑tayi?an/‑teyigen (reflexive+comitative), and ‑tu/‑tü or ‑tur/‑tür (dative-locative).[22]
  14. ^ Separated suffixes starting with the letter d include: ‑daki/‑deki (dative-locative or ordinal), / ‑da?/‑deg (regular action), / ‑da?an/‑degen (reflexive+dative-locative), / ‑du?ar/‑düger (ordinal), and ‑du/‑dü or ‑dur/‑dür (dative-locative).[22]
  15. ^ Separated suffixes starting with the letter y include: ‑yi (accusative), ‑yin (genitive), and / ‑yu?an/‑yügen (reflexive+accusative).[22]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq Janhunen, Juha (2006-01-27). The Mongolic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-79690-7.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn Daniels, Peter T. (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp Poppe, Nicholas (1974). Grammar of Written Mongolian. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-00684-2.
  4. ^ a b György Kara, "Aramaic Scripts for Altaic Languages", in Daniels & Bright The World's Writing Systems, 1994.
  5. ^ a b Shepherd, Margaret (2013-07-03). Learn World Calligraphy: Discover African, Arabic, Chinese, Ethiopic, Greek, Hebrew, Indian, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Russian, Thai, Tibetan Calligraphy, and Beyond. Potter/Ten Speed/Harmony/Rodale. ISBN 978-0-8230-8230-8.
  6. ^ Berkwitz, Stephen C.; Schober, Juliane; Brown, Claudia (2009-01-13). Buddhist Manuscript Cultures: Knowledge, Ritual, and Art. Routledge. ISBN 9781134002429.
  7. ^ Chinggeltei. (1963) A Grammar of the Mongol Language. New York, Frederick Ungar Publishing Co. p. 15.
  8. ^ "Mongolia to promote usage of traditional script". China.org.cn (March 19, 2020).
  9. ^ Official documents to be recorded in both scripts from 2025, Montsame, 18 March 2020.
  10. ^ Mongolian Language Law is effective from July 1st, Gogo, 1 July 2015. "Misinterpretation 1: Use of cyrillic is to be terminated and only Mongolian script to be used. There is no provision in the law that states the termination of use of cyrillic. It clearly states that Mongolian script is to be added to the current use of cyrillic. Mongolian script will be introduced in stages and state and local government is to conduct their correspondence in both cyrillic and Mongolian script. This provision is to be effective starting January 1st of 2025. ID, birth certificate, marriage certificate and education certificates are to be both in Mongolian cyrillic and Mongolian script and currently Mongolian script is being used in official letters of President, Prime Minister and Speaker of Parliament."
  11. ^ a b "Unicode Technical Report #2". ftp.tc.edu.tw. Retrieved .
  12. ^ a b c Jugder, Luvsandorj (2008). "Diacritic marks in the Mongolian script and the 'darkness of confusion of letters'". In J. Vacek; A. Oberfalzerová (eds.). MONGOLO-TIBETICA PRAGENSIA '08, Linguistics, Ethnolinguistics, Religion and Culture. Mongolo-Tibetica Pragensia : Ethnolinguistics, Sociolinguistics, Religion and Culture. 1/1. Praha: Charles University and Triton. pp. 45-98. ISSN 1803-5647.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq "Mongolian Traditional Script". cjvlang.com. Retrieved .
  14. ^ a b by Manchu convention
  15. ^ a b in Inner Mongolia.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Grønbech, Kaare; Krueger, John Richard (1993). An Introduction to Classical (literary) Mongolian: Introduction, Grammar, Reader, Glossary. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-03298-8.
  17. ^ a b c d e f "A Study of Traditional Mongolian Script Encodings and Rendering: Use of Unicode in OpenType fonts" (PDF). w.colips.org. Retrieved 2017.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Svantesson, Jan-Olof (2005). The Phonology of Mongolian. https://media.turuz.com/Language/2012/0122-(5)moghol_(monqol)_dilinin_ses_bilimi-fonoloji(18.163KB).pdf#page=61: Oxford University Press. pp. 40-42. ISBN 0-19-926017-6.CS1 maint: location (link)
  19. ^ a b c d e f "The Unicode® Standard Version 10.0 - Core Specification: South and Central Asia-II" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d "Mongolian / Mool" (PDF). www.eki.ee. Retrieved .
  21. ^ a b c d Viklund, Andreas. "Lingua Mongolia - Mongolian Grammar". www.linguamongolia.com. Retrieved .
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "PROPOSAL Encode Mongolian Suffix Connector (U+180F) To Replace Narrow Non-Breaking Space (U+202F)" (PDF). Unicode.org. Retrieved 2017.
  23. ^ a b c d e f Kara, György (2005). Books of the Mongolian Nomads: More Than Eight Centuries of Writing Mongolian. Indiana University, Research Institute for Inner Asian Studies. ISBN 978-0-933070-52-3.
  24. ^ a b c d e Janhunen, Juha A. (2012). Mongolian. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 978-9027238207.
  25. ^ "University of Virginia: Mongolian Transliteration & Transcription". collab.its.virginia.edu. Retrieved .
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Lessing, Ferdinand (1960). Mongolian-English Dictionary (PDF). University of California Press. Note that this dictionary uses the transliterations c, ø, x, y, z, ai, and ei; instead of ?, ö, q, ü, ?, ayi, and eyi;:xii as well as problematically and incorrectly treats all rounded vowels (o/u/ö/ü) after the initial syllable as u or ü.[25]
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar , (2000). ? ? ? (PDF) (in Russian). - "?-?". ISBN 9785846300156.
  28. ^ a b Shagdarsürüng, Tseveliin (2001). "Study of Mongolian Scripts (Graphic Study or Grammatology). Enl". Bibliotheca Mongolica: Monograph 1.
  29. ^ Sanders, Alan (2003-04-09). Historical Dictionary of Mongolia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-6601-0.
  30. ^ "The Mongolian Script" (PDF). Lingua Mongolia.
  31. ^ Mongol Times (2012). "Monggul bichig un job bichihu jui-yin toli" (in Mongolian). Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Bat-Ireedui, Jantsangiyn; Sanders, Alan J. K. (2015-08-14). Colloquial Mongolian: The Complete Course for Beginners. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-30598-9.
  33. ^ "Analysis of the graphetic model and improvements to the current model" (PDF). www.unicode.org. Retrieved .
  34. ^ Gehrke, Munkho. " ? ? :|: ". mongol-bichig.dusal.net (in Mongolian). Retrieved .
  35. ^ "᠎? ? - ". www.mongolfont.com (in Mongolian). Retrieved .
  36. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Mongolian State Dictionary". mongoltoli.mn (in Mongolian). Retrieved .
  37. ^ a b c d "Mongolian transliterations" (PDF). Institute of the Estonian Language.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai "Writing | Study Mongolian". www.studymongolian.net. Retrieved .
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Clauson, Gerard (2005-11-04). Studies in Turkic and Mongolic Linguistics. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-43012-3.
  40. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak v-kents. "Windows Keyboard Layouts - Globalization". docs.microsoft.com. Retrieved .
  41. ^ "Retrieval in Texts with Traditional Mongolian Script Realizing Unicoded Traditional Mongolian Digital Library (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. Retrieved .
  42. ^ Baumann, Brian Gregory (2008). Divine Knowledge: Buddhist Mathematics According to the Anonymous Manual of Mongolian Astrology and Divination. BRILL. ISBN 978-9004155756.
  43. ^ Bawden (2013-10-28). Mongolian English Dictionary. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-15595-6.
  44. ^ a b "UNU/IIST Report No. 170 Traditional Mongolian Script in the ISO/IEC 10646 and Unicode Standards" (PDF). unicode.org. Aug 1999. Retrieved .
  45. ^ West, Andrew; Zhamsoev, Amgalan; Zaytsev, Viacheslav (2017-01-13). "L2/17-007: Proposal to encode one historical Mongolian letter for Buryat Mongolian" (PDF).
  46. ^ Chiodo, Elisabetta (2000). The Mongolian Manuscripts on Birch Bark from Xarbuxyn Balgas in the Collection of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05714-1.
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "BabelStone : Mongolian and Manchu Resources". babelstone.co.uk (in Chinese). Retrieved .
  48. ^ Lee-Kim, Sang-Im (2014), "Revisiting Mandarin 'apical vowels': An articulatory and acoustic study", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 44 (3): 261-282, doi:10.1017/s0025100314000267, S2CID 16432272
  49. ^ " - ? ". www.mongolfont.com (in Mongolian). Retrieved .
  50. ^ "Exploring Mongolian Manuscript Collections in Russia and Beyond" (PDF). www.manuscript-cultures.uni-hamburg.de. Retrieved .
  51. ^ Otgonbayar Chuluunbaatar (2008). Einführung in die Mongolischen Schriften (in German). Buske. ISBN 978-3-87548-500-4.
  52. ^ Liang, Hai (23 Sep 2017). "Current problems in the Mongolian encoding" (PDF). Unicode.[dead link]
  53. ^ D, Badarch (20 Nov 2018). "The Mongol script encoding - 2018" (PDF). Unicode.Org.
  54. ^ Anderson, Debbie (22 Sep 2018). "Mongolian Ad Hoc meeting summary" (PDF). Unicode.
  55. ^ Moore, Lisa (27 Mar 2019). "Summary of MWG2 Outcomes and Goals for MWG3 Meeting" (PDF). Unicode.Org.
  56. ^ a b Biligsaikhan Batjargal; et al. (2011). "A Study of Traditional Mongolian Script Encodings and Rendering: Use of Unicode in OpenType fonts" (PDF). International Journal of Asian Language Processing. 21 (1): 23-43. Retrieved .
  57. ^ Version 5.00 of the Mongolian Baiti font may be displayed incorrectly in Windows Vista
  58. ^ "490534 - ZWJ and NNBSP rendered incorrectly in scripts like Mongolian". bugzilla.mozilla.org.
  59. ^ Menk Qagan Tig, Menk Hawang Tig, Menk Garqag Tig, Menk Har_a Tig, and Menk Scnin Tig.
  60. ^ "CTAN: Package montex". ctan.org. Retrieved .

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